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Unsurpassed for its clarity and comprehensiveness, Hurley's, A CONCISE INTRODUCTION TO LOGIC is the #1 introductory logic textbook in the market. In this Eleventh Edition, Hurley continues to build upon the tradition of a lucid, focused, and accessible presentation of the basic subject matter of logic, both formal and informal. Hurley's extensive, carefully sequenced collection of exercises continue to guide students toward greater proficiency with the skills they are learning. This edition includes an expanded array of technology supplements, including Aplia, an online homework solution, and Logic CourseMate which includes additional practice and study tools, video clips covering topics that students find difficult, the complete text in eBook format, and the popular Learning Logic multimedia tutorial program. In response to market feedback and the success of Wadsworth's Logical Choice custom program, this book continues to offer multiple options to customize your course content. Finally, innovative tools including a PowerLecture presentation tool and a Community Website are designed to help you manage, create, and teach your course more efficiently and effectively.
- Five new biographical vignettes of prominent logicians are distributed through the textbook. The logicians include Ruth Barcan Marcus, Willard Van Orman Quine, Saul Kripke, Alice Ambrose, and Ada Byron (Countess of Lovelace).
- Six new dialogue exercises are introduced to help affirm the relevance of formal logic to daily life. All of the new dialogue exercises have philosophically pertinent content.
- The account of inductive reasoning in Chapter 1 is explained in greater detail to facilitate student comprehension.
- The Aristotelian standpoint and the existential fallacy, and their relation to the Boolean standpoint, are further elucidated.
- A new subsection is introduced that better prepares students for working indirect truth tables.
- The end-of-chapter summaries are now presented in bullet format to facilitate student review.
- The new edition is accompanied by Aplia, an online homework solution designed specifically for use with Hurley’s A Concise Introduction to Logic. Aplia helps philosophy students improve their reasoning and critical thinking skills with ample practice and detailed explanations. Grades are automatically recorded in the instructor's Aplia gradebook to save instructors valuable time.
- CourseMate for students with chapter-specific resources such as flashcards and tutorial quizzes; interactive Venn diagrams; learning modules on critical thinking and writing (providing additional help with constructing effective arguments), truth tables, and truth trees; and access to Logic Coach (text problems). Learning Logic, an accompanying self-study program with proven success, is also available. Powered by CourseMate, the new site allows professors to track students’ work, including time on task and quiz scores To access these materials, visit cengage.com/sso.
- Carefully sequenced exercises give students ample practice and help them to move from simple to complex logic skills.
- Concise explanations coupled with clear examples reinforce student learning and provide students with support in completing exercises.
- Key terms, introduced in boldface type, are clearly defined. Central concepts are carefully explained and graphically illustrated in colored boxes throughout the book. In addition, chapter summaries, consolidating the main points, facilitate study and review.
Part I: INFORMAL LOGIC.
1. Basic Concepts.
Arguments,Premises, and Conclusions . Note on the History of Logic. EXERCISE 1.1. Recognizing Arguments. EMINENT LOGICIANS: Aristotle. Simple Noninferential Passages. Expository Passages. Illustrations. Explanations. Conditional Statements. Summary. EXERCISE 1.2. Deduction and Induction. Ruth Barcan Marcus. Deductive Argument Forms. Inductive Argument Forms. Further Considerations. Summary. EXERCISE 1.3. Validity, Truth, Soundness, Strength, Cogency. Deductive Arguments. Inductive Arguments. Summary. EMINENT LOGICIANS: Chrysippus. EXERCISE 1.4. Argument Forms: Proving Invalidity. Counterexample Method. EXERCISE 1.5. Extended Arguments. EXERCISE 1.6. Summary.
2. Language: Meaning and Definition.
Varieties of Meaning. EXERCISE 2.1. The Intension and Extension of Terms. EXERCISE 2.2. Definitions and Their Purposes. Stipulative Definitions. Lexical Definitions. Precising Definitions. EMINENT LOGICIANS: Peter Abelard. Theoretical Definitions. Persuasive Definitions. EXERCISE 2.3. Definitional Techniques. Extensional (Denotative) Definitions. Intensional (Connotative) Definitions. EXERCISE 2.4. Criteria for Lexical Definitions. Rule 1: A Lexical Definition Should Conform to the Standards of Proper Grammar. Rule 2: A Lexical Definition Should Convey the Essential Meaning of the Word Being Defined. Rule 3: A Lexical Definition Should Be Neither Too Broad nor Too Narrow. Rule 4: A Lexical Definition Should Avoid Circularity. Rule 5: A Lexical Definition Should Not Be Negative When It Can Be Affirmative. Rule 6: A Lexical Definition Should Avoid Figurative, Obscure,Vague, or Ambiguous Language. Rule 7: A Lexical Definition Should Avoid Affective Terminology. Rule 8: A Lexical Definition Should Indicate the Context to Which the Definiens Pertains. EXERCISE 2.5. Summary.
3. Informal Fallacies.
Fallacies in General. EXERCISE 3.1. Fallacies of Relevance. 1. Appeal to Force (Argumentum ad Baculum: Appeal to the"Stick"). 2. Appeal to Pity (Argumentum ad Misericordiam). 3. Appeal to the People (Argumentum ad Populum). 4. Argument Against the Person (Argumentum ad Hominem). 5. Accident. 6. Straw Man. 7. Missing the Point (Ignoratio Elenchi ). 8. Red Herring. EXERCISE 3.2. Fallacies of Weak Induction. 9. Appeal to Unqualified Authority (Argumentum ad Verecundiam). 10. Appeal to Ignorance. (Argumentum ad Ignorantiam). 11. Hasty Generalization (Converse Accident). 12. False Cause. 13. Slippery Slope. 14. Weak Analogy. EMINENT LOGICIANS: William of Ockham
EXERCISE 3.3. Fallacies of Presumption, Ambiguity, and Grammatical Analogy. 15. Begging the Question (Petitio Principii). 16. Complex Question. 17. False Dichotomy
18. Suppressed Evidence. 19. Equivocation. 20. Amphiboly. 21. Composition. 22. Division
EXERCISE 3.4. Fallacies in Ordinary Language. Detecting Fallacies. Avoiding Fallacies. EXERCISE 3.5. Summary.
Part II: FORMAL LOGIC.
4. Categorical Propositions.
The Components of Categorical Propositions. Alice Ambrose. EXERCISE 4.1. Quality, Quantity, and Distribution. EXERCISE 4.2. Venn Diagrams and the Modern Square of Opposition. Aristotle and Boole. EMINENT LOGICIANS: George Boole. Venn Diagrams. The Modern Square of Opposition. Testing Immediate Inferences. EXERCISE 4.3. Conversion, Obversion, and Contraposition. Conversion. Obversion. Contraposition. EXERCISE 4.4. The Traditional Square of Opposition. Testing Immediate Inferences. EXERCISE 4.5. Venn Diagrams and the Traditional Standpoint. Proving the Traditional Square of Opposition. Testing Immediate Inferences. EXERCISE 4.6. Translating Ordinary Language Statements into Categorical Form. 1. Terms Without Nouns. 2. Nonstandard Verbs. 3. Singular Propositions. 4. Adverbs and Pronouns. 5. Unexpressed Quantifiers. 6. Nonstandard Quantifiers. 7. Conditional Statements. 8. Exclusive Propositions. 9."The Only"
10. Exceptive Propositions. EXERCISE 4.7. Summary.
5. Categorical Syllogisms.
Standard Form, Mood, and Figure. EXERCISE 5.1. Venn Diagrams. EMINENT LOGICIANS: John Venn. Boolean Standpoint. Aristotelian Standpoint. EXERCISE 5.2. Rules and Fallacies. Boolean Standpoint. Aristotelian Standpoint. Proving the Rules. EXERCISE 5.3. Reducing the Number of Terms. Saul Kripke. EXERCISE 5.4. Ordinary Language Arguments. EXERCISE 5.5. Enthymemes. EXERCISE 5.6. Sorites. EXERCISE 5.7. Summary.
6. Propositional Logic.
Symbols and Translation. EMINENT LOGICIANS: Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. EXERCISE 6.1
Truth Functions. Definitions of the Logical Operators. Computing the Truth Value of Longer Propositions. Further Comparison with Ordinary Language. EXERCISE 6.2. Truth Tables for Propositions. Classifying Statements. Comparing Statements. EXERCISE 6.3. Truth Tables for Arguments. Ada Byron, Countess of Lovelace. EXERCISE 6.4. Indirect Truth Tables. Preliminary Skills. Testing Arguments for Validity. Testing Statements for Consistency. EMINENT LOGICIANS: Augustus De Morgan. EXERCISE 6.5. Argument Forms and Fallacies. Common Argument Forms. Refuting Constructive and Destructive Dilemmas. Note on Invalid Forms. Summary and Application. EXERCISE 6.6. Summary.
7. Natural Deduction in Propositional Logic.
Rules of Implication I. EXERCISE 7.1. Rules of Implication II. EXERCISE 7.2. Rules of Replacement I. Willard Van Orman Quine. EXERCISE 7.3. Rules of Replacement II. EXERCISE 7.4. Conditional Proof. EMINENT LOGICIANS: Gottlob Frege. EXERCISE 7.5. Indirect Proof. EXERCISE 7.6. Proving Logical Truths. EXERCISE 7.7. Summary.
8. Predicate Logic.
Symbols and Translation. EXERCISE 8.1. Using the Rules of Inference. EXERCISE 8.2. Change of Quantifier Rule. EMINENT LOGICIANS: Alfred North Whitehead and Bertrand Russell. EXERCISE 8.3. Conditional and Indirect Proof. EXERCISE 8.4. Proving Invalidity. Counterexample Method. Finite Universe Method. EXERCISE 8.5. Relational Predicates and Overlapping Quantifiers. Translating Relational Statements. Using the Rules of Inference. EXERCISE 8.6. Identity. Simple Identity Statements. EMINENT LOGICIANS: Kurt Gödel. "Only," "The Only," and "No . . . Except". "All Except". Superlatives. Numerical Statements. Definite Descriptions. Using the Rules of Inference. EXERCISE 8.7. Summary.
Part III: INDUCTIVE LOGIC.
9. Analogy and Legal and Moral Reasoning.
Analogical Reasoning. Legal Reasoning. Moral Reasoning. EXERCISE 9. Summary
10. Causality and Mill’s Methods.
"Cause"and Necessary and Sufficient Conditions. Mill''s Five Methods. Method of Agreement. Method of Difference. EMINENT LOGICIANS: John Stuart Mill. Joint Method of Agreement and Difference. Method of Residues. Method of Concomitant Variation. Mill’s Methods and Science. EXERCISE 10. Summary.
Theories of Probability. The Probability Calculus. 1. Restricted Conjunction Rule. 2. General Conjunction Rule. 3. Restricted Disjunction Rule. 4. General Disjunction Rule. 5. Negation Rule. 6. Bayes’s Theorem. Additional Applications. EXERCISE 11. Summary.
12. Statistical Reasoning.
Evaluating Statistics. Samples. The Meaning of "Average". Dispersion. Graphs and Pictograms. Percentages. EXERCISE 12. Summary.
13. Hypothetical/Scientific Reasoning.
The Hypothetical Method. Hypothetical Reasoning: Four Examples from Science Radium. Neptune. Atmospheric Pressure. Spontaneous Generation. The Proof of Hypotheses. EMINENT LOGICIANS: Charles Sanders Peirce. The Tentative Acceptance of Hypotheses. EXERCISE 13. Summary.
14. Science and Superstition.
Distinguishing Between Science and Superstition. Evidentiary Support. Objectivity. Integrity. Concluding Remarks. EXERCISE 14. Summary.
Appendix: Logic and Graduate-Level Admissions Tests.
Answers to Selected Exercises.
"What I like perhaps most about Hurley's text is the organization of the material. His book introduces the material in step-by-step way building off of what was just learned the section before and adding just enough information to each section to simplify the whole process of learning logic." - David Weise, Gonzaga University
"This is the "gold standard" of introductory logic texts." - Frank Ryan, Kent State University
"It is the clearest text, with the best technology available." - Stephanie Semler, Radford University
"Hurley's text provides a methodical introduction to the strategies and techniques usually covered in an introductory logic course, including both formal and informal topics. Numerous exercises provide plenty of opportunity for students to practice the skills they have learned." - Allyson Mount, Keene State College
"Hurley's book is thorough and very accessible to instructors and students. One of the best logic texts on the market." - Paula Smithka, University of Southern Mississippi
"A thorough and comprehensive text out of which one can design a wide variety of good first courses in logic and critical thinking. Also, the book I would recommend to anyone seeking to teach themselves logic who wants the most amount of information in one volume."- Madeline Muntersbjorn, University of Toledo
"The biggest strength is the CD-ROM which really helps some students visually and aurally comprehend the material." - Shannon Grace Were, Edmonds Community College
"This book is essential as far as the content and presentation of the material goes. The book is clear and well structured as well." - Krys Sulewski, Edmonds Community College
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