New Ideas in Corequisite Course Redesign

Effective instruction in Math, Statistics and English shows students how these disciplines fit into their lives. Now, the corequisite model aims to improve both pass and graduation rates in these critical gateway courses to accelerate students towards success. Explore perspectives and research driving this trend forward.

Research & Opinions

Know the Numbers

Know the Numbers

These figures show where your fellow faculty stand on redesign.

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Remediation Nation

Remediation Nation

Explore research on leading reformers in the U.S., coast-to-coast.

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Remediation Nation

The Cost of Corequisite

Keeping costs down is essential for effective redesign. Learn why.

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Innovators Speak

Discover trends in course redesign through the eyes of experts.

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Your Corequisite Solutions

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What's Happening in your State

US map showing states impacted by redesign

English

Students determined to need remedial education may now be placed in one of three paths: Embedded support (co-req), Intensive support—a one-semester developmental course—or Transitional Strategies. The latter is a no-cost program taken the summer before enrolling in college. This ends multi-course sequences in developmental education. Students must be evaluated for placement into these programs through multiple measures, preventing placement based solely on standardized test scores.

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English

In 2018, the Delaware Department of Education launched a new high school course called Foundations of College English. Designed by Delaware Technical Community College, the course guarantees students entry into credit-bearing courses any of the state's colleges or universities if they pass. Otherwise, developmental classes seem to be traditional.

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English

As part of their five-year strategic plan, Maine Community College System is introducing an intensive college readiness experience that students enroll in at no cost before they begin their degree program. There is also a push to make college readiness standards uniform across the state. Some schools offer corequisite courses.

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English

Developed at the Community College of Baltimore County, ALP takes 10 developmental students and 10 ENG 101 students and enrolls them in ENG 101 together. The development students then register for a section of the ALP companion course, taught by the same instructor. 74 percent of ALP students pass ENG 101.

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English

On April 27, 2018, the DHE’s Corequisite Statewide Institute conference took place in Leominister. This year’s conference focused on highlighting campuses' efforts to bring the corequisite model to scale either in English, Mathematics, or both. The conference ended with campus teams discussing opportunities for cross-institutional collaboration.  

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Mathematics

On a local level, schools have implemented the corequisite model, pathway models and quantitative reasoning courses to improve completion rates. There is yet to be a statewide mandate for these models.

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English

In a report conducted on developmental education in Minnesota, Montana, and New Hampshire, all states recognized a need for more information about the characteristics, needs, and preparation of adult learners entering higher education following a gap in their academic careers. As a result, in 2017, officials began requesting state funding for developmental education activities. 

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English

As of 2016, 35 colleges use accelerated learning approaches (which most commonly include corequisites) and 12 hold boot camps. In addition, 24 colleges offer summer bridge programs for high school juniors and seniors, where faculty from both the high school and college collaborate on the design and teaching of the courses. 

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English

As of 2018, CUNY schools are using Accuplacer in conjunction with other factors to determine placement. They also allow students who are just below the cutoff to retake the test—half of students pass on the second try. CUNY offers the University Skills Immersion Programs to their students, which “provide students with opportunities to complete developmental education through intensive workshops and courses.” These immersion programs are free to students who need additional preparation in reading, writing, and mathematics. Corequisite courses are being instituted in Math, but not yet in English.

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English

While there is little information available about broad plans across the state, one example is at the California University of Pennsylvania. The school encourages students to study before taking placement exams and they offer tutoring.

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English

While some developmental classes are still traditional, the state's public colleges are now offering corequisite writing classes. Additionally, they are moving away from Accuplacer as the sole placement metric; GPA, and high school transcripts are also considered.

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English

While representatives from Vermont State Colleges attended a Complete College America conference in 2015, there was no follow up. Since then, the state continues to explore corequisite offerings and better academic advising. Senate Bill 118 was introduced in 2015 to reform developmental education, but never made it out of committee. 

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English

As of Fall 2016, individual institutions determine whether a student requires remedial and developmental education in colleges—and some universities have considered a corequisite instructional model. In community colleges, ACCS policy directs all two-year colleges to provide developmental courses to students who need additional academic preparation before enrolling in college-level coursework. While ACCS does not require that colleges use a corequisite model, some ACCS institutions offer the Emporium Math and Accelerated Learning Program models, as well as the Integrated Reading and Writing course.

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English

Several schools, notably University of Central Arkansas have begun piloting co-requisite English classes. At UCA, students enroll in transitional writing and college-writing courses. The school is working to standardize the curriculum across instructors. Currently, the pass rate of students in the transitional writing course is 80%. This approach is advocated by the Arkansas Department of Higher Education. Additionally, the 91st General Assembly has passed a new funding formula for institutions. Institutions are funded when the student finished the gateway course that would follow the remedial course, which encourages schools to devote resources to "best-practice" designs for remedial instruction.

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English

The new strategies include: (1) modularized instruction that is customized and targeted to address specific skills gaps; (2) compressed course structures that accelerate student progression from developmental instruction to college-level coursework; (3) contextualized developmental instruction that is related to meta-majors (a collection of programs of study or academic discipline groupings that share common foundational skills); and (4) corequisite developmental instruction or tutoring that supplements credit instruction while a student is concurrently enrolled in a credit-bearing course. Students who entered ninth grade in a Florida public high school and active-duty military members are exempted from required placement testing and developmental coursework.

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English

Beginning in 2015, the University System of Georgia began an "at-scale" implementation of corequisite courses. As Fall 2018, 100 percent of remedial courses are required to be corequisite across all 28 campuses in the state.

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Mathematics

In 2011, Complete College Georgia, a statewide initiative to boost college completion and close attainment gaps, was formed. The University System of Georgia (USG) and the Technical College System of Georgia partnered to pursue bold strategies for reform, including the implementation of corequisite remediation, with the help of a grant for Complete College America. This was scaled state-wide in fall 2015, where success rates improved from 20% to 61% for college math. Georgia is now exploring Quantitative Reasoning (Math 1001) as a redesign of the traditional liberal arts Math course, along with an aligned corequisite support course.

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English

In 2017, Kentucky Council on Postsecondary Education solicited proposals from the state's six public universities to fully implement corequisite courses at their institutions. The full implementations were expected to be completed by Fall 2018. Pilots have also taken place at community colleges, with a 59percent completion rate.

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English

All colleges and universities in Louisiana have offered corequisite education since 2014, except for the state's two flagship universities. But in 2017, the Commission of Higher Education recommended to the Board of Regents that remediation issues be taken care of in high school or the summer before college.

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English

Mississippi Gulf Coast Community College has adopted a corequisite model. University of Southern Mississippi has students take the standard English 101 course but over two semesters. If students score below a 16 on the ACT, they must also take a supplement workshop. There is also an emphasis on high school preparation with Common Core standards and specialized courses for those who score between 15 - 18 on the ACTs.

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English

H.B. 97, Section 10.13 Will be implemented Fall 18 Beginning in fall 2018, all North Carolina high school student who do not meet certain ACT and GPA benchmarks during their junior year will be required to enroll in remedial courses their senior year. These courses are supposed to prepare them for college-level coursework at any state public college. High schools and community colleges are working in partnership to develop the courses, and 18 high schools began piloting in the 2016-2017 school year.

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Mathematics

Per a mandate by the State Chancellor, by fall 2020, all standalone Math remediation courses will be replaced by the corequisite model. Various pilots will be happening in fall of 2019.

 

English

As of 2017, there is no standardized system of remedial education. Community colleges are the only schools allowed to offer developmental coursework; some offer corequisite instruction. According to the South Carolina Code of Laws, “Each public institution of higher learning in this state shall develop a plan for developmental education in accord with provisions, procedures and requirements developed by the Commission on Higher Education. The commission shall conduct a study as well as evaluations and reviews of developmental education in this State. The commission shall develop appropriate methods of funding developmental education programs and courses.” However, no specific plans are offered.

 

English

In fall 2015, all Tennessee colleges and universities implemented corequisite education for reading and writing. At four-year universities, this is offered as a supplementary lab; in the two-year colleges, it is a separate support class. The pass rate for community college students taking a corequisite writing class doubled, from 30.9 to 61.8 percent.

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Mathematics

Tennessee piloted the corequisite model across all community colleges in 2014. After seeing increased retention rates, 51% of Math students passed the college-level course when in the corequisite course, compared to 12.3% who had not enrolled in the corequisite model.

Learn More → | See Tennessee's Course Redesign Results → 

English

The Virginia Community College System redesigned their Developmental English courses in spring 2013. The new courses include three prongs: integrated reading and writing, corequisite courses for those who deemed near-college-ready and a new English placement test that includes an essay component.

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Mathematics

Virginia is implementing several initiatives. By fall 2018, all 23 community colleges are required to implement Quantitative Reasoning. They are exploring corequisites and pathways with no formal timeline for implementation.

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English

West Virginia is adopting corequisite education across all public institutions, with a goal of 100 percent corequisite in four-year schools by fall 2019. Methods include tutoring sessions and proctored computer labs. Currently, 68 percent of students complete corequisite English courses in just a semester.

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Mathematics

West Virginia was one of the first states to implement corequisites, scaling Math in the fall of 2014. Pass rates in Math increased from 14% in 2013 to 62% in 2016 at community and technical colleges. Still, West Virginia is iteratively fine-tuning the way these courses are taught to improve pass rates both at the 2-year and 4-year school level. These changes include integrating support, creating teacher consistency across lecture and support sections and limiting seats in the sections.

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English

Eight pilot institutions began collecting data in Fall 2016 about corequisite and pathway remedial programs. After two years (Fall 2018), the schools will report the data to the Illinois Board of Higher Education and the Illinois Community College Board, who will then use the data to scale their efforts. Currently 12 schools use co-requisite instruction, and the ICCB aims to double that number.

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English

Indiana began implementing corequisite education across all community college campuses in 2014. The results were strong, with 75 percent of corequisite students passing the college-level English class compared to 37percent of remedial students. Corequisite courses are now mandated at all IvyTech campuses.

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Mathematics

After receiving a grant through Complete College America, the state of Indiana implemented corequisite courses, Quantitative Reasoning and a Technical Math Pathway, starting in fall 2014. In the first 3 years, the success rates in gateway courses increased from 29% to 64%. Due to the implementation of Math Pathways, placement in Remedial Math dropped from 77% to 34% overall.

Learn More → | Read About Ivy Tech CC's Math Pathways Project →

English

Six Iowa community colleges are already offering corequisite courses, and the state would like to see more research about how to scale these statewide—along with other methods such as ALP and I-BEST. Some schools also offer the Preparatory Academic Lab (PAL), an online tutoring system that allows them to study and then retake their placement test to raise their scores.

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English

In 2014, the Kansas Board of Regents issued a report of recommendations for developmental education, but has not released anything since. As of that time, Butler and Cowley CCs were moving to ALP corequisite, and the rest of the state was encouraged to research ALP for their institutions. The I-BEST is being used in 14 community and technical colleges, as of 2014. In 2017, the University of Kansas received a $18 million grant to run a GEAR-UP program for seven years in the Kansas City public schools.

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English

Seven colleges report full implementation of the corequisite model. Sixteen others are considering or piloting it. Eleven schools are considering, piloting or implementing a compressed model. Integrated Reading and Writing is also a popular choice. 

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English

Interest groups like Students for Education Reform are encouraging the state legislature and Minnesota State Colleges and Universities to adopt corequisite models or traditional remediation courses free of charge. Minnesota Statutes 120B.30 says that colleges may use high school MCA score to determine course placement beginning in 2018 - 2019.

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English

In 2016, five community colleges and four universities have adopted corequisite models. In 2017, 19 schools offered "alternative methods of remediation," which the Missouri Coordinating Board of Higher Education describes as corequisite, fast-track courses, and modularized courses. 20 schools offer early intervention strategies, which include early assessment, summer bridge programs, and dual enrollment. Multiple methods are also being used to evaluate a student’s placement, resulting in a drop in student placement in remedial classes.

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Mathematics

In Missouri, Mathematics course redesign is happening on multiple fronts, both in the corequisite model and Quantitative Reasoning. Missouri's Department of Higher Education has committed to scaling the corequisite model during the 2017-2018 academic years. By then, 90% of students who need academic support will attend an institution that offers the remedial education, and 90% of those institutions will ensure that at least 75% of students who need it receive it through a corequisite course model. While several institutions have already begun implementing this course model, being a part of CCA's Corequisite at Scale Initiative will provide the support needed to grow across the state.

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English

A University of Nebraska - Lincoln dissertation found that the most common corequisite practices in Nebraska were changing testing and placement procedures, and accelerating progress by combining Developmental English levels into a single course. 

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English

Focus is on improving high school advising so that students arrive at college with a baseline education. A new high school course called College Ready English and Math (CREAM) also aims to catch students up at no cost. Half of North Dakota universities offer corequisite courses for students who barely miss the cutoff on placement tests. 

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English

The state scaled corequisite courses across Ohio public colleges and universities. Work is underway to continue to develop and evaluate these courses.  

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Mathematics

Several initiatives are being explored in Ohio, including corequisites, pathways and Quantitative Reasoning. The 4-year schools are leading the charge across the state with pathways programs, Quantitative Reasoning courses and corequisites.

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English

Five colleges piloted corequisite English classes in fall 2013. In addition to looking at ACT cutoff scores, these schools implemented specific reading and writing tests for placement. The governor is calling for more widespread use of the Accuplacer test and subsequent modules in high schools, so students avoid having to take developmental college courses. The South Dakota Virtual School also allows students to complete developmental work prior to entering college at little to no cost. 

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English

The state has no formal redesign plan, but there is an emphasis on Common Core standards in high school classes. Northeast Wisconsin Technical College is adopting intrusive advising, which includes study help, mental health services and food and clothing support in addition to developmental coursework.

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English

New Mexico uses multiple approaches, including: increased preparation at the high school level, corequisite college-level and developmental classes, corequisite college-level classes, and lab support, reduced or restructured number of developmental classes required for college-level placement, and consideration of transcripts when determining placements.

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English

As part of Complete College America’s Scaling Corequisite Initiative, the Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education committed to placing 75 percent of students in need of developmental education in corequisite courses by Fall 2017. 

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Mathematics

Oklahoma's goal is to see a 67% increase in number of degrees and certificates earned in the state by 2023. Oklahoma will start to implement the corequisite model starting in the 2017-2018 academic year.

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English

In June 2017, Governor Abbott signed House Bill 2223, which requires all community colleges to have 75 percent of remedial students in corequisite courses by 2020. After that date, Texas will no longer fund remediation programs. Corequisite courses began in fall 2018. 

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Mathematics

In June 2017, the Texas governor signed a law that required the corequisite model for all students in developmental education courses. The model will scale over time, with public colleges and universities needing to enroll 25% of developmental students in corequisites by 2018, 50% by 2019 and 75% by 2020.

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English

A report shows that up to 74 percent of graduates from five Alaska schools have had to take remedial classes at University of Alaska – Anchorage. However, as of March 2017, the university was considering the corequisite model, but had no plans for implementation. A summer academic camp was also being considered. Despite this, a report shows that up to 74 percent of graduates from five Alaska schools have had to take remedial classes at University of Alaska - Anchorage.

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English

Since January 1, 2018, AB 705  has required that colleges must "maximize the probability that a student will enter and complete transfer-level coursework in English and Math within a one year timeframe," and that colleges must use high school coursework, grades, and/or GPA when making placement decisions. Effective with the Fall 2018 semester, the CSU system is not only complying with AB 705 placement guidelines, but abolishing all remedial, non-credit bearing courses. Students will enroll in credit-bearing courses immediately, and will receive corequisite support, outside labs, or "stretch" courses over two semesters. The California community college system is currently looking to implement a similar policy.

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Mathematics

Starting in fall of 2018, both 2-year and 4-year schools across California will be moving to the corequisite model. Assembly Bill 705 requires community colleges to maximize the probability that the student will enter and complete transfer-level coursework in Math and English within a one-year time frame, while requiring students to enroll in additional, concurrent support during that same semester. Executive Order Math 1110 states that 4-year schools will redesign to eliminate Developmental Math courses and placement requirements by fall 2018. In both cases, these are happening for all gateway Math courses.

Read About Assembly Bill 705 → | Read About 4-year School Executive Order →

English

Co-requisite education, or Supplemental Academic Instruction (SAI) as it is known in Colorado, mean that students take traditional English classes and then meet for extra tutoring, labs, and mentoring. At Community College of Denver, more than half of SAI students pass their courses, and that number is up to 75% of students at MSU Denver. Institutions must be approved by the Colorado Commission of Higher Education in order to offer SAI, and will be evaluated every three years.

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Mathematics

Colorado was one of the first states to scale policies for corequisite remediation, starting in fall of 2013. They created two pathways in Mathematics, along with associated academic support models (corequisite model). 

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English

In December 2015, University of Hawaii Community Colleges issued policy #5.213, which stated campuses must "Implement and assess evidence-based, effective, successful corequisite models for the math and English academic pipeline."

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English

In February 2018, the Idaho Board of Education formally approved corequisite and emporium (computer lab extra support) courses for remedial students at all state campuses. As of 2014, College of Western Idaho and Eastern Idaho Technical College were already offering corequisite courses, whereas College of Southern Idaho and Northern Idaho College were offering traditional developmental courses only.

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English

As of 2016, "most" Montana public schools were trying the corequisite approach, and the goal is to have corequisite courses statewide by Fall 2018. Per the Bozeman Daily Chronicle, students "get five weeks of remedial instruction followed by 10 weeks of gateway class material. Students get additional instruction time in class, additional course hours, a self-paced computer lab and mandatory tutoring." However, coreq is an option and is not required.

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English

In 2012, English faculty at Western Nevada College completed a redesign of their remedial courses, resulting in common course standards and assessments for ENG 95 and ENG 98, with a focus on only these two courses for English remediation. Of the 520 WNC students in remedial English courses in Fall 2011, 212 or 41 percent successfully proceeded to enroll in or complete ENG 100 or ENG 101 by Fall 2012.

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English

The Developmental Education Redesign Work Group, formed in 2013, is redesigning developmental courses at each of the state’s 17 community colleges. Each institution is working on its own reforms and the group meets quarterly to share best practices. Across the system, schools are considering GPA to be a better placement indicator than standardized testing, and also offering a mix of corequisite and integrated reading/writing courses to accelerate students out of developmental courses as quickly as possible. 

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English

There is minimal exploration in Utah; the focus is more on Developmental Math. However, for English, high school guidance counselors are encouraging their students to pick challenging courses their senior year to better prepare them for college. High schools also offer concurrent enrollment with a local college. Some universities also offer corequisite classes and tutoring programs to help students prepare for placement tests. 

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English

Focusing more on pre-college efforts, the state implemented GEAR UP across seven schools to infuse college readiness skills in high school. There is also an emphasis on following Common Core standards. At the college level, Integrated Basic Education and Skills Training (I-BEST) accelerates student progression in professional and technical programs. The community college system also adopted an outcomes-based system in 2013, where students earn credits upon reaching certain learning outcomes at the end of each quarter.

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English

Some schools, like Central Wyoming College, are adopting the corequisite model, while others are using the accelerated lab method. Institutions are also adjusting ACT cutoff scores and considering high school GPA in placement. Using a slightly different approach, Eastern Wyoming College is offering summer prep sessions for incoming students.

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