Historical Dictionary of the People's Republic of China, 2nd Edition

  • Lawrence R. Sullivan
  • Published By:
  • ISBN-10: 0810864436
  • ISBN-13: 9780810864436
  • Grade Level Range: 9th Grade - College Senior
  • 655 Pages | eBook
  • Original Copyright 2007 | Published/Released June 2009
  • This publication's content originally published in print form: 2007

  • Price:  Sign in for price

About

Overview

When the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) seized power in October 1949 China was one of the poorest nations in the world. In fact, it was so weak it had been conquered by Japan, a country one-tenth its size, a decade earlier. Now, more than fifty years later, the People's Republic of China (PRC) is an emerging economic, political, and military superpower with the world's fastest growing economy and largest population (1.3 billion in 2005). A member of the United Nations Security Council since the early 1970s and a nuclear power, China wields enormous influence in the world community.

The second edition of the Historical Dictionary of the People's Republic of China contains more than 400 cross-referenced dictionary entries on individual topics spanning China's political, economic, and social system along with short biographies on important figures - from politicians to writers and movie directors - who have shaped Chinese history during the period of Communist rule from 1949 to 2006. Supplementing the entries are a chronology, an introduction, charts outlining the structure of the Chinese government, and a bibliography of works in English, making this a superb resource for college and high school students needing a quick reference on contemporary China.

Lawrence R. Sullivan is Associate Professor of Political Science at Adelphi University.

Table of Contents

Front Cover.
Historical Dictionaries of Asia, Oceania, and the Middle East.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Dedication.
Contents.
Editor's Foreword.
Reader's Note.
Acronyms and Abbreviations.
Chronology.
Maps and Charts.
Introduction.
1: "A Q Spirit" ("A Q Jingshen").
2: "Act According to Principles Laid Down" ("An Ji-Ding Fangzhen Ban").
3: Afghanistan.
4: Agricultural Producers' Cooperatives (APCs).
5: "Agricultural Responsibility System" ("Shengchan Zirenzhi").
6: Agriculture.
7: AIDS.
8: All-China Federation of Women.
9: Alley, Rewi (1897–1987).
10: "Always Thinking of Money" ("Yiqie Xiang Qian Kan").
11: Anshan Iron and Steel Corporation.
12: Anti-Counter-Revolutionary Campaigns.
13: Anti-Lin [Biao], Anti-Confucius Campaign (1973–1975).
14: Anti-Rightist Campaign (1957–1958).
15: Antispiritual Pollution Campaign (1983–1984).
16: April Fifth Movement (1976).
17: Archaeology.
18: Architecture.
19: Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).
20: Atomic Bomb.
21: Automobile Industry.
22: Ba Jin (1904–2005).
23: "Backyard Steel Furnaces" ("Xiao Gaolu").
24: Bai Hua (1930– ).
25: Bandung Conference of Afro–Asian States (1955).
26: Banking and Finance.
27: Baoshan Iron and Steel Complex.
28: Bao Tong (1934– ).
29: "Barefoot Doctors" ("Chijiao Yisheng").
30: "Basic Line of the Party" ("Dangde Jiben Luxian").
31: "Basic Unit" ("Jiben Danwei").
32: "Beating, Smashing, Looting, Ransacking, and Kidnapping" ("DA, ZA, QIANG, CHAO, ZHUA").
33: Beida (Peking University).
34: Beidaihe Conference (1958).
35: Beijing.
36: Beijing Spring.
37: Bethune, Norman (1890–1939)..
38: "Big-Character Posters" ("Dazibao").
39: Bo Yibo (1908–2007).
40: "Bourgeois Liberalization" ("Zichanjieji Ziyouhua").
41: Broadcasting and Television.
42: "Bureaucratism" ("Guanliaozhuyi").
43: "Burning Books and Burying Scholars Alive" ("Fenshu Kengru").
44: "Cadres" ("Ganbu").
45: Cambodia (Kampuchea).
46: "Capitalist Roader" ("Zouzipai").
47: Censorship (Shencha).
48: Central Advisory Commission (CAC).
49: Central Discipline Inspection Commission (CDIC).
50: Central Party School.
51: Chen Boda (1904–1989).
52: Chen Kaige (1952– ).
53: Chen Muhua (1921– ).
54: Chen Xilian (1913–1999).
55: Chen Xitong (1930– ).
56: Chen Yizi (1940– ).
57: Chen Yonggui (1913–1986).
58: Chen Yuan (1945– ).
59: Chen Yun (1905–1995).
60: Chen Zhili (1942– ).
61: Chi Haotian (1929– ).
62: "Chicu".
63: China International Trust and Investment Corporation (CITIC).
64: Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS).
65: Chinese Communist Party (CCP).
66: Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC).
67: Chongqing.
68: Cinema and Film.
69: Civil War (1946–1949).
70: "Class Labels" ("Jieji Chengfen").
71: "Class Struggle" ("Jieji Douzheng").
72: "Cleansing of the Class Ranks" ("Qingli Jieji Duiwu Yundong").
73: "Common Program" ("Gongtong Gangling").
74: Corruption.
75: Crime and the Legal System.
76: "Criticism and Self-Criticism" ("Piping Yu Ziwopiping").
77: Cui Jian (1961– ).
78: Cultural Revolution (1966–1976).
79: Cultural Revolution Small Group.
80: Currency.
81: Dai Qing (1941– ).
82: Dai Xiaolong (1944– ).
83: Dalai Lama (1935– ).
84: Daqing Oilfield.
85: Dazhai Brigade.
86: Democracy Wall Movement (1978–1979).
87: "Democratic-Centralism" ("Minzhu Jizhongzhi").
88: Democratic Parties (Minzhu Dangpai).
89: Deng Liqun (1914– ).
90: Deng Pufang (1944– ).
91: Deng Rong (1950– ).
92: Deng Tuo (1912–1966).
93: Deng Xiaoping (1904–1997).
94: Deng Yingchao (1903–1992).
95: "Dictatorship of the Proletariat" (" Wuchan Jieji Zhuanzheng ").
96: Ding Guan'gen (1929– ).
97: Dong Fureng (1927–2004).
98: Economy.
99: Education.
100: Eighth National Party Congress (1956 and 1958).
101: "Eliminate the Four Pests" ("Chu Sihai").
102: Energy.
103: Environment.
104: Epstein, Israel (1915–2005).
105: Fang Lizhi (1936– ).
106: "Fanshen".
107: "February Adverse Current" ("Eryue Niliu") (1967).
108: Fei Xiaotong (1910–2005).
109: "Feudalism" ("Fengjianzhuyi").
110: "Field Army" ("Yezhan Jun").
111: Fifth Modernization.
112: "Five-Antis Campaign" ("Wufan Yundong").
113: "Five Black Categories" ("Hei Wulei").
114: "Five Good Women" ("Wu Hao Funü").
115: "Five Red Categories" ("Hong Wulei").
116: Five-Year Plan (FYP).
117: "Floating Population" ("Liudong Renkou").
118: Foreign Policy.
119: "Four Big Freedoms" ("Sida Ziyou").
120: "Four Cardinal Principles" ("Sixiang Jiben Yuanze").
121: Four Modernizations.
122: "Four Olds" ("Sijiu").
123: Front for a Democratic China.
124: "Gang of Four" ("Siren Bang").
125: Gao Gang-Rao Shushi Incident.
126: General Line for the Transition Period.
127: "Going Through the Back Door" ("Zou Houmen").
128: Government Structure.
129: "Great Leap Forward" ("Da Yuejin") (1958–1960).
130: Gu Xiulian (1936– ).
131: Guangzhou (Canton).
132: Guo Moruo (1892–1978).
133: Hai Rui Dismissed from Office (Hai Rui Baguan).
134: Han.
135: Han Dongfang (1963– ).
136: He Dongchang (1923– ).
137: He Jingzhi (1924– ).
138: He Qinglian (1956– ).
139: HE XIN (1949– ).
140: Health Care.
141: Hong Kong.
142: Hu Feng Affair.
143: Hu Jintao (1942– ).
144: Hu Jiwei (1916– ).
145: Hu Qiaomu (1912–1992).
146: Hu Qili (1929– ).
147: Hu Shi [Hu Shih] (1891–1962).
148: Hu Yaobang (1915–1989).
149: Hua Guofeng (1921– ).
150: Hukou.
151: Human Rights.
152: Hundred Flowers (1956–1957).
153: Hungarian Revolution (1956).
154: Imperialism (Diguozhuyi).
155: India.
156: Industry.
157: Intellectuals (Zhishifenzi).
158: "Internal Materials" ("Neibu Ziliao").
159: Internet.
160: "Iron Rice Bowl" ("Tiefanwan").
161: "It Doesn't Matter If the Cat is Black Or White, as Long as it Catches Mice" ("Buguan Heimao Baimao, Zhuazhu Laoshu Jiushi Haomao").
162: Japan.
163: Jia Qinqlin (1935– ).
164: Jiang Qing (1913–1991).
165: Jiang Zemin (1926– ).
166: Kang Sheng (1899–1975).
167: Korea (North and South).
168: Korean War (1950–1953).
169: Kuomintang (Nationalist Party) (KMT).
170: Labor.
171: "Labor Under Surveillance" ("Guanzhi Laodong").
172: Land Reform (1950–1952).
173: Language Reform.
174: Leaders.
175: Lei Feng (1940–1962).
176: Li Boning.
177: Li Guixian (1937– ).
178: Li Honglin (1925– ).
179: Li Peng (1928– ).
180: Li Rui (1917– ).
181: Li Ruihuan (1934– ).
182: Li Weihan (1896–1984).
183: Li Xiannian (1909–1992).
184: Li Ximing (1926– ).
185: Li Yining (1930– ).
186: "Liberation" ("Jiefang").
187: Lin Biao (1907–1971).
188: Literature and the Arts.
Front Cover.
Historical Dictionaries of Asia, Oceania, and the Middle East.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Dedication.
Contents.
Editor's Foreword.
Reader's Note.
Acronyms and Abbreviations.
Chronology.
Maps and Charts.
Introduction.
1: "A Q Spirit" ("A Q Jingshen").
2: "Act According to Principles Laid Down" ("An Ji-Ding Fangzhen Ban").
3: Afghanistan.
4: Agricultural Producers' Cooperatives (APCs).
5: "Agricultural Responsibility System" ("Shengchan Zirenzhi").
6: Agriculture.
7: AIDS.
8: All-China Federation of Women.
9: Alley, Rewi (1897–1987).
10: "Always Thinking of Money" ("Yiqie Xiang Qian Kan").
11: Anshan Iron and Steel Corporation.
12: Anti-Counter-Revolutionary Campaigns.
13: Anti-Lin [Biao], Anti-Confucius Campaign (1973–1975).
14: Anti-Rightist Campaign (1957–1958).
15: Antispiritual Pollution Campaign (1983–1984).
16: April Fifth Movement (1976).
17: Archaeology.
18: Architecture.
19: Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).
20: Atomic Bomb.
21: Automobile Industry.
22: Ba Jin (1904–2005).
23: "Backyard Steel Furnaces" ("Xiao Gaolu").
24: Bai Hua (1930– ).
25: Bandung Conference of Afro–Asian States (1955).
26: Banking and Finance.
27: Baoshan Iron and Steel Complex.
28: Bao Tong (1934– ).
29: "Barefoot Doctors" ("Chijiao Yisheng").
30: "Basic Line of the Party" ("Dangde Jiben Luxian").
31: "Basic Unit" ("Jiben Danwei").
32: "Beating, Smashing, Looting, Ransacking, and Kidnapping" ("DA, ZA, QIANG, CHAO, ZHUA").
33: Beida (Peking University).
34: Beidaihe Conference (1958).
35: Beijing.
36: Beijing Spring.
37: Bethune, Norman (1890–1939)..
38: "Big-Character Posters" ("Dazibao").
39: Bo Yibo (1908–2007).
40: "Bourgeois Liberalization" ("Zichanjieji Ziyouhua").
41: Broadcasting and Television.
42: "Bureaucratism" ("Guanliaozhuyi").
43: "Burning Books and Burying Scholars Alive" ("Fenshu Kengru").
44: "Cadres" ("Ganbu").
45: Cambodia (Kampuchea).
46: "Capitalist Roader" ("Zouzipai").
47: Censorship (Shencha).
48: Central Advisory Commission (CAC).
49: Central Discipline Inspection Commission (CDIC).
50: Central Party School.
51: Chen Boda (1904–1989).
52: Chen Kaige (1952– ).
53: Chen Muhua (1921– ).
54: Chen Xilian (1913–1999).
55: Chen Xitong (1930– ).
56: Chen Yizi (1940– ).
57: Chen Yonggui (1913–1986).
58: Chen Yuan (1945– ).
59: Chen Yun (1905–1995).
60: Chen Zhili (1942– ).
61: Chi Haotian (1929– ).
62: "Chicu".
63: China International Trust and Investment Corporation (CITIC).
64: Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS).
65: Chinese Communist Party (CCP).
66: Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC).
67: Chongqing.
68: Cinema and Film.
69: Civil War (1946–1949).
70: "Class Labels" ("Jieji Chengfen").
71: "Class Struggle" ("Jieji Douzheng").
72: "Cleansing of the Class Ranks" ("Qingli Jieji Duiwu Yundong").
73: "Common Program" ("Gongtong Gangling").
74: Corruption.
75: Crime and the Legal System.
76: "Criticism and Self-Criticism" ("Piping Yu Ziwopiping").
77: Cui Jian (1961– ).
78: Cultural Revolution (1966–1976).
79: Cultural Revolution Small Group.
80: Currency.
81: Dai Qing (1941– ).
82: Dai Xiaolong (1944– ).
83: Dalai Lama (1935– ).
84: Daqing Oilfield.
85: Dazhai Brigade.
86: Democracy Wall Movement (1978–1979).
87: "Democratic-Centralism" ("Minzhu Jizhongzhi").
88: Democratic Parties (Minzhu Dangpai).
89: Deng Liqun (1914– ).
90: Deng Pufang (1944– ).
91: Deng Rong (1950– ).
92: Deng Tuo (1912–1966).
93: Deng Xiaoping (1904–1997).
94: Deng Yingchao (1903–1992).
95: "Dictatorship of the Proletariat" (" Wuchan Jieji Zhuanzheng ").
96: Ding Guan'gen (1929– ).
97: Dong Fureng (1927–2004).
98: Economy.
99: Education.
100: Eighth National Party Congress (1956 and 1958).
101: "Eliminate the Four Pests" ("Chu Sihai").
102: Energy.
103: Environment.
104: Epstein, Israel (1915–2005).
105: Fang Lizhi (1936– ).
106: "Fanshen".
107: "February Adverse Current" ("Eryue Niliu") (1967).
108: Fei Xiaotong (1910–2005).
109: "Feudalism" ("Fengjianzhuyi").
110: "Field Army" ("Yezhan Jun").
111: Fifth Modernization.
112: "Five-Antis Campaign" ("Wufan Yundong").
113: "Five Black Categories" ("Hei Wulei").
114: "Five Good Women" ("Wu Hao Funü").
115: "Five Red Categories" ("Hong Wulei").
116: Five-Year Plan (FYP).
117: "Floating Population" ("Liudong Renkou").
118: Foreign Policy.
119: "Four Big Freedoms" ("Sida Ziyou").
120: "Four Cardinal Principles" ("Sixiang Jiben Yuanze").
121: Four Modernizations.
122: "Four Olds" ("Sijiu").
123: Front for a Democratic China.
124: "Gang of Four" ("Siren Bang").
125: Gao Gang-Rao Shushi Incident.
126: General Line for the Transition Period.
127: "Going Through the Back Door" ("Zou Houmen").
128: Government Structure.
129: "Great Leap Forward" ("Da Yuejin") (1958–1960).
130: Gu Xiulian (1936– ).
131: Guangzhou (Canton).
132: Guo Moruo (1892–1978).
133: Hai Rui Dismissed from Office (Hai Rui Baguan).
134: Han.
135: Han Dongfang (1963– ).
136: He Dongchang (1923– ).
137: He Jingzhi (1924– ).
138: He Qinglian (1956– ).
139: HE XIN (1949– ).
140: Health Care.
141: Hong Kong.
142: Hu Feng Affair.
143: Hu Jintao (1942– ).
144: Hu Jiwei (1916– ).
145: Hu Qiaomu (1912–1992).
146: Hu Qili (1929– ).
147: Hu Shi [Hu Shih] (1891–1962).
148: Hu Yaobang (1915–1989).
149: Hua Guofeng (1921– ).
150: Hukou.
151: Human Rights.
152: Hundred Flowers (1956–1957).
153: Hungarian Revolution (1956).
154: Imperialism (Diguozhuyi).
155: India.
156: Industry.
157: Intellectuals (Zhishifenzi).
158: "Internal Materials" ("Neibu Ziliao").
159: Internet.
160: "Iron Rice Bowl" ("Tiefanwan").
161: "It Doesn't Matter If the Cat is Black Or White, as Long as it Catches Mice" ("Buguan Heimao Baimao, Zhuazhu Laoshu Jiushi Haomao").
162: Japan.
163: Jia Qinqlin (1935– ).
164: Jiang Qing (1913–1991).
165: Jiang Zemin (1926– ).
166: Kang Sheng (1899–1975).
167: Korea (North and South).
168: Korean War (1950–1953).
169: Kuomintang (Nationalist Party) (KMT).
170: Labor.
171: "Labor Under Surveillance" ("Guanzhi Laodong").
172: Land Reform (1950–1952).
173: Language Reform.
174: Leaders.
175: Lei Feng (1940–1962).
176: Li Boning.
177: Li Guixian (1937– ).
178: Li Honglin (1925– ).
179: Li Peng (1928– ).
180: Li Rui (1917– ).
181: Li Ruihuan (1934– ).
182: Li Weihan (1896–1984).
183: Li Xiannian (1909–1992).
184: Li Ximing (1926– ).
185: Li Yining (1930– ).
186: "Liberation" ("Jiefang").
187: Lin Biao (1907–1971).
188: Literature and the Arts.