Geography. The Peoples. Russian Responses to Challenges.
2. ANCIENT RUS.
Early Occupants of the Great Eurasian Plain. The Huns, Avars, and Khazars.
3. THE PRINCES OF KIEVAN RUS.
Political History. Ruling Rus. External Relations. Decline and Fall.
4. KIEVAN RUS: ECONOMIC LIFE, SOCIETY, CULTURE, AND RELIGION.
Economic Life. Social Structure. Urban Life. Religion and Culture.
5. THE ASCENDANCE OF THE SOUTHWEST AND THE NORTHEAST.
The Southwest. The Northeast.
6. THE MONGOLS AND RUSSIA.
Chingis-Khan. The Mongol Invasion of Rus. The Golden Horde''s Suzerainty over Rus.
7. NOVGOROD AND LITHUANIA.
8. THE RISE OF MOSCOW.
Founding and Early Development. Moscow versus Tver. Ivan I and His Successors. Dmitri Ivanovich and the Battle of Kulikovo. Russian Historians on Moscow''s Rise.
9. SOCIETY, CULTURE, AND RELIGION IN APPANAGE RUS.
The Issue of Russian "Feudalism". Role of the Orthodox Church.
10. THE UNIFICATION OF GREAT RUSSIA.
Expansion and the Growth of Grand Princely Power. Ivan III, The Great (1462-1505). Internal Changes and Conflicts. Vasili III (1505-1533).
11. IVAN THE TERRIBLE (1533-1584).
Minority and Rule with the Chosen Council. External Affairs. The Oprichnina and After. Ivan''s Reign Assessed.
12. THE TIME OF TROUBLES.
Background and Causes. Dynastic Struggle: Fedor I and Boris Godunov (1584-1605). Social Revolt and Foreign Invasion (1605-1610). National Revival and the Romanovs'' Election (1610-1613).
13. THE EARLY ROMANOVS: POLITICS AND FOREIGN AFFAIRS.
The Rulers and the ''Zemskii Sobor''. Administration. Law. The Army. Eastward Expansion. Annexation of Eastern Ukraine.
14. THE EARLY ROMANOVS: SOCIETY, CULTURE, AND RELIGION.
Foreign Influences. Religious Controversies and Heresies. Patriarch Nikon''s Church Reforms. The Development of Serfdom.
15. PETER THE GREAT: POLITICS, WAR, AND DIPLOMACY.
Peter''s Youth and His Trip to the West. War and Diplomacy. Administration.
16. PETER THE GREAT: SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, AND RELIGIOUS POLICIES.
State Service by the Nobility. Increased Burdens of the Peasantry. Economic Policies. Church Reform.
17. THE ERA OF PALACE REVOLUTIONS, 1725-1762.
Politics. Society and Economy. Culture and Westernization. Foreign Relations. Conclusion.
18. CATHERINE II RULES AND EXPANDS RUSSIA, 1762-1796.
Peter III and the Coup of June 1762. Catherine II-Woman and Ruler. The Legislative Commission. Administrative Changes. External Affairs.
19. CATHERINE II: ECONOMIC, SOCIAL, AND CULTURAL POLICIES.
The Economy. The Society. The Pugachov Refolt, 1773-1774. Education and Culture. The Russian Enlightenment.
20. BUREAUCRATIC MONARCHY: PAUL AND ALEXANDER I, 1796-1825.
Paul I. Political Policies of Alexander I. Speranskii''s Reform Program. The Arakcheevshchina. The Decembrist Revolt.
21. WAR AND DIPLOMACY, 1796-1825.
Paul I. Alexander I: Orientation and Initial Policies, 1801-1804. Coalition Wars, 1805-1807. Tilsit and the Franco-Russian Alliance, 1807-1812. Napoleon Invades Russia, 1812. Liberation of Europe and the Vienna Settlement, 1813-1815. The Concert of Europe.
22. SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, AND CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT, 1796-1855.
The Nobility. Urban Centers. Industrial Development. Literature. Music. Painting and Architecture.
23. THE "IRON TSAR".
The Ruler and His Ideology. Administration. The Army. The Intelligentsia. Foreign Affairs. The Crimean War, 1853-1856.
24. POLITICAL REFORM AND MINORITIES, 1855-1904.
Alexander II and the Emancipation. Other Social and Political Reforms. Censorship and Education. Local Self-Government. Judicial Reform. Military Reform. Significance of the Great Reforms. Treatment of Minorities before 1905.
25. SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, 1855-1904.
The Peasant World. Agriculture. Industry and Finance until 1891. Finance and Industry: The Spurt of the 1890s. Social Change. Religion.
26. DIPLOMACY AND EMPIRE, 1855-1905.
Relations with Europe until 1875. Pan-Slavism and the Eastern Question until 1878. The Caucasus and Central Asia. Europe and the Balkans, 1881-1905. Russia in the Far East until 1914.
27. OPPOSITION TO TSARISM, 1855-1905.
Liberalism and Radicalism, 1855-1870. Revolutionary Populism. The Development of Marxism. From Populism to the Socialist Revolutionaries (SRs). Liberalism Organizes. Reactionary Tsarism, 1881-1904.
28.WAR, REVOLUTION, AND REFORM, 1904-1914.
The Russo-Japanese War, 1904-1905. The 1905 Revolution. Creation of the Duma Monarchy, 1905-1906. Political Development, 1907-1914. Economic and Social Development. Foreign Affairs, 1906-1914.
29. CULTURAL DEVELOPMENTS, 1855-1917.
Literature. Music. Painting. Architecture.
30. WAR AND REVOLUTION, 1914-1917.
Russia Enters World War I. War Aims and Wartime Diplomacy. The Army and the Fronts. The Home Front. The March Revolution.
31. FROM MARCH TO NOVEMBER 1917.
The "Dual Power". The Bolsheviks Gain Leaders and a Program. The Revolution Moves Left (May-July). Kornilov and the Rightward Shift (July-September). The Rising Tide (September-November). The November Revolution.
32. CIVIL WAR AND WAR COMMUNISM, 1917-1921.
First Steps, 1917-1918. Civil War, 1918-1920. Civil War and Allied Intervention, 1918-1920. "War Communism": An Economic Disaster. The Kronstadt Revolt of 1921.
33. THE NEW ECONOMIC POLICY AND POWER STRUGGLE, 1921-1927.
Economic and Political Controls of NEP. The Struggle over Succession.
34. THE POLITICS OF STALINISM, 1928-1941.
Intraparty Struggles and Crises, 1929-1934. The Great Purge. Government and Party Organization. Stalinism.
35. THE GREAT TRANSFORMATION.
The Great Industrialization Debate, 1924-1928. Forced Collectivization. Industry: The Five Year Plans. Shifts in Social Policies.
36. SOVIET CULTURE UNDER LENIN AND STALIN, 1917-1953.
Initial Policies. Lunacharskii: The Politics of Culture. Soviet Culture in the Making: ''Proletkult'' and Other Vanguard Groups. Literature. The Cinema. Education. Science. Stalinist Culture, 1929-1953. ''Partiinost'' in Literature. Anticosmopolitanism and the Arts. Music.
37. SOVIET FOREIGN RELATIONS TO 1941.
First Revolutionary Era, 1917-1921. Accommodation, 1921-1927. Neoisolationism, 1928-1933. Collective Security, 1934-1937. The Nazi-Soviet Pact, 1939-1941.
38. WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION, 1941-1953.
Invasion. The 1942 Campaign: The Turning Point. Soviet Offensives and Allied Victory, 1943-1945. The USSR and the Far Eastern War. Postwar Stalinism.
39. THE KHRUSHCHEV ERA, 1953-1964.
Politics: Repudiating Stalinism. Economy: Focus on Agriculture. Foreign Affairs: Crises in the Communist Bloc Countries. Khrushchev''s Fall.
40. THE BREZHNEV ERA, 1964-1982.
Politics: Brezhnev''s Rise. Nationalism and Dissent. Economy and Society. Foreign Affairs and Armed Forces.
41. THE SOVIET GERONTOCRACY, 1982-1985.
Domestic Politics. Economy and Society. Foreign Policy.
42. THE GORBACHEV REVOLUTION, 1985-1991.
The Leader and the Succession. ''Glasnost'' and Political Reform. Nationalities and Nationalism. ''Perestroika''s'' Impact on the Economy and Society. National Security and Foreign Affairs.
43. SOVIET CULTURE AFTER STALIN, 1953-1991.
The Thaw, 1953-1956. ''Dr. Zhivago'' and the Refreeze. Culture under Khrushchev. Culture under Brezhnev. Culture under Gorbachev, 1985-1991.
44. THE COLLAPSE OF THE SOVIET UNION, 1990-1992.
Gorbachev Declines, Yeltsin Rises, 1990-1991. The August Coup. The Demise of the Soviet Union, 1991-1992. The Commonwealth of Independent States.
45. THE YELTSIN YEARS, 1991-1999.
The Legacy of Soviet Communism. Environmental Problems: A Devastated Land. Troubled Transitions, 1992-? Politics: Yeltsin versus the Parliament. Post-Soviet Culture. Yeltsin''s Disputed Legacy.
46. THE PUTIN PRESIDENCY.
Early Life and Career. The Road to the Presidency. Putin as President. Tentative Assessment. Culture Under Yeltsin and Putin.
Appendix A: Russian and Soviet Leaders, 1328-2000.
Appendix B: Areas and Populations of Former Soviet Union Republics.
Appendix C: Populations of Principal Cities of the Russian Federation.
Glossary of Foreign Words.