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Professor Ray's unique philosophy of science approach focuses on introducing students to the basics of science and the spirit that motivates many scientists, and helping students make the transition from outside observer of science to active participant. In meeting those goals, he has written a highly readable book that gives students a greater understanding of the techniques of science as well as the experience of doing science.
- In terms of content, every chapter in this edition has been revised. Because many individuals are concerned about information that is being passed off as scientific when it is not, the author continues to add information on pseudoscience.
- New research examples from the psychological literature, as well numerical changes are evaluated.
- Access included to Wadsworth's Research Methods Workshops.
- Examples and research studies have been updated, and clarifications have been added to help students in their learning.
- In response to a number of faculty the ethics chapter was moved and expanded and is now Chapter 4. However, the ethics chapter as it is now written can be assigned by a faculty member to any place in the course.
- A section on pseudoscience and superstition is included. The theme of differentiating science as performed by researchers with established research designs and published in peer-reviewed journals is differentiated from pseudoscience as one might find in advertising or on the Web without any evaluation. This theme has been continued throughout the text.
- This edition provides continued emphasis on philosophy of science and the nature of psychological research.
2. Introduction to the Methods of Science.
3. Developing the Hypothesis.
5. Description of Behavior Through Numerical Representation.
6. Inferential Statistics: Making Statistical Decisions.
7. Testing the Hypothesis: A Conceptual Introduction.
8. Control: The Keystone of the Experimental Method.
9. Applying the Logic of Experimentation: Between-Subjects Designs.
10. Extending the Logic of Experimentation: Within-Subjects and Matched-Subjects Approaches.
11. The Ecology of the Experiment: The Scientist and Research Participant In Relation To Their Environments.
12. Quasi-Experimental, Correlational, and Naturalistic Observational Designs.
13. Single-Subject Designs.
14. Questionnaires, Survey Research, and Sampling.
15. Sharing the Results.
16. Beyond Method.
APPENDIX A: Guidelines for Nonbiased Language in Apa Journals.
APPENDIX B: Printed Article.
APPENDIX C: Article Manuscript.
APPENDIX D: Tables.