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PRINCIPLES OF INSTRUMENTAL ANALYSIS is the standard for courses on the principles and applications of modern analytical instruments. In the 7th edition, authors Skoog, Holler, and Crouch infuse their popular text with updated techniques and new Instrumental Analysis in Action case studies. Updated material enhances the book's proven approach, which places an emphasis on the fundamental principles of operation for each type of instrument, its optimal area of application, its sensitivity, its precision, and its limitations. The text also introduces students to elementary analog and digital electronics, computers, and the treatment of analytical data. A companion website is available, providing students with tutorials on instrumental methods, Excel files of data analysis, and simulations of analytical techniques to help them visualize important concepts. Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) are provided for most references to the primary literature.
- All chapters have been revised and updated with recent references to the literature of analytical chemistry. Throughout the book, new and updated methods and techniques are described, and photos of specific commercial instruments have been added. Modern topics include laser-based spectrometry, ﬂuorescence quenching and lifetime measurements, tandem mass spectrometry, and biosensors.
- Digital Object Identiﬁers (DOIs) have been added to most references to the primary literature. These universal identiﬁers greatly simplify the task of locating articles by a link from the website www.doi.org. A DOI may be typed into a form on the website homepage, and when the identiﬁer is submitted, the browser transfers directly to the article on the publisher's website. Many journals permit unauthorized users to access abstracts of articles without a subscription. Thus, preliminary research may be accomplished without full authorization.
- Many new and revised charts, diagrams, and plots contain data, curves, and waveforms calculated from theory or obtained from the original literature to provide an accurate and realistic representation.
- The book's companion website www.tinyurl.com/skoogpia7 includes more than 100 interactive tutorials on instrumental methods, simulations of analytical techniques, exercises, and animations to help students visualize important concepts. In addition, Excel files containing data and sample spreadsheets are available for download. Selected papers from the chemical literature are also available as PDF files to engage student interest and to provide background information for study. Throughout the book, an icon alerts and encourages students to incorporate the website into their studies.
- New or updated Instrumental Analysis in Action features appear at the end of each section. One of the new case studies discusses the bisphenol A controversy and the role of chromatography in this environmental problem. The second new case study covers the role of neutron activation analysis in the many investigations of the John F. Kennedy assassination. The case studies expand on the methods introduced in each section and show how they can be applied to specific analytical problems. These stimulating examples have been selected from the forensic, environmental, and biomedical areas.
- Because many instrumental techniques have been or are being used in NASA's exploration of Mars, the authors present the principles and applications of these methods where appropriate.
- Chapter 7, "Components of Optical Instruments," includes updated information on laser sources, array transducers, and FT instruments.
- Chapter 10, "Atomic Emission Spectrometry," contains new information on plasma spectrometers including multi-channel, array detector systems, and laser-based plasma instruments. Chapter 11, "Atomic Mass Spectrometry" includes an updated discussion of time-of-flight MS and a new description of distance-of-flight MS. Chapter 12, "Atomic X-Ray Spectrometry," includes a discussion of modern bench top and hand-held energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence instruments.
- Chapter 15, "Molecular Luminescence Spectrometry," includes new material on fiber-optic fluorescence sensors and fluorescence imaging methods. Chapter 20, "Molecular Mass Spectrometry," includes a new section on atmospheric pressure ionization methods and updated sections on MALDI and electrospray ionization. Chapter 21, "Surface Characterization by Spectroscopy and Microscopy," now includes a discussion of ellipsometry.
- Chapter 23, "Potentiometry," contains updated material on biosensors and biomedical applications of potentiometry. Chapter 25, "Voltammetry," has been updated to emphasize solid electrodes, thin-film electrodes and microelectrodes.
- Chapter 27, "Gas Chromatography," and Chapter 28, "Liquid Chromatography," have been updated to reflect current practice and modern instrumentation. Chapter 29, "Supercritical Fluid Chromatography and Extraction" has been revised substantially to place more emphasis on packed-column supercritical fluid chromatography. Chapter 30, "Capillary Electrophoresis, Electrochromatography, and Field-Flow Fractionation" has been updated to reflect the various types of FFF methods.
- Updated instrumentation for thermal methods is described in Chapter 31, "Thermal Methods." Chapter 34, "Particle Size Determination," has also been updated to provide greater coverage for students.
- PRINCIPLES OF INSTRUMENTAL ANALYSIS offers the most current data in its coverage and end-of-chapter problem sets, and the authors present material in a student-friendly style that is active and engaging. Examples throughout each chapter aid in solving relevant and interesting problems. The solutions to the problems in each example are indicated so that students can easily separate the problem setup from the problem solution.
- Spreadsheet applications have been included throughout to illustrate how these powerful programs can be applied to instrumental methods. Problems accompanied by an icon encourage the use of spreadsheets. When a more detailed approach is required or supplemental reading is appropriate, readers are referred to the authors' companion book, Applications of Microsoft® Excel in Analytical Chemistry, 3e. Those who purchase PRINCIPLES OF INSTRUMENTAL ANALYSIS have full access to this companion text at www.tinyurl.com/skoogpia7. This companion provides assistance in understanding these applications.
- The book is printed in two colors. This feature aids in understanding the many ﬁgures and diagrams in the text both aesthetically and pedagogically. The second color clariﬁes graphs; aids in following the data ﬂow in diagrams; provides keys for correlating data that appear in multiple charts, graphs, and diagrams; and makes for a more pleasing overall appearance.
- An open-ended Challenge Problem provides a capstone research-oriented experience for each chapter. Intended to be research-type problems that are more challenging than normal and may have multiple solutions, Challenge Problems may consist of multiple steps, dependent on one another, or may require library or web searches to ﬁnd information. They stimulate discussion, extend the topics of the chapters into new areas, and can be used for group projects, inquiry-driven learning assignments, and case study discussions. Due to their unique nature, solutions are not provided for these problems.
Section I: MEASUREMENT BASICS.
2. Electrical Components and Circuits.
3. Operational Amplifiers in Chemical Instrumentation.
4. Digital Electronics and Computers.
5. Signals and Noise.
Instrumental Analysis in Action: The Electronic Analytical Laboratory.
Section II: ATOMIC SPECTROSCOPY.
6. An Introduction to Spectrometric Methods.
7. Components of Optical Instruments.
8. An Introduction to Optical Atomic Spectrometry.
9. Atomic Absorption and Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry.
10. Atomic Emission Spectrometry.
11. Atomic Mass Spectrometry.
12. Atomic X-Ray Spectrometry.
Instrumental Analysis in Action: Monitoring Mercury.
Section III: MOLECULAR SPECTROSCOPY.
13. An Introduction to Ultraviolet-Visible Molecular Absorption Spectrometry.
14. Applications of Ultraviolet-Visible Molecular Absorption Spectrometry.
15. Molecular Luminescence Spectrometry.
16. An Introduction to Infrared Spectrometry.
17. Applications of Infrared Spectrometry.
18. Raman Spectroscopy.
19. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.
20. Molecular Mass Spectrometry.
21. Surface Characterization by Spectroscopy and Microscopy.
Instrumental Analysis in Action: Assessing the Authenticity of the Vinland Map: Surface Analysis in the Service of History, Art, and Forensics.
Section IV: ELECTROANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY.
22. An Introduction to Electroanalytical Chemistry.
Instrumental Analysis in Action: Measuring the Parts to Understand the Whole: The Microphysiometer.
Section V: SEPARATION METHODS.
26. An Introduction to Chromatographic Separations.
27. Gas Chromatography.
28. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography.
29. Supercritical Fluid Chromatography and Extraction.
30. Capillary Electrophoresis, Electrochromatography, and Field-Flow Fractionation.
Instrumental Analysis in Action: The Bisphenol A Controversy.
Section VI: MISCELLANEOUS METHODS.
31. Thermal Methods.
32. Radiochemical Methods.
33. Automated Methods of Analysis.
34. Particle Size Determination.
Instrumental Analysis in Action: The John F. Kennedy Assassination.
Appendix 1: Evaluation of Analytical Data.
Appendix 2: Activity Coefficients.
Appendix 3: Some Standard and Formal Electrode Potentials.
Appendix 4: Compounds Recommended for the Preparation of Standard Solutions of Some Common Elements.
Answers to Selected Problems.
"One of the strengths of the book has always been the academic level. That aspect remains strong."
"For many years, instrumental analysis texts were a few and far in between on the publishing arena. Hence, this book, that I have used for many years in the past, truly served the needs of my students."
"I tell [students] that if they plan on science careers, they will consult [Principles of Instrumental Analysis] for many years."
"The explanations are clear and precise."
Cengage provides a range of supplements that are updated in coordination with the main title selection. For more information about these supplements, contact your Learning Consultant.
Online Instructor's Manual with Images
The Instructor's Solutions Manual contains answers and detailed solutions to all of the end-of-chapter exercises in the text (other than the open-ended Challenge Problems). The instructor's manual may be used to achieve maximum flexibility for planning homework assignments and can be found on the instructor's section of the Book Companion Website. In addition, this site includes a library of resources valuable to instructors, such as text art and tables, in a variety of e-formats that are easily exported into other software packages.
Instructor's Companion Website
The book's companion website at www.tinyurl.com/skoogpia7 includes more than 100 interactive tutorials on instrumental methods, simulations of analytical techniques, exercises, and animations to help students visualize important concepts. In addition, Excel files containing data and sample spreadsheets are available for download. Selected papers from the chemical literature are also available as PDF files to engage student interest and to provide background information for study. Throughout the book, an icon alerts and encourages students to incorporate the website into their studies.
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