Historical Dictionary of Quotations in Cognitive Science: A Treasury of Quotations in Psychology, Philosophy, and Artificial Intelligence, 1st Edition

  • Published By:
  • ISBN-10: 1567509630
  • ISBN-13: 9781567509632
  • Grade Level Range: College Freshman - College Senior
  • 271 Pages | eBook
  • Original Copyright 2000 | Published/Released August 2007
  • This publication's content originally published in print form: 2000

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About

Overview

Scholarly treasury of over 450 distinguished quotations. Focuses on the best thinking in the disciplines of psychology, philosophy, and artificial intelligence, from the classical period of Greece to contemporary cognitive science.

Table of Contents

Front Cover.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Contents.
Preface.
Acknowledgments.
1: Analog: Analog Contrasted with Rules and Representations.
2: Animal Communication: The Existence of Lexical Syntax in Nonhuman Species Is Problematical.
3: Animal Intelligence: The Criterion of Insightful Behavior.
4: Animal Intelligence: Signs Occasion Thought but Not Action.
5: Animal Intelligence: A New Insight Consists of a Recombination of Pre-Existent Mediating Properties.
6: Animal Intelligence: Interpretation of Morgan’s Canon.
7: Art: The Hidden Order of Space and Time in Art.
8: Artificial Intelligence: Programs and the Complexity of Human Mental Processes.
9: Artificial Intelligence: Artificial Intelligence Is an Engineering Discipline.
10: Artificial Intelligence: A Sceptical View of Artificial Intelligence.
11: Artificial Intelligence: Just as Astronomy Succeeded Astrology, the Discovery of Intellectual Processes in Machines Should Lead to a Science, Eventually.
12: Artificial Intelligence: Problems in Machine Intelligence Arise Because Things Obvious to Any Person Are Not Represented in the Program.
13: Artificial Intelligence: The Meaning of a Symbolic Description.
14: Artificial Intelligence: The Principle of Artificial Intelligence.
15: Artificial Intelligence: Artificial Intelligence Recognizes the Need for Knowledge in Its Systems.
16: Artificial Intelligence: Artificial Intelligence Is Psychology in a Particularly Pure and Abstract Form.
17: Artificial Intelligence: There Are Many Types of Reasoning.
18: Artificial Intelligence: Programs Are Beginning to Do Things That Critics Have Asserted to Be Impossible.
19: Artificial Intelligence: The Synthesis of Man and Machine.
20: Artificial Intelligence: The Thesis of Good Old-Fashioned Artificial Intelligence (GOFAI).
21: Artificial Intelligence: Artificial Intelligence Provides a Useful Approach to Psychological and Psychiatric Theory Formation.
22: Artificial Intelligence: Four Kinds of Artificial Intelligence.
23: Artificial Intelligence: Determination of Relevance of Rules in Particular Contexts.
24: Artificial Intelligence: Form and Content Are Not Fundamentally Different.
25: Artificial Intelligence: The Assumption That the Mind Is a Formal System.
26: Artificial Intelligence: A Statement of the Primary and Secondary Purposes of Artificial Intelligence.
27: Artificial Intelligence: Mathematical Logic Provides the Basis for Theory in AI.
28: Artificial Intelligence: Perceptual Structures Can Be Represented as Lists of Elementary Propositions.
29: Artificial Intelligence: Definitions of Artificial Intelligence.
30: Artificial Intelligence: The Computer Can Not Be a Model of the Mind.
31: Artificial Intelligence: Computers Will Not Always Be Inferior to Human Brains.
32: Association: Association Depends Upon Organization.
33: Attention: Focused Consciousness.
34: Automata: All Automata Have an Artificial Life.
35: Automata: A Basic Premise of Automata.
36: Automata: The Isomorphism of Automata and Grammars.
37: Beauty: Discovery and Invention Are Imperatively Guided by the Sense of Scientific Beauty.
38: Behavior: Cognitions and Competencies Are Behavioral Concepts.
39: Behaviorism: A Person’s Behavior Is Changed by Changes in the Contingencies of Reinforcement.
40: Behaviorism: Psychology as Viewed by the Behaviorists.
41: Birth Order: Birth Order and Ideological Trends.
42: Brain: Biological and Social Brain Development.
43: Brain: Distinctive Evolutionary Properties of the Brain.
44: Brain: The Evolutionary Increase in the Size of the Main Areas of the Brain.
45: Brain: The Human Brain and Ethical Principles.
46: Categories: Two Principles of Category Formation.
47: Category: Categories Are Coded in the Mind in Terms of a Prototype of a Typical Category Member.
48: Causes: The Four Causes of Aristotle.
49: Cerebral Action: Cerebral Activity Is Characterized by a Series of Hierarchies of Organization.
50: Class: Concerning the Class of Classes, and Contradictions.
51: Cognition: Every Psychological Phenomenon Is a Cognitive Phenomenon.
52: Cognition: Models of Cognition and Specific Architectures.
53: Cognitive Processes: Differential Characteristics of Automatic Processes and Controlled Processes.
54: Cognitive Psychology: Cognitive Processes Truly Exist.
55: Cognitive Psychology: Cognitive Psychologists Construe the Abstract Mechanisms Underlying Behavior.
56: Cognitive Psychology: Cognitive Psychology Does Not Deal with Whole People.
57: Cognitive Psychology: Cognitive Psychology Has Not Succeeded in Making a Significant Contribution to the Understanding of the Human Mind.
58: Cognitive Psychology: Cognitive Psychology Seeks to Understand Human Intelligence and Thinking.
59: Cognitive Psychology: The Rise of Cognitive Psychology Demonstrates That the Impeccable Peripheralism of Stimulus-Response Theories Could Not Last.
60: Cognitive Science: The Basic Idea of Cognitive Science.
61: Cognitive Science: Experimental Psychology, Theoretical Linguistics, and Computational Simulation of Cognitive Processes Are All Components of Cognitive Science.
62: Cognitive Science: The Nature of Cognitive Science.
63: Cognitive Science: The Nature of Cognitive Science.
64: Cognitive Science: The New Field of Cognitive Science.
65: Cognitive Scientists: Emphasis on the Uniqueness of Language Processes Separates Cognitive Scientists.
66: Cognitivism: Internal Cognitive Processes Are Required to Explain Intelligent Behavior.
67: Cognitivism: The Cognitive Enterprise Rests on a Set of Unexamined Assumptions.
68: Combinations: Good Combinations Result from a Long Sequence of Combinatorial Mental Processing.
69: Common Ground: The Intrinsic Context for Understanding Between Listeners and Speakers.
70: Common Sense: The Necessary Minimum Knowledge of a Common-Sense System.
71: Communication: When Communication Does and Does Not Break Down.
72: Complementarity: The Creative Individual Is Complementary to the Society in Which He Lives.
73: Complexity: The Derivational Theory of Complexity.
74: Computer: Concise Definition of a Computer.
75: Computer: A Running Computer Is an Abstract Game.
76: Computer Metaphors: Misgivings About Computer Metaphors of the Human Brain.
77: Computer Psychometrics: Problems and Benefits of Computer Testing.
78: Computer Psychotherapy: If the Computer Can Be Used to Treat Mental Suffering, Then There Is No Question of Its Value.
79: Computers: A Comparison of the Digital Computer and the Brain.
80: Computers: Computers Do Not Crunch Numbers, They Manipulate Symbols.
81: Computers: Getting Computers to Explain Things to Themselves.
82: Computers: Some Limits of Artificial Intelligence.
83: Computers: The Computer as a Humanizing Influence.
84: Computers: The Intentionality of Computers Is Essentially Borrowed, Hence Derivative.
85: Computers: The Possibility of Computer Thought.
86: Computers: We Are Getting Better at Building Even Better Computers, an Ever-Escalating Upward Spiral.
87: Computers: Weak Artificial Intelligence and Strong Artificial Intelligence.
88: Computers: Why People Are Smarter Than Computers.
89: Concepts: Concepts Promote Cognitive Economy.
90: Concepts: The Nature of Concepts.
91: Connectionism: The Nature of Connectionism Architecture.
92: Consciousness: Consciousness and the New Mysterians.
93: Consciousness: Consciousness and Sensory Qualia.
94: Consciousness: Consciousness Appears to Be the Last Bastion of Occult Properties.
95: Consciousness: Consciousness Can Be Resolved Into Its Elementary Sensations.
96: Consciousness: Consciousness Is an Aspect of the Darwinian Machine.
97: Consciousness: Problems About Consciousness Arise from Use of the Personal Pronoun “I”.
98: Consciousness: The Capacity for Consciousness and Self-Consciousness Is Characteristically Human.
99: Consciousness: The Origin of the Problems of Consciousness.
100: Consciousness: Views on Consciousness and Computation.
101: Context: The Function of Context in Human Language Use and Comprehension.
102: Creativity: All Human Complex Problem Solving Is Creativity.
103: Creativity: Artificial Intelligence Models of Creative Association.
104: Creativity: Creative Innovation and Social Independence.
105: Creativity: Ego Strength and Emotional Stability Among Creative Geniuses.
106: Creativity: Its Mundane Character.
107: Creativity: Mozart’s Musical Ideas Came to Him in Polished Form.
108: Creativity: Scientific Theories and Works of Art Alike Originate in Fantasy.
109: Creativity: Self-Esteem and Creative Expression.
110: Creativity: Stages in Creative Problem-Solving.
111: Creativity: The Bisociative Pattern of the Creative Synthesis.
112: Creativity: The Earliest Stages in the Creative Process Involve a Commerce with Disorder.
113: Creativity: The Inner Life of the Creative Process.
114: Creativity: The Problem of What Impels the Creative Person.
115: Creativity: Theories of Creative Thinking.
116: Culture: Patterns of Ideas.
117: Cybernetics: The Parallel Nature of Feedback in Living Individuals and Communication Machines.
118: Cybernetics: The Study of Information Transfer.
119: Cybernetics: Why Computational Devices Are Likely to Be Literal Minded.
120: Definitions: Definitions Are Circular.
121: Detection: Detection Ought to Be an Exact Science.
122: Dialectic: The Dialectic as Used by Philosophers.
123: Discovery: In Great Discoveries, a Certain Question Is Found.
124: Discovery: The Discovery of Novel Methods of Representation in Science.
125: Doubt: Doubt Delivers Us from All Sorts of Prejudices.
126: Educational Psychology: The Importance of Aptitude-Treatment Interaction.
127: Eidetic Memory: Why Eidetic Memory May Not Be So Beneficial a Gift.
128: Emotion: The Absence of Emotion and Feeling May Damage Our Human Rationality.
129: Epistemology: Beyond Psychophysiology and Sociology and History of Science There Is Nothing for Epistemology to Do.
130: Epistemology: Epistemology Is a Chapter in Psychology or Natural Science.
131: Epistemology: The Assumption That Cognitive Psychology Has Epistemological Import Can Be Challenged.
132: Equilibration: The Integration of Knowledge.
133: Evaluation: Focused Evaluation Paves the Way to Later Simple Noticing.
134: Existentialism: Existence Precedes Essence.
135: Existentialism: To Live According to Nature Is to Live Dominated by Indifference.
136: Experience: Subjective and Objective Knowledge.
137: Experience: We Have an Untenable Concept of the Nature of Experience.
138: Experience: Without Experience, Nothing Can Be Sufficiently Known.
139: Expertise: Abstract Representations Give Power to Expert Performance.
140: Expertise: Expert Writers Produce Texts Much Reduced from Their Stock of Mental Information.
141: Expertise: Expertise Is the Overcoming of Ordinary Human Processing Limitations.
142: Fantasy: A Happy Person Never Fantasizes.
143: Formal System: The Problem of Formal Systems in Linguistics.
144: Formal Systems: The Intellectual Poverty of Formalism.
145: Frames: The Theory and Function of Frames.
146: Genius: A High Rate of Original Thinking Characterizes the Life of the Inventive Genius.
147: Genius: The Idea of the Genius and Its Origins.
148: Gestalt Psychology: The Gestaltists Demonstrate How Symbolic Reasoning Follows Their Principles of Perception.
149: Grammar: Grammar as Analogous to a Scientific Theory.
150: Grammar: Native Speakers and Their Grammar.
151: Grammar: The Reduction of Transformation Rules in a Science of Grammar.
152: Grammar: The Relationship of Transformational Grammar to Semantics and to Human Performance.
153: Grammar: The Terminologies of Formal Grammar.
154: Grammar: The Theory of Grammar.
155: Hermeneutics: Explanation Is Contextual.
156: Heuristics: The Centrality of Heuristics in the Mathematical Discoveries of AM (Automatic Mathematician).
157: Heuristics: The Power of Heuristics in Problem Solving.
158: History: The Great Man Theory of History.
159: History: The Value of History.
160: History: The Relation of Psychology to History.
161: Ideas: The Problem of Innate Ideas.
162: Ideas: The Source of the Mind’s Complex Ideas.
163: Ideas: Our Moral Ideas.
164: Ideas: An Idea Can Be like Nothing but an Idea.
165: Ideas: Ideas Create Information, Not the Other Way Around.
166: Ignorance: Knowledge Is Finite, Ignorance Infinite.
167: Ignorance: The Value of Ignorance in Science.
168: Illumination: Illumination as a Stage in Problem-Solving.
169: Imagery: The General Conditions for Mental Imagery.
170: Imagining: The Relation of Imagining to Perception.
171: Induction: The Uncertainties of Induction.
172: Information: Information and the Human Brain.
173: Information Processes: Basic Kinds of Elementary Information Processes.
174: Information Processing: Origin of the Term “Information Processing”.
175: Information Processing: Assumptions of Information Processing Psychology.
176: Information Processing: The Processor and the Logical Nature of Problem-Solving Strategies.
177: Inquiry: The Importance of Seeking to Know What We Do Not Know.
178: Insanity: Insanity and Civilization.
179: Insight: The Catalyst to Darwin’s Discovery of the Principle of Natural Selection.
180: Insight: Insight in the Chimpanzee.
181: Insight: Brevity, Suddenness and Immediate Certainty.
182: Insight: Insight Is Not a Mysterious Mental Agent.
183: Insight: Insight in Animal Problem-Solving.
184: Insight: An Explanation of Sudden Insight.
185: Insight: Flashes of Insight Do Not Explain Problem-Solving.
186: Intellectuals: Intellectuals Classified as Hedgehogs or Foxes.
187: Intelligence: Child Development and the Intellectual Life.
188: Intelligence: Comparison of Sensory-Motor Intelligence and Conceptual Thought.
189: Intelligence: The Epistemological and Heuristic Parts of Intelligence.
190: Intelligence: Comparison of Intelligence in Human and Nonhuman Primates.
191: Intelligence: Four Approaches to the Study of Intelligence.
192: Intelligence: High Intelligence Combined with the Greatest Degrees of Persistence.
193: Intelligence: Intelligence Is Not Marked by Definitive Criteria.