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Thanks to its flexibility, simplicity, and range, MANUAL DE GRAMÁTICA, 6th Edition, is the most accessible grammar reference for intermediate and advanced Spanish students. It combines clear, easy-to-use charts with detailed grammar presentations in English, and offers valuable conceptual distinctions between Spanish and English. The text follows a logical progression of topics, from parts of speech to verb tenses to the finer points of lexical variation. Facilitating independent study, the online answer key provides students an opportunity to self-correct in practice. The text covers all major grammatical rules of Spanish and offers real-world applications of all grammar points, making it an invaluable reference tool for intermediate and advanced literature and language courses.
- An updated table format enhances visual clarity and consistency.
- New exercises have been prepared, and the existing exercises have been updated.
- The authors have incorporated the revised rules and recommendations published in the new Ortografía de la lengua española by the Real Academia Española and the Asociación de Academias de la Lengua Española.
- The sixth edition includes a newly authored testing program for instructors who want to assess their students' comprehension of the material in the text.
- Enhancements to iLrn feature a new set of expansion activities found exclusively online.
- The iLrn: Language Learning Center is a powerful, all-in-one, online tutorial and course management system. iLrn enhances the text's chapters with embedded grammar tutorials and makes the entire book available in a paper-free online environment. It can stand alone as an online textbook complete with exercises, indexes, and a search function, or act as a reinforcement mechanism for the textbook, facilitating independent practice to prepare students for class. Assigning chapters takes just seconds, and student results flow automatically into your online grade book where assignments can be automatically graded.
- Easier to use references include a more comprehensive index for students.
- Clear, easily referenced charts are combined with detailed grammar presentations in English, as well as conceptual distinctions between Spanish and English.
- Writing topics in a variety of genres help students establish the link between language form and use.
A. Sentence Components.
B. Verb Structure.
C. Sentence Structure. Independent Clauses. Main or Principal Clauses. Dependent or Subordinate Clauses.
D. Subject–Verb Agreement.
2. NOUNS AND NOUN DETERMINERS.
A. Nouns and Their Equivalents. Introduction. Definition. Noun Equivalents. Noun Companions. Nouns: Gender and Number. Gender (Género). Number (Número). Personal.
B. Noun Determiners. Articles. Definite Articles. Subjects. Titles. Languages. Possessives vs. Articles. Indefinite Articles. Adjectives. Demonstrative Adjectives. Possessive Adjectives. Forms of Descriptive Adjectives. Common Adjective Endings. Adjectives with Short and Long Forms. Position of Descriptive Adjectives. Comparisons. Comparisons of Inequality. With Adverbs, Adjectives, and Nouns. With a Numerical Expression, Use de Instead of que. With a Verb or Clause as Second Part of Comparison. Comparisons of Equality. Tanto(-a, -os, -as) ... como. Tanto como. Tan ... como. Superlatives.
A. Personal Pronouns. Grammatical Functions of Personal Pronouns. Subject. Direct Object Complement. Indirect Object Complement with Direct Object. Indirect Object Complement without Direct Object. Transitivity. Subject Pronouns. Direct Object Pronouns. Formation and Usage. Stressed and Unstressed Object Pronouns (Direct or Indirect Object). Lo: the Neuter (Invariable) Pronoun. Indirect Object Pronouns. Required Repetitive Object Pronouns. Direct Object Pronouns. Indirect Object Pronouns. Order of Object Pronouns When Combined. Position of Object Pronouns. Prepositional Object Pronouns.
B. Se. Introduction. Reflexive Pronouns. Reflexives. Reciprocals. Se me Construction: Accidental se. Impersonal se. Introduction. Agent Present (Subject of the Action: Stated). No Agent: Not Impersonal (Subject of the Action: Absent but Implied). No Agent: Impersonal (Subject of the Action: Absent and Irrelevant). Impersonal se with Inanimate Objects. Impersonal se with Persons. Impersonal se with Both Human and Inanimate Objects. Impersonal Reflexive Construction--uno.
C. Demonstrative and Possessive Pronouns. Demonstrative Pronouns. Possessive Pronouns.
D. Interrogatives. ¿Qué?. ¿Cuál?. ¿Qué? vs. ¿Cuál? with ser. How?. How? + Verb = ¿Cómo?. How? + Adjective or Adverb ≠ ¿Cómo?. Word Order.
E. Exclamatives. ¡Qué! + Noun. ¡Qué! + Modified Noun. ¡Qué! + Adjective. ¡Qué! + Adverb. ¡Cómo! + Verb. ¡Cuánto! + Verb. ¡Cuánto(a)! + Noun. ¡Cuántos(as)! + Noun. ¡Quién! + Verb.
F. Indefinites and Negatives.
G. Relative Pronouns. Formation and Usage. Relative Pronouns without a Preposition. Relative Pronouns with a Preposition. El cual/el que. Que after a/de/en/con. Additional Uses. Lo que/lo cual (Invariable). El que. Lo que. Cuyo. Donde. Who. Interrogative Pronoun: ¿Quién?. Relative Pronoun: que. El cual/el que. What.
4. PREPOSITIONS, ADVERBS, CONJUNCTIONS, AND TRANSITIONS.
A. Prepositions. Function of Prepositions. Verbs Used without Prepositions. Individual Prepositions. A. Usage. Personal a. Expressions with a. Verbs with a. Con. Usage. Expressions with con. Verbs with con. De. Usage. Expressions with de. Verbs with de. En. Usage. Expressions with en. Verbs with en. Para. Usage. Expressions with para. Por. Usage. Expressions with por. Verbs with por. List of Expressions with Prepositions (English-Spanish). Review of Expressions with Prepositions.
B. Adverbs. Definition. Adverbs Ending in -mente. Word Order. Multiple-Function Words. Adverbs of Time. Adverbs of Manner. Adverbs of Quantity. Adverbs of Confirmation, Doubt, or Negation. Adverbial Phrases. Adverbs of Place. Related Adverbs and Prepositions.
C. Conjunctions. Usage. Conjunctions of Coordination. Conjunctions of Subordination.
5. VERBS: FORMATION.
A. Indicative Mood. Present Indicative. Regular Verbs. Stem-Changing Verbs. Spelling-Changing Verbs. Classified Irregular Verbs. Other Irregular Verbs. Aspects of the Past Indicative. Imperfect Indicative. Preterite. Present Perfect Indicative. Pluperfect Indicative. Future. Simple Future. Future Perfect.
B. Conditional Mood. Present Conditional. Conditional Perfect.
C. Subjunctive Mood. Present Subjunctive. Regular Verbs. Stem-Changing Verbs. Irregular Verbs. Imperfect Subjunctive. Present Perfect Subjunctive. Pluperfect Subjunctive.
D. Imperative Mood. Direct Commands. Tú. Usted/ustedes. Vosotros. Nosotros. Indirect Commands.
E. Infinitive. Present Infinitive. Perfect Infinitive.
F. Participle. Present Participle or Gerund. Past Participle.
6. VERBS: USAGE.
A. Present Indicative.
B. Aspects of the Past Indicative Tense: Preterite vs. Imperfect and Pluperfect. Past Conditions, Beliefs – Imperfect. Changed Conditions, Reactions – Preterite. Actions, Single or Consecutive – Preterite. Habitual Actions or Events – Imperfect. Habitual Actions Limited in Time, Repeated Actions – Preterite. Actions – Beginning, Middle, End. Preterite: Beginning and/or End. Imperfect: Middle, in Progress, Interrupted. Imperfect as Parallel to the Present. Projected Actions/Indirect Discourse – Imperfect. Would – Contexts and Translations. Saber and conocer. Modal Auxiliaries in the Past. Acabar de + infinitive. Deber + infinitive. Ir a + infinitive. Poder + infinitive. Querer + infinitive. Tener que + infinitive. Ser in Sentences with Relative Clauses. The Preterite and the Present Perfect. The Pluperfect.
C. Compound Tenses. Introduction. Perfect Tenses. Present Perfect Indicative. Future Perfect. Past Perfect (Pluperfect) Indicative. Conditional Perfect. Present Perfect Subjunctive. Pluperfect Subjunctive. Simple Progressive Tenses. Introduction. Present Progressive. Future Progressive. Past Progressive. Conditional Present Progressive. Subjunctive Present Progressive. Subjunctive Imperfect Progressive. Perfect Progressive Tenses. Introduction. Indicative Present Perfect Progressive. Indicative Future Perfect Progressive. Indicative Pluperfect Progressive. Conditional Perfect Progressive. Subjunctive Present Perfect Progressive. Subjunctive Pluperfect Progressive. Modal Auxiliaries.
D. Ways of Expressing the Future.
E. Conditional. Introduction. Courtesy with Conditional of Modal Auxiliaries. Hypothetical Situations with or without Condition Expressed with si. Future of the Past. Probability in the Past.
G. Subjunctive. Introduction. Nominal Clauses. Definition and Usage. Subjunctive after Expressions of Emotion. Subjunctive after Expressions of Volition and Influence. Subjunctive after Expressions of Doubt and Negation of Reality. Subjunctive after Impersonal Expressions with ser. Adjectival Clauses. Definition. Usage. Adverbial Clauses. Definition. Usage. Sequence of Tenses. Introduction. Chronological Relativity. Aspect Relativity. Tense Relativity from Indicative to Subjunctive. Main Clause in the Present Set. Main Clause in the Past Set. If (si) Clauses. Sequence of Tenses. Como si (As If). Ojalá. Expressions of Leave-Taking.
H. Infinitives and Present Participles. Infinitives. Present Infinitive. Perfect Infinitive. Present Participles.
I. Verbs Like gustar. Formation. Word Order. Verbs Similar to gustar. Articles. Changes in Meaning.
J. Reflexive Verbs.
K. Indirect Discourse. Introduction. Verb-Tense Changes. No Verb-Tense Changes. Person Changes. Time Changes. Other Changes. Connectives. This, That, and the Other. Verbs of Communication. A Note on Word Order with Indirect Interrogatives.
7. SER, ESTAR, HABER, HACER, AND TENER.
B. Ser vs. estar. With Equal Elements: ser. With Adjectives. Predicate Adjectives. Aburrido (boring vs. bored). Bueno (good vs. in good health, tasty). Callado (quiet by nature vs. silent now). Ciego (blind vs. blinded figuratively or momentarily). Cómodo (comfortable object vs. comfortable person). Frío (cold as norm or not, used with objects). Listo (clever [person or animal] vs. ready). Maduro (mature vs. ripe). Rico (wealthy vs. delicious). Verde (green vs. unripe). Vivo (smart, bright person vs. alive). Expressions with To Be. Impersonal Expressions. With Prepositions and Adverbs. De. Time and Place. With Past and Present Participles. With Present Participles. With Past Participles: Passive Voice and Resultant Condition. Formation of the Passive Voice. A Note on the Passive Voice.
C. Estar vs. haber.
D. Expressions with estar and tener. Expressions with estar. Expressions with tener.
E. Time Expressions. Introduction. Counting Forward. Counting Backward. Duration. Counting Back from the Present. Counting Back from a Moment in the Past. Ago.
8. LEXICAL VARIATIONS.
B. Terms and Expressions. Acabar. Apply. Ask. At. Attend. Because. Become or Get. But. Come and Go. Despedir. Exit and Success. Go and Leave. Guide. Know. Learn. Meet. Order. Pensar. People vs. Machines. Play. Put. Realize. Serve. Spend. Take. Time. What.
C. False Cognates and False Friends.
A. General Information. The Alphabet. Representation of Letters by Sound.
B. Consonants: Spelling Issues. B, V. K, C, Qu, S. The Sound /k/. The Sounds /s/, /z/; seseo. The Letter s. The Letter c + e, i. Stem Changes for Verbs in -cer or -cir: cz. Words Ending in -ción, -sión, -tión, -xión. G, Gu, Gü, J. The Sound /g/; Silent u; ü. The Sound /j/. Verb Spelling Changes to Maintain the /j/ or /g/ Sound of the Stem. Verbs Ending in -ger /jer/ or -gir /jir/: gj. Verbs Ending in -guir /gir/, -gar /gar/, -guar /guar/: gug; gugü. H. Pronunciation of the Letter h. Spelling with the Letter h. Homophones. X. The Letter x Pronounced as /s/. The Letter x Pronounced as /ks/. The Letter x Pronounced as /j/. Spelling with the Letter x. Ll, y, í. The Sound /y/. Spellings for the Sound /y/. Lists of Common Words Ending in -ia, -illa, and –ía. R, RR. The Sound /r/. The Sound /rr/. Spelling with r and rr. Soft d, r. Ch, Ph, Th C/Qu, F, T. Ch C/QU. Ph F. Th T. Double Consonants.
C. Vowels and Accents. Syllabification. Consonants: Their Role in the Syllable. Multiple Vowels. Stress. Categorization of Words by Stress. Rules for Written Accents. Special Cases. Adverbs Ending in –mente. Monosyllables. Non-Monosyllabic Homonyms. Aun vs. aún. Solo. Demonstrative Pronouns. Exclamative and Interrogative Adjectives, Pronouns, or Adverbs.
D. Linking between Words: Synalepha. Same Letter. Vowel + Vowel. Consonant + Vowel.
F. Numbers. Cardinal Numbers. Ordinal Numbers. Fractions.
G. Punctuation. Terminology. Differences between English and Spanish Punctuation. Questions and Exclamations. Dialogue. Quotations. End of Line Word Division.
H. Dialectal Variation, Norm, Register. Dialectal Variation. Pronunciation. Vocabulary. Grammar. Norm. Register. Useful Websites.
I. Summary of 2010 Ortografía Changes.
Verb Tables A-1–A-38.
A. Lista de modelos de conjugación.
B. Modelos de conjugación (Verb Tables).
C. Mini-índice de verbos.
Cengage provides a range of supplements that are updated in coordination with the main title selection. For more information about these supplements, contact your Learning Consultant.
The Instructor's Edition begins with a printed answer key to the activity section, which is found towards the end of the book.