Milestones in Archaeology: A Chronological Encyclopedia, 1st Edition

  • Tim Murray La Trobe University
  • Published By:
  • ISBN-10: 1851096450
  • ISBN-13: 9781851096459
  • DDC: 930.103
  • Grade Level Range: 9th Grade - College Senior
  • 639 Pages | eBook
  • Original Copyright 2007 | Published/Released June 2010
  • This publication's content originally published in print form: 2007

  • Price:  Sign in for price

About

Overview

Treasures, temples and tombs; pyramids, pots, and projectile points - the stuff of archaeology has captured people's imagination since the first digs in the 16th century. Although humans have always been fascinated with the past, the formal discipline of archaeology has existed for only 500 years. This book details the surprisingly controversial course of those five centuries.

The history of archaeology leads from the musty collections of dilettante antiquarians to high-tech science. The book identifies three major developmental periods - Birth of Archaeology (16th-18th centuries), Archaeology of Origins and Empires (19th century), and World Archaeology (20th century). An introductory essay acquaints the reader with the essence of the science for each period. The short entries comprising the balance of the book expand on the themes introduced in the essays.

Organized around personalities, techniques, controversies, and conflicts, the encyclopedia brings to life the history of archaeology. It broadens the general reader's knowledge by detailing the professional significance of widely known discoveries while introducing to wider knowledge obscure but important moments in archaeology. Archaeology is replete with the visionaries and swashbucklers of popular myth; it is also filled with careful and dedicated scientists.

Table of Contents

Front Cover.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Dedication.
Contents.
List of Maps.
Acknowledgments.
Introduction.
Chronological List of Milestones.
1: Maps.
2: The Birth of Archaeology.
3: Milestones Before 1800.
4: Historia Regum Britanniae (1138).
5: Voyages of Cyriac of Ancona (1412–1449).
6: Foundation of the Palazzo dei Conservatori (1471).
7: Publication of the Anglica Historia (1512).
8: Raphael's Survey of Rome (1519).
9: Creation of the King's Antiquary (1533).
10: Publication of Britannia (1586).
11: English Antiquaries and Antiquarian Societies (1586–1770).
12: Foundation of the Accademia dei Lincei (1603).
13: Duke of Arundel Brings His Collection of Classical Antiquities to London (1613).
14: Collections and Correspondence of de Peiresc (1616–1637).
15: Worm Issues His Circular (1626).
16: Sweden Passes Law to Protect National Antiquities (1630).
17: Publication of Oedipus Aegypticus (1652–1655).
18: Publication of The Antiquities of Warwickshire (1656).
19: Publication of Annals of the World Deduced from the Origin of Time (1658).
20: Swedish Archaeological Service Founded (1666).
21: Foundation of the French Academy in Rome (1666).
22: Publication of De Solido Intra Olidum Naturaliter Contento Dissertationis Prodromus (1669).
23: Grand Tour and the Society of Dilettanti (1670–1780).
24: Foundation of the Ashmolean Museum (1683).
25: Rediscovery of Herculaneum and Pompeii (1709–1800).
26: First Archaeological Collections in Russia (1715).
27: Publication of Metallotheca Vaticana, Opus Posthumum (1717).
28: Publication of L'antiquité expliquée et représentée en figures (1719–1724).
29: Publication of De l'origine et des usages de la pierre de foudre (1723).
30: Publication of De Etruria Regali Libri Septem (1723–1726).
31: Publication of Itinerarium Curiosum (1724).
32: Publication of Recueil d'antiquités égyptiennes, étrusques, romaines, et gauloises (1752–1767).
33: Foundation of the British Museum (1753).
34: Publication of Antichita Romane (1756).
35: Sir William Hamilton's Collections (1764–1798).
36: Publication of Geschichte der Kunst des Altertums (1764).
37: Foundation of the Hermitage (1768).
38: Foundation of the Louvre (1779–1793).
39: Russia Gets a Slice of Classical Antiquity (1782).
40: Foundation of the Asiatic Society of Bengal (1784).
41: Excavation of a Burial Mound in Virginia (1787).
42: Investigation of Palenque Begins (1787).
43: Publication of Nenia Britannica (1793).
44: John Frere Writes to the Society of Antiquaries of London (1797).
45: Napoleon Loots Rome (1797).
46: The Archaeology of Origins, Nations, and Empires.
47: Milestones in the Nineteenth Century.
48: Establishment of the National Museum of Denmark (1807).
49: Napoleon I Funds the Excavation of Roman Sites and Antiquities (1808–1814).
50: Publication of The Ancient History of North and South Wiltshire (1812).
51: Foundation of Great Egyptian Collections in England and France (1815–1835).
52: British Museum Purchases the Parthenon Marbles (1816).
53: Publication of Descriptions of the Antiquities Discovered in the State of Ohio and Other Western States (1820).
54: Publication of Reliquiae diluvianae (1823).
55: Decipherment of Egyptian Hieroglyphics (1824).
56: Publication of Description de l'Egypte (1826).
57: French Expédition Scientifique de Morée (1829–1831).
58: Discovery of the Neanderthals (1833–1900).
59: Decipherment of Cuneiform (1836–1857).
60: Rediscovering Maya Civilization (1839–1843).
61: High Human Antiquity in the Somme Valley (1841–1864).
62: Paul Botta Excavates “Nineveh” (1843–1845).
63: Establishment of Major U.S. Archaeological Institutions (1846–1866).
64: Publication of Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley (1847).
65: Publication of The Manners and Customs of the Ancient Egyptians (1847).
66: Guide to Northern Archaeology Published in English (1848).
67: Publication of Nineveh and Its Remains (1849).
68: Publication of Primeval Antiquities of Denmark in English (1849).
69: Typology Makes History (1850–1900).
70: Publication of Wilson's Archaeology and Prehistoric Annals of Scotland (1851).
71: Romano-Germanic Central Museum Established in Mainz by Ludwig Lindenschmidt (1852).
72: Iron Age Site of La Tène Discovered (1857).
73: Excavation at Brixham Cave (1858–1859).
74: Mariette, Antiquities Law, and the Egyptian Museum (1858).
75: Publication of Denkmaler aus Aegypten und Aethiopien (1859).
76: Discovery of Angkor Wat and the Khmer Civilization (1860).
77: Foundation of the Archaeological Survey of India (1861).
78: Research into Prehistoric Aquitaine (1862–1875).
79: International Congress of Prehistory Established (1865).
80: Publication of Pre-historic Times (1865).
81: De Mortillet Classifies the Stone Age (1869–1872).
82: Schliemann Excavates Troy, Mycenae, Ilios, Orchomenos, and Tiryns (1870–1891).
83: Excavation of Olympia (1875–1881).
84: Publication of A Thousand Miles up the Nile (1877).
85: Greenwell Publishes British Barrows (1877).
86: William H. Jackson Visits Chaco Canyon (1877).
87: Recognition of Paleolithic Cave Art at Altamira (1879–1902).
88: Discovery of the Amarna Tablets (1887).
89: Publication of Excavations in Cranborne Chase (1887–1896).
90: First Homo Erectus (1888–1895).
91: American Excavations in Mesopotamia at the Site of Nippur (1888–1900).
92: Seriation and History in the Archaeology of Predynastic Egypt (1891–1904).
93: Uhle Begins Scientific Archaeology in Peru (1895–1940).
94: World Archaeology.
95: Milestones in the Twentieth Century and Beyond.
96: Discovery of Minoan Civilization (1900–1935).
97: Excavation of Gournia (1901–1908).
98: Publication of Die typologische Methode (1903).
99: Publication of Les vases céramiques ornés de la Gaule romaine (1904).
100: Discovering the Riches of Central Asia-The Journeys of Sir Aurel Stein (1906–1930).
101: Discovery of the Hittites (1906–1931).
102: Publication of Die Methode der Ethnologie (1907).
103: The World's First Archaeological Salvage Project? (1907–1932).
104: Paleopathology in Nubia (1909–1911).
105: Publication of Die Herkunft der Germanen (1911).
106: Machu Picchu Found (1911).
107: Stratigraphic Excavation in the Americas (1911–1913).
108: Discovery of the Indus Civilization (1920—Present).
109: Publication of Les hommes fossiles, eléments de paléontologie humaine (1921).
110: Discoveries at Zhoukoudian Cave (1921—Present).
111: Publication of The Population of the Valley of Teotihuacán (1922).
112: Discovering Tutankhamen's Tomb (1922–1932).
113: Excavation of Ur (1922–1934).
114: National Museum of Iraq Established (1923).
115: Publication of Air Survey and Archaeology (1924).
116: Discovery of Australopithecus africanus (1924).
117: Publication of Introduction to Southwestern Archaeology (1924).
118: Publication of The Dawn of European Civilization (1925).
119: Discovery of Olmec Civilization (1926–1942).
120: The Pecos Conference (1927).
121: Excavation of the Athenian Agora (1927—Present).
122: Publication of The Formation of the Chinese People (1928).
123: Excavation of Skara Brae (1928–1930).
124: Historical Archaeology at Colonial Williamsburg (1928—Present).
125: Establishing Dendrochronology (1929).
126: Foundation of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association (1929–1932).
127: Publication of The Zimbabwe Culture (1931).
128: Publication of Greek Sculpture and Painting to the End of the Hellenistic Period (1932).
129: Publication of The Mesolithic Age in Britain (1932) and The Mesolithic Settlement of Northern Europe (1936).
130: Godwin and the Fenland Research Committee (1932–1948).
131: Publication of The Desert Fayum (1934).
132: Excavation of Jamestown (1934–1957).
133: Excavation of Maiden Castle (1934–1937).
134: Foundation of the Society for American Archaeology (1934).
135: The Trials of the Royal Savage (1934—Present).
136: Publication of Man Makes Himself (1936).
137: Excavation of Fell's Cave (1936–1937).
138: Lascaux Discovered (1940).
139: Excavation of Sainte-Marie among the Hurons (1941–1951).
140: Publication of Origin and Development of Andean Civilization (1942).
141: Discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls (1946–1970).
142: First Meeting of the Pan-African Congress on Prehistory and Quaternary Studies (1947).
143: Publication of A Study of Archaeology (1948).
144: Excavation of Jarmo (1948–1954).
145: Excavations at Sterkfontein and Swartkrans (1948—Present).
146: Excavation of Star Carr (1949–1953).
147: Discovery of Radiocarbon Dating (1950).
148: Archaeology and Television (1952—Present).
149: Excavation of Jericho (1952–1958).
150: Publication of Prehistoric Settlement Patterns in the Viru Valley, Peru (1953).
151: Linear B Deciphered (1953).
152: Understanding the Mousterian (1953–1965).
153: Rebirth of Industrial Archaeology (1955).
154: Piltdown Unmasked (1955).
155: Excavation of Verulamium (1955–1961).
156: Publication of Prehistoric Technology (1957).
157: Excavation of Shanidar Cave (1957–1961).
158: Archaeometry Defined (1958).
159: Publication of Method and Theory in American Archaeology (1958).
160: Excavation of Igbo-Ukwu (1959).
161: Discovery of Zinjanthropus boisei (1959).
162: Saving Abu Simbel (1959–1980).
163: Historical Archaeology First Taught at University (1960).
164: Excavation of a Bronze Age Ship at Cape Gelidonya (1960).
165: Deciphering the Dynastic Sequence at Piedras Negras (1960).
166: Excavation of Fishbourne Palace (1960–1970).
167: Southeastern and Southern Africa during the Iron Age: The Chifumbaze Complex (1960–1980).
168: Thermoluminescence in Archaeology (1960–Present).
169: Jorge R. Acosta Finishes Work at Tula (1961).
170: Raising the Vasa (1961).
171: Publication of World Prehistory: An Outline (1961).
172: First Excavation of Catal Hüyük (1961–1965).
173: Excavations at Olorgesailie and Koobi Fora (1961–1983).
174: Discovering the Pleistocene in Australia (1962).
175: Field Archaeology in Epirus (1962–1964).
176: Publication of The Archaeology of Ancient China (1963).
177: Controversial Interpretation of Banpo Published (1963).
178: Discovery of Homo Habilis (1964–1980).
179: Publication of The Evolution of Urban Society (1966).
180: Discovery of Early Humans in Ethiopia (1966–1977).
181: Excavation of Chavin de Huantar (1966–1980).
182: Publication of Britannia: A History of Roman Britain (1967).
183: Publication of Ceramics of Monte Alban (1967).
184: Excavation of Ozette (1967–1981).
185: Raising the Mary Rose (1967–1982).
186: Publication of Analytical Archaeology (1968).
187: Publication of New Perspectives in Archaeology (1968).
188: Excavation of Port Essington (1969).
189: Publication of A Guide to Artifacts of Colonial America (1970).
190: Early Agriculture at Kuk Swamp, New Guinea (1970–Present).
Front Cover.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Dedication.
Contents.
List of Maps.
Acknowledgments.
Introduction.
Chronological List of Milestones.
1: Maps.
2: The Birth of Archaeology.
3: Milestones Before 1800.
4: Historia Regum Britanniae (1138).
5: Voyages of Cyriac of Ancona (1412–1449).
6: Foundation of the Palazzo dei Conservatori (1471).
7: Publication of the Anglica Historia (1512).
8: Raphael's Survey of Rome (1519).
9: Creation of the King's Antiquary (1533).
10: Publication of Britannia (1586).
11: English Antiquaries and Antiquarian Societies (1586–1770).
12: Foundation of the Accademia dei Lincei (1603).
13: Duke of Arundel Brings His Collection of Classical Antiquities to London (1613).
14: Collections and Correspondence of de Peiresc (1616–1637).
15: Worm Issues His Circular (1626).
16: Sweden Passes Law to Protect National Antiquities (1630).
17: Publication of Oedipus Aegypticus (1652–1655).
18: Publication of The Antiquities of Warwickshire (1656).
19: Publication of Annals of the World Deduced from the Origin of Time (1658).
20: Swedish Archaeological Service Founded (1666).
21: Foundation of the French Academy in Rome (1666).
22: Publication of De Solido Intra Olidum Naturaliter Contento Dissertationis Prodromus (1669).
23: Grand Tour and the Society of Dilettanti (1670–1780).
24: Foundation of the Ashmolean Museum (1683).
25: Rediscovery of Herculaneum and Pompeii (1709–1800).
26: First Archaeological Collections in Russia (1715).
27: Publication of Metallotheca Vaticana, Opus Posthumum (1717).
28: Publication of L'antiquité expliquée et représentée en figures (1719–1724).
29: Publication of De l'origine et des usages de la pierre de foudre (1723).
30: Publication of De Etruria Regali Libri Septem (1723–1726).
31: Publication of Itinerarium Curiosum (1724).
32: Publication of Recueil d'antiquités égyptiennes, étrusques, romaines, et gauloises (1752–1767).
33: Foundation of the British Museum (1753).
34: Publication of Antichita Romane (1756).
35: Sir William Hamilton's Collections (1764–1798).
36: Publication of Geschichte der Kunst des Altertums (1764).
37: Foundation of the Hermitage (1768).
38: Foundation of the Louvre (1779–1793).
39: Russia Gets a Slice of Classical Antiquity (1782).
40: Foundation of the Asiatic Society of Bengal (1784).
41: Excavation of a Burial Mound in Virginia (1787).
42: Investigation of Palenque Begins (1787).
43: Publication of Nenia Britannica (1793).
44: John Frere Writes to the Society of Antiquaries of London (1797).
45: Napoleon Loots Rome (1797).
46: The Archaeology of Origins, Nations, and Empires.
47: Milestones in the Nineteenth Century.
48: Establishment of the National Museum of Denmark (1807).
49: Napoleon I Funds the Excavation of Roman Sites and Antiquities (1808–1814).
50: Publication of The Ancient History of North and South Wiltshire (1812).
51: Foundation of Great Egyptian Collections in England and France (1815–1835).
52: British Museum Purchases the Parthenon Marbles (1816).
53: Publication of Descriptions of the Antiquities Discovered in the State of Ohio and Other Western States (1820).
54: Publication of Reliquiae diluvianae (1823).
55: Decipherment of Egyptian Hieroglyphics (1824).
56: Publication of Description de l'Egypte (1826).
57: French Expédition Scientifique de Morée (1829–1831).
58: Discovery of the Neanderthals (1833–1900).
59: Decipherment of Cuneiform (1836–1857).
60: Rediscovering Maya Civilization (1839–1843).
61: High Human Antiquity in the Somme Valley (1841–1864).
62: Paul Botta Excavates “Nineveh” (1843–1845).
63: Establishment of Major U.S. Archaeological Institutions (1846–1866).
64: Publication of Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley (1847).
65: Publication of The Manners and Customs of the Ancient Egyptians (1847).
66: Guide to Northern Archaeology Published in English (1848).
67: Publication of Nineveh and Its Remains (1849).
68: Publication of Primeval Antiquities of Denmark in English (1849).
69: Typology Makes History (1850–1900).
70: Publication of Wilson's Archaeology and Prehistoric Annals of Scotland (1851).
71: Romano-Germanic Central Museum Established in Mainz by Ludwig Lindenschmidt (1852).
72: Iron Age Site of La Tène Discovered (1857).
73: Excavation at Brixham Cave (1858–1859).
74: Mariette, Antiquities Law, and the Egyptian Museum (1858).
75: Publication of Denkmaler aus Aegypten und Aethiopien (1859).
76: Discovery of Angkor Wat and the Khmer Civilization (1860).
77: Foundation of the Archaeological Survey of India (1861).
78: Research into Prehistoric Aquitaine (1862–1875).
79: International Congress of Prehistory Established (1865).
80: Publication of Pre-historic Times (1865).
81: De Mortillet Classifies the Stone Age (1869–1872).
82: Schliemann Excavates Troy, Mycenae, Ilios, Orchomenos, and Tiryns (1870–1891).
83: Excavation of Olympia (1875–1881).
84: Publication of A Thousand Miles up the Nile (1877).
85: Greenwell Publishes British Barrows (1877).
86: William H. Jackson Visits Chaco Canyon (1877).
87: Recognition of Paleolithic Cave Art at Altamira (1879–1902).
88: Discovery of the Amarna Tablets (1887).
89: Publication of Excavations in Cranborne Chase (1887–1896).
90: First Homo Erectus (1888–1895).
91: American Excavations in Mesopotamia at the Site of Nippur (1888–1900).
92: Seriation and History in the Archaeology of Predynastic Egypt (1891–1904).
93: Uhle Begins Scientific Archaeology in Peru (1895–1940).
94: World Archaeology.
95: Milestones in the Twentieth Century and Beyond.
96: Discovery of Minoan Civilization (1900–1935).
97: Excavation of Gournia (1901–1908).
98: Publication of Die typologische Methode (1903).
99: Publication of Les vases céramiques ornés de la Gaule romaine (1904).
100: Discovering the Riches of Central Asia-The Journeys of Sir Aurel Stein (1906–1930).
101: Discovery of the Hittites (1906–1931).
102: Publication of Die Methode der Ethnologie (1907).
103: The World's First Archaeological Salvage Project? (1907–1932).
104: Paleopathology in Nubia (1909–1911).
105: Publication of Die Herkunft der Germanen (1911).
106: Machu Picchu Found (1911).
107: Stratigraphic Excavation in the Americas (1911–1913).
108: Discovery of the Indus Civilization (1920—Present).
109: Publication of Les hommes fossiles, eléments de paléontologie humaine (1921).
110: Discoveries at Zhoukoudian Cave (1921—Present).
111: Publication of The Population of the Valley of Teotihuacán (1922).
112: Discovering Tutankhamen's Tomb (1922–1932).
113: Excavation of Ur (1922–1934).
114: National Museum of Iraq Established (1923).
115: Publication of Air Survey and Archaeology (1924).
116: Discovery of Australopithecus africanus (1924).
117: Publication of Introduction to Southwestern Archaeology (1924).
118: Publication of The Dawn of European Civilization (1925).
119: Discovery of Olmec Civilization (1926–1942).
120: The Pecos Conference (1927).
121: Excavation of the Athenian Agora (1927—Present).
122: Publication of The Formation of the Chinese People (1928).
123: Excavation of Skara Brae (1928–1930).
124: Historical Archaeology at Colonial Williamsburg (1928—Present).
125: Establishing Dendrochronology (1929).
126: Foundation of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association (1929–1932).
127: Publication of The Zimbabwe Culture (1931).
128: Publication of Greek Sculpture and Painting to the End of the Hellenistic Period (1932).
129: Publication of The Mesolithic Age in Britain (1932) and The Mesolithic Settlement of Northern Europe (1936).
130: Godwin and the Fenland Research Committee (1932–1948).
131: Publication of The Desert Fayum (1934).
132: Excavation of Jamestown (1934–1957).
133: Excavation of Maiden Castle (1934–1937).
134: Foundation of the Society for American Archaeology (1934).
135: The Trials of the Royal Savage (1934—Present).
136: Publication of Man Makes Himself (1936).
137: Excavation of Fell's Cave (1936–1937).
138: Lascaux Discovered (1940).
139: Excavation of Sainte-Marie among the Hurons (1941–1951).
140: Publication of Origin and Development of Andean Civilization (1942).
141: Discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls (1946–1970).
142: First Meeting of the Pan-African Congress on Prehistory and Quaternary Studies (1947).
143: Publication of A Study of Archaeology (1948).
144: Excavation of Jarmo (1948–1954).
145: Excavations at Sterkfontein and Swartkrans (1948—Present).
146: Excavation of Star Carr (1949–1953).
147: Discovery of Radiocarbon Dating (1950).
148: Archaeology and Television (1952—Present).
149: Excavation of Jericho (1952–1958).
150: Publication of Prehistoric Settlement Patterns in the Viru Valley, Peru (1953).
151: Linear B Deciphered (1953).
152: Understanding the Mousterian (1953–1965).
153: Rebirth of Industrial Archaeology (1955).
154: Piltdown Unmasked (1955).
155: Excavation of Verulamium (1955–1961).
156: Publication of Prehistoric Technology (1957).
157: Excavation of Shanidar Cave (1957–1961).
158: Archaeometry Defined (1958).
159: Publication of Method and Theory in American Archaeology (1958).
160: Excavation of Igbo-Ukwu (1959).
161: Discovery of Zinjanthropus boisei (1959).
162: Saving Abu Simbel (1959–1980).
163: Historical Archaeology First Taught at University (1960).
164: Excavation of a Bronze Age Ship at Cape Gelidonya (1960).
165: Deciphering the Dynastic Sequence at Piedras Negras (1960).
166: Excavation of Fishbourne Palace (1960–1970).
167: Southeastern and Southern Africa during the Iron Age: The Chifumbaze Complex (1960–1980).
168: Thermoluminescence in Archaeology (1960–Present).
169: Jorge R. Acosta Finishes Work at Tula (1961).
170: Raising the Vasa (1961).
171: Publication of World Prehistory: An Outline (1961).
172: First Excavation of Catal Hüyük (1961–1965).
173: Excavations at Olorgesailie and Koobi Fora (1961–1983).
174: Discovering the Pleistocene in Australia (1962).
175: Field Archaeology in Epirus (1962–1964).
176: Publication of The Archaeology of Ancient China (1963).
177: Controversial Interpretation of Banpo Published (1963).
178: Discovery of Homo Habilis (1964–1980).
179: Publication of The Evolution of Urban Society (1966).
180: Discovery of Early Humans in Ethiopia (1966–1977).
181: Excavation of Chavin de Huantar (1966–1980).
182: Publication of Britannia: A History of Roman Britain (1967).
183: Publication of Ceramics of Monte Alban (1967).
184: Excavation of Ozette (1967–1981).
185: Raising the Mary Rose (1967–1982).
186: Publication of Analytical Archaeology (1968).
187: Publication of New Perspectives in Archaeology (1968).
188: Excavation of Port Essington (1969).
189: Publication of A Guide to Artifacts of Colonial America (1970).
190: Early Agriculture at Kuk Swamp, New Guinea (1970–Present).