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Reflecting Cengage Learning's commitment to offering flexible teaching solutions and value for students and instructors, this new hybrid version features the instructional presentation found in the printed text while delivering all the end-of chapter exercises online in OWLv2, the leading online learning system for chemistry. The result—a briefer printed text that engages students online! Help your students improve their grades and understanding of concepts with this value-packed Hybrid Edition. An access code to OWLV2 WITH MINDTAP READER, is included with the text, providing students with powerful online resources that include tutorials, simulations, randomized homework questions, videos, a complete interactive electronic version of the textbook, and more! Focusing on the needs of allied health and nursing majors, this engaging book is ideal for students who have had no prior exposure to chemistry. The author takes the time to explain how to do tasks that students find difficult, rather than just providing terse descriptions. Emphasizing problem-solving techniques without skipping steps and using terms students can grasp, the book takes the most direct path to biomolecules and metabolic processes, provides a wealth of worked examples to help students understand key chemical concepts, includes novel and relevant "Health Notes" in the margins, and weaves biological and medical applications throughout.
- The #1 online homework and learning system for chemistry, OWLv2, is available for this text-now with new instructor features and enhanced functionality: a Dashboard that consolidates all course materials; easy, intuitive assignment creation and management; ability to preview and select activities/questions for each assignment; new assignment settings and options; improved gradebook; Personalized Study tools to help students focus their time on the key concepts and skills; and MindTap Reader™, a new eBook with apps and embedded video, audio, annotations, and activities. OWLv2 courses for Gen Chem, GOB, and Liberal Arts now include Quick Prep essential skills assignments that can be taken before the semester begins or during the first few weeks, to help students succeed in the course. For this course, OWLv2 also includes new interactive versions of the end-of-chapter questions from the text and new iPad-compatible visualizations, tutorials, and simulations.
- The coverage of the properties of acids and bases in Chapter 7 has been simplified, with the elimination of subsections on the relationship between the pH of a solution and the molarity and strength of the acid or base in the solution.
- The coverage of the biological hazards of ionizing radiation has been condensed and focused, and the material on nuclear power generation has been compressed and brought up-to-date.
- The first three chapters on biochemistry (formerly Chapters 13-15) have been revised extensively. The stand-alone chapter on metabolic processes has been eliminated, with the material in this chapter being moved to earlier chapters. The rather lengthy chapter on carbohydrates and lipids has been split into two chapters, one on each class of biomolecules. Coverage of metabolic processes has been simplified and streamlined throughout.
- Coverage of the ATP cycle has been moved to the end of Chapter 13 (condensation and hydrolysis reactions), where it both reinforces the core reaction types of the chapter and provides an introduction to bioenergetics.
- A brief discussion of the urea cycle is included in Chapter 14 (proteins), replacing the longer section in the first edition.
- Glycolysis, fermentation pathways, and the citric acid cycle are now covered at the end of Chapter 15 (carbohydrates).
- The new Chapter 16 (lipids) integrates the coverage of the chemistry and biological roles of fats and fatty acids and the behavior of biological membranes. Catabolism of fatty acids now appears immediately after the sections on the structures and reactions of triglycerides and fatty acids. The section on lipid bilayers and membranes is now followed by a new section on mitochondrial structure, concentration gradients, and oxidative phosphorylation.
- The chapter on nuclear chemistry (formerly Chapter 16) has been moved to the end of the material on general chemistry, becoming Chapter 8 in the second edition.
- To streamline the text, the following peripheral topics have been eliminated: heating and cooling curves, the ideal gas law, precipitation reactions, Le Châtelier's principle, mass-energy conversion calculations, bombardment reactions and the production of radioisotopes, Markovnikov's rule, the solubility of organic compounds in organic solvents, the structures and functions of steroids, and anabolic pathways.
- The sections on biologically important amines and on radioisotopes in medicine have been replaced by new end-of-chapter "Connections" essays covering much of the same material.
- Coverage of the moles and molar masses has been moved from Chapter 5 to the end of Chapter 2, allowing early exposure to this often-difficult concept.
- The topic sequence in Chapter 2 has been revised extensively, giving a more logical flow of subject matter. The electronic structure of atoms is now covered immediately after the introduction to atoms, allowing uninterrupted coverage of atomic structure. The separate sections on the periodic table have been combined into a single section, which appears after the material on electronic structure. The material on chemical similarities has been compressed and moved to Chapter 3.
- The material on gas law computations, which was formerly placed in the appendices, has been streamlined and moved into Chapter 4. At the same time, the two sections on solubility have been moved from Chapter 4 to Chapter 5. The remaining sections of Chapter 4 have been edited to improve the flow of this chapter. These changes give a better topic balance between Chapters 2, 4 and 5.
- Condensed structures for unbranched hydrocarbon chains are introduced in Chapter 5, simplifying the molecular structures required in the discussion of amphipathic compounds.
- A discussion of the carbon cycle has been added to Chapter 6, following the introduction of combustion reactions.
- DESIGNED FOR NURSING AND HEALTH SCIENCES MAJORS. This allied health-focused book takes the most direct path to biomolecules and metabolic processes, includes novel and relevant "Health Notes" in the margins, and weaves biological and medical applications throughout to prepare students for their future careers.
- EMPHASIS ON PROBLEM SOLVING STRATEGIES. Each Sample Problem is paired with a closely related "Try It Yourself" question. Most sample problems list additional Core Problems that students can do to practice new skills. Steps for solving the conversion problems appear in the margins to guide students through the problem-solving process.
- FOCUSED ON STUDENT LEARNING. Each chapter begins with a short health-related, 'story type' introduction, followed by numbered sections with learning objectives. Section-ending Core Problems immediately reinforce the section objectives and help students' gauge their knowledge of the content. Key Terms appear in boldface type the first time they are used and are collected at the back of the chapter to facilitate student review.
- BUILT-IN STUDY GUIDE. End-of-chapter material (keyed to each section) helps students master chapter concepts and problem-solving skills and review for quizzes and tests. Concept Questions encourage students to describe how the ideas in the chapter apply to specific examples, while Summary and Challenge Problems cover all sections and give instructors the opportunity to assign questions at a wide range of levels. Challenge problems are marked with an asterisk and require a greater depth of understanding; many involve concepts from earlier chapters.
- EXPERT REVIEW: The entire text was reviewed by Nursing Professor Kellee Hollyman, RN,BSN, MN-Nurse Educator to ensure the relevance and accuracy of the health material.
Measuring size: distance, mass, and volume. Measurements in science: precision and accuracy. Metric units and their relationships. Unit conversions and conversion factors. Using multiple conversion factors. Density, dosage, and other compound units
Temperature. Connections: Why Do We Struggle Against the Metric System?
2. ATOMS, ELEMENTS, AND COMPOUNDS.
Classifying matter: mixtures, compounds, and elements. Atoms and atomic structure
Electron shells and valence electrons. An introduction to the periodic table. Isotopes and atomic weight. Moles. Compounds, chemical formulas, and moles. Connections: The Elements of Life.
3. CHEMICAL BONDS.
Covalent bonds and the octet rule. Double and triple bonds. Electronegativity and polar bonds. Naming covalent compounds. Ions and ionic compounds. Writing formula for ionic compounds. Naming ionic compounds. Polyatomic ions. Recognizing ionic and molecular compounds. Connections: Nitrogen and Oxygen: A Remarkable Partnership.
4. ENERGY AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES.
Heat and energy. The three states of matter. The properties of gases. Gas law calculations. Attractive forces and the physical properties of matter. Solutions and the dissolving process. Electrolytes and dissociation. Connections: Temperature, Pressure, and Volume in Everyday Life.
5. SOLUTION CONCENTRATION.
Concentration. Solubility. The relationship between solubility and molecular structure. Molarity. Osmosis, dialysis, and tonicity. Equivalents. Dilution. Connections: Physiological Dehydration.
6. CHEMICAL REACTIONS.
Physical changes and chemical reactions. Chemical equations. Mass relationships in a chemical reaction. Heats of reaction. Combustion reactions and the carbon cycle.
Reaction rate and activation energy. Chemical equilibrium. Connections: Energy from Food.
7. ACIDS AND BASES.
The self-ionization of water. The pH scale. Properties of acids. Properties of bases. Acid-base reactions. Amphiprotic molecules and ions. Buffers. The role of buffers in human physiology. Connections: Consequences of Blood pH Changes.
8. NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY.
Nuclear symbols. Writing nuclear equations. Energy and nuclear reactions. Measuring radiation. Radiation sources and shielding. Nuclear decay and half-life.
Nuclear fission and fusion. Connections: Diagnostic Imaging.
9. HYDROCARBONS: AN INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIC MOLECULES.
The special properties of carbon. Linear alkanes: the foundation of organic chemistry.
Branched alkanes, cycloalkanes, and isomers. Naming branched alkanes: the IUPAC system. Functional groups. Alkenes and alkynes. Cis and trans isomers of alkenes. Benzene and aromatic compounds. Properties of hydrocarbons. Connections: High-Octane Hydrocarbons.
10. HYDRATION, DEHYDRATION, AND ALCOHOLS.
The hydration reaction. Controlling the product: an introduction to enzymes. Naming alcohols. The physical properties of alcohols. Chirality in organic molecules.
The dehydration reaction. Phenols and thiols. Connections: Alcohols for Drinking – Or Not.
11. CARBONYL COMPOUNDS AND REDOX REACTIONS.
Hydrogenation and dehydrogenation. Oxidation and reduction reactions and the carbonyl group. The naming and properties of aldehydes and ketones. Other oxidation and reduction reactions. Carboxylic acids. Biological oxidations and reductions: the redox coenzymes. Introduction to metabolic pathways. Connections: Fragrances and Flavors.
12. ORGANIC ACIDS AND BASES.
Reactions of organic acids. Decarboxylation reactions. Amines. Acid-base reactions of amines. The physiological behavior of organic acids and bases. Connections: Messing With Your Mind: The Power of Tryptamines.
13. CONDENSATION AND HYDROLYSIS REACTIONS.
An introduction to condensation reactions: ethers. Esterification, amidation, and phosphorylation. Condensation polymers. Hydrolysis. The effect of pH on the products of hydrolysis. The ATP cycle. Connections: Common Pain Relievers.
Amino acids. Peptide bonds and the secondary structure of a protein. Side chain interactions and tertiary structure. Protein denaturation. Enzyme structure and function. Sources and metabolism of amino acids. Connections: Enzyme Assays in Medicine.
Monosaccharides. Isomeric forms of monosaccharides: anomers and enantiomers. Disaccharides and the glycosidic linkage. Common disaccharides and polysaccharides. Carbohydrate catabolism. Connections: The Importance of Blood Glucose.
16. LIPIDS AND MEMBRANES.
Fatty acids and triglycerides. Chemical reactions of triglycerides. Catabolism of fatty acids. Glycerophospholipids and cell membranes. Concentration gradients and ATP formation. Connections: Brown Adipose Tissue and Uncouplers.
17. NUCLEIC ACIDS, PROTEIN SYNTHESIS, AND HEREDITY.
Nucleotides. Structures of nucleic acids. DNA replication. Transcription and RNA processing. Translation and the genetic code. The mechanism of protein synthesis. Mutations and genetic disorders. Connections: The Human Genome Project and Genetic Screening.
Appendix A: Mathematics Supplement.
Appendix B: Summary of Organic Functional Groups.
Appendix C: Answers to Selected Problems.
"I think the health notes and chapter introductions are well done. The chapter introductions provides students with motivation for learning the material and a real-life situation to which this material will apply."- PJ Ball, Northern Kentucky University
"I chose Armstrong because it was organized around reaction types for the organic chemistry section. I also like the core problems in the middle of the chapters…I am very satisfied."- Janet Maxwell, Northern Kentucky University
Cengage provides a range of supplements that are updated in coordination with the main title selection. For more information about these supplements, contact your Learning Consultant.
Online PowerLecture with ExamView®
Search for this text at login.CENGAGE.com and choose Instructor Companion Site to access these digital resources for this text: 1) PowerPoint® lecture slides by Melanie Harvey and Krista Thomas of Johnson County Community College; 2) Image libraries for figures, photographs, and numbered tables; 3) Instructor's Manual by Simon Bott of University of Houston, Calhoun; 3) Sample chapters from the Student Solutions Manual. 4) List of end-of-chapter questions that you can assign in OWLv2; 5) Cognero® online testing software with questions by Bette Kreua of University of Michigan, Dearborn; 6) Chemistry Multimedia Library of lecture-ready animations, simulations, and movies.
Student Solutions Manual
This manual features complete, worked-out solutions to all the odd-numbered problems. The solutions are specifically designed to complement the worked examples in the core text.
Student Solutions Manual
Containing worked out solutions to all odd-numbered problems in the book, this manual shows you how to approach and solve problems using the same step-by-step explanations found in your textbook examples.
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