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Emphasizing that thinking well and writing well are invariably connected, CRITICAL THINKING, THOUGHTFUL WRITING, 6e continues to provide thorough coverage of the writing process, going beyond the traditional rhetoric to teach students how to evaluate sources, images, and arguments. This rhetoric with readings introduces the process of thinking critically as a powerful approach to writing, to critically evaluating electronic and visual media, and to life in general. Each chapter focuses on a critical-thinking skill--such as problem solving or analysis of complex issues--that is explored through Thinking-Writing Activities and thematically linked readings. Each of the readings is intended to challenge the critical thinking abilities of students and get them to read actively, think critically, and then write about the readings. The Sixth Edition offers timely new readings, a four-color interior design, expanded writing project sections that help students more fully interact with the writing process, annotations to the student essays, and more in-chapter questions to get students to stop and reflect on the material. CRITICAL THINKING, THOUGHTFUL WRITING views learning to think, write, and read as integral dimensions of an individual's personal growth and transformation--helping students grow.

John Chaffee, City University of New York

John Chaffee, Ph.D., is a professor of philosophy at The City University of New York, where he has developed a Philosophy and Critical Thinking program that annually involves 25 faculty and 3,000 students. He is a nationally recognized figure in the area of critical thinking, having authored leading textbooks and many professional articles. He also has conducted numerous conference presentations and workshops throughout the country. In developing programs to teach people to think more effectively in all academic subjects and areas of life, Dr. Chaffee has received grants from the National Endowment for the Humanities, the Ford Foundation, the Annenberg Foundation, and the Corporation for Public Broadcasting. He was selected as New York Educator of the Year and received the Distinguished Faculty Award for Diversity in Teaching in Higher Education.
  • Expanded writing projects help students more fully interact with the writing process. Each project includes a comprehensive overview as well as specific questions and examples to help transition students from conceptualizing the writing situation to engaging with the writing process. Each project also includes a redesigned section dedicated to peer review, revision, and editing and proofreading.
  • New readings by such noteworthy authors as Christopher Hitchens, Michael Shermer, Will Portman, Kate Rice, Bob Morris, Joel Kotkin, Dan Baum, Ken Caldeira, and Jeff McMahan cover timely and provocative topics, including gun control in the aftermath of the shootings at Sandy Hook Elementary School, the changing concept of what it means to be a family, the pros and cons of genetically modified foods, and the debate surrounding the science of global warming.
  • New “Reflection on Writing Questions” give students ample opportunity to practice their critical thinking skills by responding to questions following each essay.
  • A focus on source-based, objective, and investigative writing means that text coverage moves quickly from first-hand, personal writing to more academic rhetorical models.
  • Four integrated elements--a critical thinking focus, a writing focus, a reading focus, and a writing project--tie each chapter together.
  • The value of collaboration in thinking and writing is emphasized throughout, with a special icon highlighting material specifically designed for collaboration and peer review.
  • A student essay and annotations offering insights into the student's writing process appear at the end of each chapter--providing learners with real examples of how the writing assignments can be approached and completed.
  • The “Thinking-Writing Model” introduced in Chapter 1 and reinforced throughout the book provides a clear graphic representation of the writing process and of the connections between critical thinking and thoughtful writing, as well as creative thinking and inventive writing.
  • Illustrating how creative thought can and should be an integral part of academic writing, the text explains that all aspects of the writing process can be approached creatively, including topic selection, generating ideas and drafting, using specific details, and writing introductions and conclusions. In learning to think creatively, students discover strategies to make their writing more inventive, while also infusing creative energy into other areas of their lives. Chapters 3-14 contain writing process sections that provide tools for thinking creatively and applying those skills to the writing process.
  • In Chapter 12, students learn a thoughtful approach to making decisions by applying the decision making process to revising drafts as well as to making important decisions in other areas of their lives. By developing their problem-solving abilities, students learn how to compose a problem-solving essay as well as how to be more effective in solving problems beyond the classroom.
  • Each chapter includes a “Thinking Critically About Visuals” feature, while vibrant color photos challenge students to think critically about visual rhetoric by evaluating what they see in the media and in everyday life.
  • Chapter-opening photos and texts focus on individuals who exemplify critical thinking in action.
  • “Thinking Critically About New Media” features in each chapter enable students to explore, critically analyze, and write about the unique dilemmas and opportunities posed by new media.
  • “Questions for Writing Thoughtfully” appear at the end of each reading to emphasize and reinforce the focus on writing.
  • Masterfully combining two skills that students are expected to learn in freshman composition, CRITICAL THINKING, THOUGHTFUL WRITING helps students develop creative and critical thinking skills through writing.
  • Each chapter encourages students to apply critical and creative thinking skills to all facets of their lives, enabling them to make enlightened decisions, solve challenging problems, analyze complex issues, communicate effectively, nurture creative talents, and become more thoughtful and socially aware citizens.
1. The Thinking–Writing Model: Rhetoric, Situation, and Process.
Thinking and Writing in College. Becoming a Critical Thinker and Thoughtful Writer. Qualities of a Thoughtful Writer. The Thinking-Writing Model. Rhetoric and the Writing Situation. Purpose. Audience. Subject. Writer. Writing Thoughtfully, Thinking Creatively, Thinking Critically. The Writing Process. The Recursive Nature of the Writing Process. Generating Ideas. Keeping a Journal or Blog. Defining a Focus. Organizing Ideas. Drafting. Revising, Editing, and Proofreading. Collaborating.
2. Reading: Making Meaning.
Reading in College, Reading for Life. Reading Actively. Review the Table of Contents or Chapter Outlines. Read the Introductory Paragraphs and the Concluding Paragraphs or Summary. Scan the Reading Assignment, Taking Particular Note of Section Headings, Illustrations, and Diagrams. Annotating. Summarizing. Reading Critically. Asking Questions. Using a Problem-Solving Approach. Practicing Active and Critical Reading: One Student''s Approach. Using Metacognitive Strategies. Making Meaning. Semantic Meaning (Denotation).
Perceptual Meaning (Connotation). Syntactic Meaning. Pragmatic Meaning.
3. Writing: Using Independent Thought and Informed Beliefs.
From Insight to Writing to Informed Beliefs (and Back Again). Thinking Actively and Writing. Influences on Your Thinking. Thinking Independently. Viewing a Situation from Different Perspectives. Supporting Diverse Perspectives with Reasons and Evidence. Developing Informed Beliefs. Experiences That Affect Beliefs. Writing Project: An Experience That Influenced a Belief. The Writing Situation. The Writing Process. STUDENT WRITING: Eli Sharp''s Writing Process. Alternative Writing Projects.
4. Thinking: Becoming More Creative and Visually Aware.
Creative Thinking, Critical Viewing, and Writing. Creativity in Topic Selection. Moving from Topic to Thesis. Creativity in Generating Ideas. Creative and Critical Thinking About Images. Images and the Writing Situation. Reading Images Critically. Semantic Meaning (Denotation). Perceptual Meaning (Connotation). Syntactic Meaning. Pragmatic Meaning. Living Creatively. Becoming More Creative: Understand and Trust the Process. Eliminate the Voice of Judgment. Establish a Creative Environment. Make Creativity a Priority. Where Do Ideas Come From? Writing Project: Imagining Your Life Lived More Creatively. The Writing Situation. The Writing Process. STUDENT WRITING: Jessie Lange''s Writing Process: Freewriting. Alternative Writing Projects.
5. Drafting: Making and Analyzing Decisions.
Decisions While Drafting. Decisions in Your Life. An Organized Approach to Making Decisions. Step 1: Define the Decision and Its Goals Clearly (Audience). Step 2: Consider All Possible Choices (Subject). Step 3: Gather All Relevant Information and Evaluate the Pros and Cons of Each Possible Choice (Purpose). Step 4: Select the Choice That Seems Best Suited to the Situation. Step 5: Implement a Plan of Action and Monitor the Results, Making Necessary Adjustments. Analyzing Decisions. Writing Project: Analyzing a Decision to Be Made. The Writing Situation. The Writing Process. STUDENT WRITING: Wendy Agudo''s Writing Process. STUDENT WRITING: Cynthia Brown''s Writing Process. Alternative Writing Projects.
6. Revising: Using Language Thoughtfully.
Recognizing Effective Use of Language. Language, Thinking, and Learning. Making Decisions When Revising Drafts. Specific Decisions to Make at Several Levels. Using Language Ethically. Improving Vague Language. Using Figurative Language. Using Language to Influence. Euphemistic Language. Clichés. Emotive Language. Writing Project: The Impact of Language on Our Lives. The Writing Situation. The Writing Process. STUDENT WRITING: Jessie Lange''s Writing Process. Alternative Writing Projects.
7. Writing to Describe and Narrate: Exploring Perceptions.
Thinking Critically About Perceptions. Becoming Aware of Your Own Perceptions. Noting Differences in People''s Perceptions. Writing Thoughtfully About Perceptions. Writing Objectively and Subjectively. Contrasting Objective and Subjective Writing. Chronological Relationships. Narratives. Writing About Processes. Examples of Process Writing. Writing Project: A Narrative Showing the Effect of a Perception. The Writing Situation. The Writing Process. STUDENT WRITING: Joshua Chaffee''s Writing Process. Alternative Writing Projects.
8. Writing to Classify and Define: Exploring Concepts.
What Are Concepts? The Importance of Concepts. The Structure of Concepts. The Process of Classifying. Forming Concepts. Applying Concepts. Determining the Requirements of a Concept. Analyzing Complex Concepts. A Casebook on Gender and Sexuality. Using Concepts to Classify. Classifying People and Their Actions. Writing and Classifying. Defining Concepts. Writing Thoughtfully to Define Concepts. Writing Project: Defining an Important Concept. The Writing Situation. The Writing Process. STUDENT WRITING: Nawang Doma Sherpa''s Writing Process. STUDENT WRITING: Jorden Carlsen''s Writing Process. Alternative Writing Projects.
9. Writing to Compare and Evaluate: Exploring Perspectives and Relationships.
Perceptions and Perspectives. Selecting Perceptions: Why Do We Notice the Things We Notice? Organizing Perceptions. Interpreting Perceptions. Casebook: Perception and Reality in Reporting the Earthquake in Haiti. Changes in Perceptions and Perspectives. Obtaining More Accurate Perceptions: Adjusting the Lenses. Develop Awareness. Get Input from Others. Find Evidence. Keep an Open Mind. Writing Thoughtfully About Perspectives. Comparison and Contrast. Thinking in Comparisons. Analogy. Writing Project: Comparing Perspectives on an Issue or Event. The Writing Situation. The Writing Process. STUDENT WRITING: Jennifer Wade''s Writing Process. Alternative Writing Project: Comparing Two Reviews.
10. Writing to Speculate: Exploring Cause and Effect.
Kinds of Causal Relationships. Causal Chain. Contributory Causes. Interactive Causes. Ways of Testing Causes. Necessary Condition and Sufficient Condition. Immediate Cause and Remote Cause. Identifying Causal Fallacies. Questionable Cause. Misidentification of the Cause. Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc. Slippery Slope. Detecting Causal Claims. Exploring Cause and Effect: Modern Agriculture and Social Impact. Writing Thoughtfully About Causal Relationships. Writing Project: Exploring Some Causes of a Recent Event. The Writing Situation. The Writing Process. STUDENT WRITING: Daniel Eggers''s Writing Process. Alternative Writing Projects: Utopias and Dystopias.
11. Writing to Analyze: Believing and Knowing.
Ways of Forming Beliefs. Beliefs Based on Personal Experience. Beliefs Based on Indirect Experience. Evaluating Sources and Information. How Reliable Is the Source? What Are the Source''s Purposes and Interests? How Knowledgeable or Experienced Is the Source? Was the Source Able to Make Accurate Observations? How Reputable Is the Source? How Valuable Is Information from This Source? Believing and Knowing. Knowledge and Truth. Understanding Relativism. Understanding Falsifiable Beliefs. The Media and Truth. Ways of Presenting Beliefs. Reporting Factual Information. Inferring from Evidence or Premise. Judging by Applying Criteria. Distinguishing Among Reports, Inferences, and Judgments. Presenting Beliefs in Your Writing. Writing Project: Analyzing Influences on Your Beliefs About a Social or Academic Issue. The Writing Situation. The Writing Process. STUDENT WRITING: Jessie Lange''s Writing Process. Alternative Writing Project: Evolving Beliefs in an Academic Field.
12. Writing to Propose Solutions: Solving Problems.
Problems in Personal and Civic Life. Basics of the Problem-Solving Method. 1. What Is the Problem? 2. What Are the Alternatives? 3. What Are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Each Alternative? 4. What Is the Solution? 5. How Well Is the Solution Working? The Problem-Solving Method in Detail. Before You Begin: Accepting the Problem. Step 1: What Is the Problem? Step 2: What Are the Alternatives? Step 3: What Are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Each Alternative? Step 4: What Is the Solution? Step 5: How Well Is the Solution Working? Solving Social Problems. Taking a Problem-Solving Approach to Writing. Writing Project: Proposing a Solution to a Problem. The Writing Situation. The Writing Process. STUDENT WRITING: Joshua Bartlett''s Writing Process. Alternative Writing Projects: Community Problems, Community Solutions.
13. Writing to Persuade: Constructing Arguments.
Principles of Argument. Classical Concepts of Argument. Modern Concepts of Argument. Recognizing Arguments. Two Friends Argue: Should Marijuana Be Legalized? Arguments as Inferences. Constructing Arguments to Decide. Constructing Arguments to Explain. Constructing Arguments to Predict. Constructing Arguments to Persuade. Evaluating Arguments. Truth: How True Are the Supporting Reasons? Validity: Do the Reasons Support the Claim or Conclusion? Soundness: Is the Argument Both True and Valid? Forms of Argument. Deductive Reasoning. Other Deductive Forms. Inductive Reasoning. Causal Reasoning. Empirical Generalization. More Fallacies: Forms of False Reasoning. Hasty Generalization. Sweeping Generalization. False Dilemma. Begging the Question. Red Herring. Fallacies of Relevance. Deductive and Inductive Reasoning in Writing. Writing Project: Arguing a Position on a Significant Issue. The Writing Situation. The Writing Process. Principles for Writing Responsible Arguments. STUDENT WRITING: Will Portman''s Writing Process. Alternative Writing Project: The Pursuit of Happiness.
14. Writing About Investigations: Thinking About Research.
Rewards of Research. Starting with Questions. Questions That Identify Your Topic. Questions That Focus Your Topic. Searching for Information. Finding Electronic and Print Sources in the Library. Primary and Secondary Sources. Collecting Information from Experts and from the Field. Using Information. Evaluating Sources for a Research Project. Moving from Questions to Thesis. Understanding Plagiarism and Using Information Ethically. Taking Notes. Deciding When to Take Notes. Quoting and Paraphrasing. Using Common Knowledge. Characteristics of Effective Note-Taking Systems. Summarizing. Preparing an Annotated Bibliography. Integrating Source Material. Introducing Sources. Establishing Your Voice. Choosing Point of View. The Logic Behind Documentation. Reasons for Documentation. The Logic of MLA Style. Working Thoughtfully on Research Projects. Time. Planning and Outlining. Formats and Models. Collaboration. Writing Project: A Research Paper. The Writing Situation. The Writing Process. Annotated Student Research Paper with Outline and Drafts. STUDENT WRITING: Chris Buxton-Smith''s Writing Situation. STUDENT WRITING: Chris Buxton-Smith''s Writing Process.
APPENDIX: MLA and APA Documentation Styles.
Modern Language Association Style. Quick Reference. Citation Format. Accuracy and Completeness. What to Include in MLA Citations. Format for MLA Works-Cited List. Annotations. Books. Government/Civic Documents. Periodicals. Nonprint Sources. Electronic Sources. Creating a Works-Cited Page. American Psychological Association Style. Paper Format. Manuscript Format. Citation Format. Reference List Format. Electronic Sources. Text Citation Format. Quotations Within the Text.

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