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The People: A History of Native America 1st Edition

R. David Edmunds, Frederick E. Hoxie, Neal Salisbury

  • Published
  • 544 Pages


This narrative takes an ethnographic approach to American Indian history from the arrival of humans on the American continent to the present day. The text provides balanced coverage of political, economic, cultural and social aspects of Indian history. While conveying the effects of European invasion on American Indian communities, the text gives greater attention to the impact of Native actions on the American environment. The authors' Indian-centered point of view treats Indians as actors in their own right, existing in a larger society. As a result, some events in American history loom larger than they would in a general survey, while others, such as Reconstruction, receive minimal coverage. The People demonstrates that the active participation of American Indians in a modern, democratic society has shaped--and will continue to shape--national life.

R. David Edmunds, University of Texas at Dallas

R. David Edmunds, Watson Professor of American History at the University of Texas at Dallas, received his PhD from the University of Oklahoma. He has written or edited nine books, including The Potawatomis: Keepers of the Fire (1987), which won the Francis Parkman Prize, and The Fox Wars: The Mesquakie Challenge to New France (1993), which won the Alfred Heggoy Prize. He has held Ford Foundation, Newberry, and Guggenheim fellowships and has advised documentary filmmakers, tribal governments, foundations, and museums. In 2003, Dr. Edmunds served as President of the American Society for Ethnohistory.

Frederick E. Hoxie, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

Frederick E. Hoxie, Swanlund Professor of History at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, received his Ph.D. degree from Brandeis University. His publications include A Final Promise: The Campaign to Assimilate the Indians (1984), Parading Through History: The Making of the Crow Nation in America, 1805-1935 (1995), and Talking Back to Civilization: Indian Voices from the Progressive Era (2001). He is general editor of The American Indians, a 23-volume series of books published by Time-Life, and series editor (with Neal Salisbury) for Cambridge Studies in American Indian History. He has served as a consultant both to Indian tribes and government agencies. He has received fellowships from the Rockefeller Foundation and the National Endowment for the Humanities, and has served as president of the American Society for Ethnohistory.

Neal Salisbury, Smith College

Neal Salisbury, Barbara Richmond 1940 Professor Emeritus in the Social Sciences (History), at Smith College, received his Ph.D. from the University of California, Los Angeles. He is the author of MANITOU AND PROVIDENCE: INDIANS, EUROPEANS, AND THE MAKING OF NEW ENGLAND, 1500-1643 (1982), editor of THE SOVEREIGNTY AND GOODNESS OF GOD, by Mary Rowlandson (1997), and co-editor, with Philip J. Deloria, of THE COMPANION TO AMERICAN INDIAN HISTORY (2002). With R. David Edmunds and Frederick E. Hoxie, he has written THE PEOPLE: A HISTORY OF NATIVE AMERICA (2007). He has contributed numerous articles to journals and edited collections and co-edits a book series, CAMBRIDGE STUDIES IN NORTH AMERICAN INDIAN HISTORY. He is active in the fields of colonial and Native American history and has served as president of the American Society for Ethnohistory and on the Council of the Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture.
  • Balanced geographically, the text covers Eastern and Midwestern Indians as well as Western Indians.
  • Indian Voices boxed features consist of oral or written testimony by Native persons.
  • People, Places, and Things focus on Indian artifacts and photographs, explaining the objects' cultural significance and influence on the Indian people. One example includes a photograph of a female Apache warrior who fought with Geronimo; the accompanying text discusses the role of women in Apache resistance.
Note: Each chapter includes a Conclusion and Suggested Readings.
1. American History Begins: Indian Peoples Before the Advent of Europeans
The Peopling of America
Farmers in the Desert Southwest
Indian Voices: Akimel O''odham Speaker (1775)
People, Places, and Things: Pueblo Bonito, Chaco Canyon
Farmers in the Eastern Woodlands
Villagers of the Far West
Band Societies of the Western Interior and Far North
2. Strangers in Indian Homelands, 1490-1600
Indian-Spanish Encounters Beyond North America, 1492-1536
Southeastern Chiefdoms Confront Imperial Adventurers
Indian Voices: A Timucua Chief Defies De Soto, 1539
Encounters in the American West
People, Places, and Things: Spaniards Entering the Southwest: A Navajo View
Early Contacts in the Northeast
3. Native Peoples and the Founding of European Colonies, 1600-1660
Struggling for Power in the Northeastern Interior: The Iroquois vs. New France
Indian Voices: Kiotseaeton, Mohawk Iroquois Diplomat, 1645
Coastal Indians and Early European Settlements
People, Places, and Things: Powhatan''s Mantle
Confronting Spanish Expansion in the Southeast and Southwest
4. Worlds in Upheaval, 1660-1720
The Northeast: Iroquois Power and European Expansion
People, Places, and Things: Onondaga Iroquois Artifacts Made from European Metals
The Southeast: Slaves, Confederacies, and War
West of the Mississippi: Native Resistance and Cultural Transformation
Indian Voices: Pedro Naranjo, San Felipe Pueblo, 1681
5. Native Americans in Peace and War, 1716-1754
Indians and Empires: The East
Exiles in Their Own Homelands: Indians in the English Colonies
Native Americans and French Expansion in the Mississippi Valley
Indian Voices: Stung Serpent, Natchez, 1723
Horses and Guns on the Plains
People, Places, and Things: Spanish Slave-Raiding Expedition, c. 1720
6. Native Peoples and Imperial Crises, 1754-1821
Eastern Indians and the Seven Years'' War, 1754-1761
Eastern Indians and the American Revolution, 1761-1783
Indian Voices: Joseph Brant (Mohawk), 1789
Struggles for Power in the Southern Plains and Southwest, 1754-1810
Neophytes, Gentiles, and Colonizers on the Pacific, 1769-1833
People, Places, and Things: Ohlones Gambling at Mission Dolores, 1816
7. The Defense of the Trans-Appalachian Homelands, 1795-1815
The Struggle for Autonomy
People, Places, and Things: Captives
American Indian Policy
Revitalization Movements
Indian Voices: Tecumseh Demands That the British Honor Their Promises!, 1813
8. Western Tribes Meet the Long Knives, 1800-1820
Indian Voices: A Piegan (Blackfoot) Describes the Arrival of Horses
Before Lewis and Clark
The Tribes Encounter Lewis and Clark
People, Places, and Things: Mandan Earth Lodges
The Western Fur Trade
9. Indian Removal, 1820-1845
Indian Country in the New Republic
People, Places, and Things: Native American Women as Entrepreneurs
Jacksonian Indian Policy
Indian Removal: The Southeast
Indian Voices: Cherokee Leaders Denounce the Injustices of Removal
Indian Removal: The Old Northwest
Fighting Removal: Armed Resistance
10. Strangers Invade the West, 1845-1861
Indian Territory
People, Places, and Things: The Cherokee Female Seminary
Indian Voices: William Joseph (Nisenam Tribesman) Describes a Lynching
The Northwestern Tribes
The Southwest
11. Indian People in the Civil War Era, 1850-1868
Civil War in Indian Territory
Reconstruction in Indian Territory
Eastern Indians in the Civil War
Violence in the West
The Desert Southwest
Indian Voices: Herrero (Navajo Headman) Testifies About Conditions at Bosque Redondo
The Plains Tribes During the Civil War Era
People, Places, and Things: Teepees: "Exceedingly Picturesque and Beautiful"
12. Warfare in the West, 1867-1886
Cultural Change on the Plains
The Warfare Continues
The Northern Plains, 1868-1881
Indian Voices: Two Moons (Cheyenne War Chief) Recounts the Battle of Little Big Horn
Rebellions Against Reservation Life
The Apaches, 1865-1886
People, Places, and Things: Lozen: Shield to Her People
13. "Kill the Indian, Save the Man": Survival in a Shrinking Homeland, 1878-1900
Assaults on Indianness
"Raising Up" the Indians: Schools, Missionaries, and Government Agents
Prophets, Inventors, and Writers: Indian Resistance in an Age of Oppression
People, Places, and Things: Teton Lakota Parasol
Indian Voices: Sarah Winnemucca
14. Survival and Renewal, 1900-1930
Finding New Places to Be Indian
The Native American Church
People, Places, and Things: Monroe Tsa Toke (1904-1937)
Indian Voices: Charles Eastman Criticizes "Civilization"
Fighting for the Indian Cause
Facing Economic Hardship
15. Reorganization and War, 1930-1945
Pressures Mount for Drastic Change
Indian Voices: D''Arcy McNickle Reveals His Hopes for Indians in the Future
People, Places, and Things: Crow Indian Round Hall
World War II
16. Fighting to Be Indians, 1945-1970
Indians on the Move
People, Places, and Things: Chicago American Indian Center
Termination Takes Shape
Battling Back
Indian Voices: Alice Lee Jemison Speaks Out Against Termination
Gaining Recognition
New Voices
17. Acting Sovereign, 1970-1990
Red Power
Indian Voices: Russell Means Advocates Reviving Indian Traditions
Victories in Congress and the Courts
Sovereignty on the Ground
People, Places, and Things: Indian Governments at Work
18. Indians in the New Millennium
Indian Voices: Joy Harjo Writes About Indian Life
Tribe or Nation?
Indian Health
Struggling Economies
Who Is an Indian?
People, Places, and Things: National Museum of the American Indian