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Unwavering in its fundamental commitment to today's students and their typical inexperience in rigorous logical analysis, Robert Johnson's A LOGIC BOOK is unparalleled in its ability to make logic simple, if not entertaining. After two chapters on basic concepts-argument, deductive validity, inductive strength, truth of premises-the text presents two different deductive systems, Categorical Logic and Truth-Functional Logic. A chapter on Formal Deduction is then followed by chapters on Inductive Logic and Informal Fallacies. The book culminates in a clear presentation of a strategy for evaluating lengthy arguments. Filled with timely examples and exercises drawn from popular culture, this book is an invitation to logic for even the most apprehensive students.
- Now a part of Wadsworth's Logical Choice program, you can easily customize this title and thereby save your students money and allow them to purchase only those chapters that you intend to cover in your course. Wadsworth is a part of Cengage Learning. Visit www.TextChoice.com or contact your local Cengage Learning representative today to assemble your own customized version of this book!
- Chapter 10 strengthens the consideration of empirical and non-empirical statements and examines a set of provocative real world discussions in which the distinction has particular relevance: the status of the human fetus, the nature of human happiness, the morality of terrorism, and the ethics of capital punishment.
- By choosing to package a vMentor™ Access Card with every new copy of this text at no additional cost, you can in effect extend your office hours by providing your students with access to live online tutoring conducted by expert tutors well-versed the concepts and pedagogical approaches encountered in this book.
- Throughout the text, examples and exercises have been revised and updated for timeliness.
- In a major revision of Chapter Two (Good Argument) two new requirements�"the follows-from requirement" and "the truth requirement" are introduced�and a section (2.5 Are the Premises True?) has been taken from the prior Chapter 10 to round out the discussion of good arguments.
- Chapter 3 (Categorical Logic, Part I) now includes a discussion of the "Raven Paradox."
- Chapter 8 (Inductive Logic) has been streamlined and revised for clarity's sake.
- The text features numerous study aids to assist students in mastering chapter material including: chapter openers that summarize major concepts; numerous illustrative examples throughout the chapters; exercises that appear after ever section; review questions that follow every chapter; and, solutions to selected exercises in the back of the book.
- Current real-life examples that students can relate to are taken from magazines and the press.
1. Logic and Argument.
Logic Defined. Argument Defined. Exercise: Argument Form. Diagraming Arguments. Exercise: Diagraming Arguments. Supplying Missing Parts: Enthymemes. Exercise: Enthymemes: Missing Premises and Conclusions. Recognizing Real Arguments. Interpretation and the Principle of Charity. Exercise: Recognizing Real Arguments. Exercise: Composing Arguments. Summary. Review Questions. Discussion Questions.
2. Good Argument, Deductive Validity, and Inductive Strength.
Good Arguments. Does the Conclusion Follow?: Deductive Validity and Inductive Strength. Deductive Validity Defined. Exercise: Deductive Validity. Does the Conclusion Follow Necessarily? Exercise: Inductive Strength. Does the Conclusion Follow Probably? Validity and Logical Form. Exercise: Validity and Logical Form. Exercise: More Logical Form. Are the Premises True? Exercise: Empirical or Nonempirical? Truth, Validity, and Good Argument. Exercise: What, if Anything, Is Wrong with This Argument? Summary. Review Questions. Discussion Questions.
3. Categorical Logic Part I.
Introduction. Categories and Reasoning. The Four Categorical Forms. Exercise: Categorical Forms. Exercise: Change the Quality. Exercise: Change the Quantity. Venn Diagrams. Diagramming with Two Categories. Exercise: Drawing Venn Diagrams. Exercise: Reading Venn Diagrams. Recognizing Simple Inferences. Exercise: Recognizing Simple Inferences. The Squares of Opposition. The Traditional Square of Opposition. Inferences on the Traditional Square. Exercise: Inferences on the Traditional Square of Opposition. Exercise: More Inferences. Exercise: Quick Check on the Square. The Modern Square of Opposition. Exercise: Inferences on the Modern Square of Opposition. The Operations. The Raven Paradox. Exercise: Operations. Exercise: What Operation? Exercise: Valid or Invalid? Exercise: Simplifying with Operations. Review Questions. Discussion Questions.
4. Categorical Logic Part II.
Translating into Categorical Form. Translating Guide. Exercise: Translating. The Categorical Syllogism.
Testing Validity with Venn Diagrams. The Bar. Making an Existential Assumption. Exercise: Diagramming with Three Circles. Exercise: Reading Venn Diagrams. Exercise: Testing Validity with Venn Diagrams. Special Cases for the Syllogism. Exercise: Valid or Invalid? Exercise: Sorites. Summary. Review Questions. Discussion Questions.
5. Truth-Functional Logic Part I.
Introduction. Statements and Operators. The Logical Operators Defined. The Symbols and Their Uses. Table: Symbols Used in Truth-Functional Logic. Symbolic Translation. Exercise: Symbolic Translation.
Grouping and the Scope of Operators . Symbolizing with Parentheses and Brackets. Exercise: Translating and Grouping. Special Cases for Translation. Variations on the Conjunction and Disjunction. Variations on the Conditional. Table: Special Cases for Translation. Exercise: More Symbolic Translations. The Truth-Functions. Constructing Truth Tables. Exercise: Truth Tables for the Operators. Exercise: The Truth-Values of Compounds. Exercise: Translating and Truth Tables. Exercise: Interpreting Symbolic Statement. Review Questions. Discussion Questions.
6. Truth-Functional Logic Part II.
Truth Tables for Evaluating Arguments. Exercise: The Truth Table Method. Indirect Truth Tables. Exercise: Indirect Truth Table Method. Statements and Relations. Types of Statements: Tautologies, Self-contradictions, and Contingencies. Types of Relations: Equivalences and Contradictories. Exercise: Tautologies, Self-contradictions, and Contingencies. Exercise: Equivalences and Contradictories
Summary. Review Questions. Discussion Questions.
7. Formal Deduction.
Introduction. The Rules of Inference: Group I. Exercise: The Validity of Rules of Inference, Group I. Exercise: Deduction with the Rules of Inference, Group I. The Rules of Inference: Group II. Exercise: The Validity of Rules of Inference, Group II. Exercise: Complete the Deductions. Exercise: Rules of Inference. Equivalences. Table: Rules of Inference. Table: Equivalences. Exercise: Equivalences and Rules of Inference. Exercise: More Deductions. Exercise: Symbolize and Deduce. Review Questions.
8. Inductive Logic.
Inductive Strength. Inductive Generalization. Summary: Inductive Generalization. Exercise 8.2A Inductive Generalization. Exercise 8.2B More Inductive Generalizations. Causal Arguments. What is a causal statement?. What does ''A causes B'' mean? Types of Causal Arguments. Exercise: Types of Causal Arguments. Mill''s Methods. Summary: Mill''s Method. Exercise: Mill''s Methods. Argument from Analogy. Summary: Argument from Analogy. Exercise:Arguments from Analogy. Summary. Exercise: Identifying Types of Arguments. Exercise: Identifying More Difficult Arguments. Review Questions. Discussion Questions.
9. Informal Fallacies.
Appeal to Authority. Appeal to the People. Appeal to Force. Appeal to Pity. Appeal to Ignorance. Ad Hominem. False Cause. Slippery Slope. Either/Or Fallacy. Equivocation. Hasty Generalization. Fallacy of Composition. Fallacy of Division. False Analogy. Begging the Question. Straw Man. Red Herring. Inconsistency. Summary. Exercise: Identifying Fallacies. Exercise: More Informal Fallacies. Exercise: Composing Fallacies. Review Questions. Discussion Questions.
10. Evaluating Arguments.
Procedure for Argument Evaluation. Exposing Real Arguments. Omitting, Rewriting, and Paraphrasing Omitting Sentences. Rewriting Sentences. Paraphrasing. Exercise: Omitting, Rewriting, and Paraphrasing. More on Enthymemes: Plausible Interpretations.Exercise: Real Enthymemes: Missing Premises and Conclusions. Examining Premises. More on Empirical and Nonempirical Statements. Exercise: More on Empirical and Nonempirical. Sample Evaluations. Sample Evaluation 1. Sample Evaluation 2. Exercise: Evaluating Real Arguments. Review Questions. Discussion Questions.
Answers to Selected Exercises.
Cengage provides a range of supplements that are updated in coordination with the main title selection. For more information about these supplements, contact your Learning Consultant.
eBank Instructor's Manual
Prepare for class more quickly and effectively with such resources as a solution guide to exercises in the book, teaching suggestions, and test bank questions. Contact your local Wadsworth Cengage Learning representative for a digital file of this resource.