Encyclopedia of Environmental Health, 1st Edition

  • J. O. Nriagu
  • Published By:
  • ISBN-10: 0444522727
  • ISBN-13: 9780444522726
  • DDC: 363.7
  • Grade Level Range: College Freshman - College Senior
  • 5036 Pages | eBook
  • Original Copyright 2011 | Published/Released June 2012
  • This publication's content originally published in print form: 2011

  • Price:  Sign in for price



Knowledge in the field of environmental health is growing rapidly. Within the context of external factors that define its boundaries, environmental health has evolved over time into a complex, multidisciplinary and ill-defined field with uncertain solutions. Many of the key determinants and solutions to environmental health lie outside the direct realm of health and are strongly dependent on environmental changes, water and sanitation, industrial development, education, employment, trade, tourism, agriculture, urbanization, energy, housing and national security.

Table of Contents

Front Cover.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Section Editors.
Guide to Use of the Encyclopedia.
Subject Classification.
1: Acute Radiation Sickness from Chernobyl.
2: Advances in Analytical Methods for the Determination of Pharmaceutical Residues in Waters and Wastewaters.
3: Air Pollution and Development of Children’s Pulmonary Function.
4: Air Pollution and Lung Cancer Risks.
5: Air Pollution Episodes.
6: Air Pollution from Solid Fuels.
7: Air Transportation and Human Health.
8: Algal Particles in the Atmosphere.
9: Ambient Concentrations of Acrolein: Health Risks.
10: Animal and Human Waste as Components of Urban Dust Pollution: Health Implications.
11: Antarctic: Persistent Organic Pollutants and Environmental Health in the Region.
12: Antibiotics Pollution in Soil and Water: Potential Ecological and Human Health Issues.
13: Application of Healthy Life Year Measures to Environmental Health Issues.
14: Aquaculture Effluent: Impacts and Remedies for Protecting the Environment and Human Health.
15: Aral Sea: An Ecological Disaster Zone with Impact on Human Health.
16: Arsenic Exposure from Seafood Consumption.
17: Arsenic in Groundwater of India.
18: Arsenic: Occurrence in Groundwater.
19: Arsenic Pollution of Groundwater in Bangladesh.
20: Asbestos Exposure and Autoimmune Disease.
21: Assessing Human Exposure to Environmental Toxicants.
22: Assessing Indoor Air Quality.
23: Assessing Regulatory Costs and Benefits.
24: Assessment of Human Exposure to Air Pollution.
25: Asthma: Environmental Risk Factors.
26: Automobile Exhaust: Detrimental Effects on Pulmonary and Extrapulmonary Tissues and Offspring.
27: Avian Influenza Viruses: Environmental Influence.
28: Bahama Archipelago: Environment and Health.
29: Benefits and Limitations of the Precautionary Principle.
30: Benzene: Environmental Exposure.
31: Beryllium: Environmental Geochemistry and Health Effects.
32: Bhopal Gas Catastrophe 1984: Causes and Consequences.
33: Bioaccessibility of Trace Metals in Household Dust.
34: Bioaerosols in Apartment Buildings.
35: Bioavailable Aluminum: Its Effects on Human Health.
36: Bioavailable Aluminum: Its Metabolism and Effects on the Environment.
37: Biodiversity and the Loss of Biodiversity Affecting Human Health.
38: Biological Agents and Infectious Diseases in War and Terrorism.
39: Biological Pathways Between the Social Environment and Health.
40: Biomarkers in Environmental Carcinogenesis.
41: Biomass Smoke and Infection: Mechanisms of Interaction.
42: Biosolids: Human Health Impacts.
43: Biotechnology and Advances Environmental Health Research.
44: Bismuth: Environmental Pollution and Health Effects.
45: Bolivia: Mining, River Contamination, and Human Health.
46: Boron: Environmental Exposure and Human Health.
47: Built Environment and Mental Health.
48: Cadmium and the Welfare of Animals.
49: Cadmium Exposure from Seafood Intake.
50: Cadmium Exposure in the Environment: Renal Effects and the Benchmark Dose.
51: Cadmium Neurotoxicity.
52: Cancer Risk Assessment and Communication.
53: Cancer Risks from Residential Exposure to Pesticides.
54: Carbon Sequestration and Agriculture.
55: Carcinogenicity of Disinfection Byproducts in Humans: Epidemiological Studies.
56: Carcinogenicity of Disinfection Byproducts in Laboratory Animals.
57: Cardiotoxicology.
58: Cardiovascular Effects of Noise.
59: Cellular Stress Responses to DNA Damage: An Intracellular Balance Between Life, Senescence, and Death.
60: Chagas Disease: Environmental Risk Factors.
61: Challenges in Pesticide Risk Communication.
62: Chemically-Induced Respiratory Toxicities.
63: Chemical Warfare Agents.
64: Children’s Environmental Health: General Overview.
65: Children’s Environmental Health in Developing Countries.
66: Children’s Exposure to Environmental Agents.
67: Children’s Health Risk Assessment: Issues and Approaches.
68: China: Economic Impacts of Air Pollution in the Country.
69: Cholera: Environmental Risk Factors.
70: Chromium: Environmental Pollution, Health Effects and Mode of Action.
71: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.
72: Cigarette Smoke, DNA Damage Repair, and Human Health.
73: Climate Change and Health.
74: Climate Change and Health: Risks and Adaptive Strategies.
75: Climate Change, Environmental Health, and Human Rights.
76: Clinical Consequences of Radiation Exposure.
77: Clinical Waste Management.
78: Cockroach Allergens: Exposure Risk and Health Effects.
79: Colombia: Environmental Health Issues.
80: Combined Exposures to Noise and Chemicals at Work.
81: Combined Noise Exposure at Home.
82: Community Noise Disease Burden: DALYs May be the Answer, But what is the Question?.
83: Community Outdoor Air Quality: Sources, Exposure Agents and Health Outcomes.
84: Comparative Mammalian Cell Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity.
85: Composite Measures of the Environmental Burden of Disease at the Global Level.
86: Connecting Environmental Stress to Cancer Cell Biology Through the Neuroendocrine Response.
87: Cooking: Effects on Dietary Exposure to Arsenic from Rice and Vegetables.
88: Critical Windows of Children’s Development and Susceptibility to Environmental Toxins.
89: Cryptosporidiosis: An Update.
90: Cumulative Environmental Risk.
91: Cyanobacterial Toxins in Fresh Waters.
92: Cyanotoxins in Egypt and Saudi Arabia.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Section Editors.
Guide to Use of the Encyclopedia.
Subject Classification.
1: DDT and Reproductive Health.
2: DDT: Health Effects.
3: Dental Amalgam Fillings: A Source of Mercury Exposure.
4: Depleted Uranium: Exposure and Possible Health Effects.
5: Desertification.
6: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity of TCDD, Lead and Mercury.
7: Developmental Immunotoxicants.
8: Developmental Programming and the Epigenome.
9: Diabetes Mellitus in Albania: A Two Fold Increase in the Last Decade.
10: Diet as a Healthy and Cost-Effective Instrument in Environmental Protection.
11: Dioxins.
12: Dioxins: Health Effects.
13: Disabling Environments.
14: Disinfection By-Products: Formation and Occurrence in Drinking Water.
15: Distribution of Water: Developing Countries.
16: Diverse Options for Diverse Environmental Health Engineering Needs: Rationale, Technologies and Practices.
17: Drinking Water Distribution Systems: Their Role in Reducing Risks and Protecting Public Health.
18: Drinking Water Nitrate and Health.
19: Drosophila as a Model for Toxicogenomics of Lead.
20: Dust Production Following Forest Disturbances: Health Risks.
21: Economic Analysis of Health Impacts in Developing Countries.
22: Economic Inequality and Health in the Age of Globalization.
23: Ecosystem Changes, Biodiversity Loss and Human Well-Being.
24: Ecosystems Services.
25: Effect of Early Exposure on Reproductive Outcomes.
26: Effects of Low Frequency Noise and Vibrations: Environmental and Occupational Perspectives.
27: Effects of Neighbourhood Environment on Social and Physical Functioning in Older Age.
28: Electromagnetic Fields: Environmental Exposure.
29: Electronic Waste and Human Health.
30: Empirical Models to Predict Disinfection By-Products (DBPS) in Drinking Water.
31: Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Human Cancer.
32: Entomological Risks of Genetically Engineered Crops.
33: Environmental and Health Costs in the European Union: Policy Making.
34: Environmental Carcinogens and Regulation.
35: Environmental Chemicals and Childhood Cancer.
36: Environmental Chemicals in Breast Milk.
37: Environmental Epidemiology and Human Health: Biomarkers of Disease and Genetic Susceptibility.
38: Environmental Factors in Children’s Asthma and Respiratory Effects.
39: Environmental Factors in Obesity.
40: Environmental Health and Bioterrorism.
41: Environmental Health Ethics in Study of Children.
42: Environmental Health Issues for Railroads.
43: Environmental Health Practice: Environmental Medicine.
44: Environmental Health Tracking.
45: Environmental Justice and Interventions to Prevent Environmental Injustice in the United States.
46: Environmental Justice: An International Perspective.
47: Environmental Justice: An Overview.
48: Environmental Justice: Social Disparities in Environmental Exposures and Health: Overview.
49: Environmental Lung Cancer Epidemiology.
50: Environmental Noise.
51: Environmental Pollution and Human Health in Ancient Times.
52: Environmental Specimen Bank for Human Tissues.
53: Environmental Tobacco Smoke and Cancer.
54: Environmental Tobacco Smoke and Health Risk Assessment.
55: Environment and Health of Rural Women.
56: Environment, Genetic and Epigenetic Alterations and Pediatric Central Nervous System Tumors.
57: Epidemiology of Infectious Diarrhea.
58: Epigenetic Changes Induced by Environment and Diet in Cancer.
59: Erionite and Its Health Effects.
60: Essential Nature of Water for Health: Water as Part of the Dietary Intake for Nutrients and the Role of Water in Hygiene.
61: Estrogenic Chemicals and Cardiovascular Disease.
62: Ethics in Pediatric Environmental Health Research.
63: Evidence for Endocrine Disruption in Children: Sensitive Developmental Endpoints.
64: Exposure Guidelines and Radon Policy.
65: Exposure Modeling and Measurement: Exposure Factors.
66: Exposure Reconstruction Using Space-Time Information Technology.
67: Exposure Science: Contaminant Mixtures.
68: Exposure Science: Ingestion.
69: Exposure Science: Inhalation.
70: Exposure Science: Monitoring Environmental Contaminants.
71: Exposure Science: Pharmacokinetic Modeling.
72: Extreme Temperatures and Mortality.
73: Fate and Transport: Geostatistics and Environmental Contaminants.
74: Fate and Transport of Microbial Contaminants in Groundwater.
75: Fertilizers.
76: First do no Harm: An Environmental Health Context.
77: Floods as Human Health Risks.
78: Floriculture.
79: Fluoride in Drinking Water: Effect on Liver and Kidney Function.
80: Fluorine: Human Health Risks.
81: Fluorosis.
82: Food Safety and Risk Analysis.
83: Forest Transition and Zoonoses Risk.
84: Frequency and Timing of Environmental Exposure.
85: Functional Genomics and Molecular Analysis of a Subtropical Harmful Algal Bloom Species, Karenia brevis.
86: Gallium: Environmental Pollution and Health Effects.
87: Gender and Disasters.
88: Gender Differences in Cancer Incidence.
89: Gene-Environment Interactions and Childhood Cancer.
90: Gene-Environment Interactions in Human Traits.
91: Gene-Environment Interactions in Neurodegenerative Diseases.
92: General Introduction to Valuation of Human Health Risks.
93: Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs).
94: Genetics is Involved in Everything, But Not Everything is Genetic.
95: Genome-Based Drug Design.
96: Genome Effects and Mutational Risk of Radiation.
97: Genotoxicity of Disinfection By-Products: Comparison to Carcinogenicity.
98: Germanium: Environmental Pollution and Health Effects.
99: Ghana: Environmental Health Issues.
100: Giardia and Cryptosporidium: Occurrence in Water Supplies.
101: Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Approach and the Use of Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) at the World Health Organization (WHO).
102: Global Climate Changes and International Trade and Travel: Effects on Human Health Outcomes.
103: Global Development and Population Health.
104: Global Energy Sources and Trends.
105: Globalization and Environmental Health.
106: Global Life Cycle Impacts of Consumer Products.
107: Gold and Amalgams: Environmental Pollution and Health Effects.
108: Greenland: Contaminants and Dietary Factors in Health of the Country.
109: Groundwater and Soil Pollution: Bioremediation.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Section Editors.
Guide to Use of the Encyclopedia.
Subject Classification.
1: Hair for Biomonitoring of Environmental Exposures.
2: Hantavirus.
3: Hazardous (Organic) Air Pollutants.
4: Health Issues of Travellers.
5: Heat Wave and Mortality of the Elderly.
6: Heterotrophic Bacteria in Bottled Water.
7: Hong Kong: Particulate Air Pollution and Health Impacts.
8: Household Energy Solutions in Developing Countries.
9: Housing-Related Health Hazards: Assessment and Remediation.
10: How Hormesis will Change the Risk Assessment Process.
11: Human Exposure Assessment for DBPs: Factors Influencing Blood Trihalomethane Levels.
12: Human Health and the State of the Pedosphere.
13: Human Health Link to Invasive Species.
14: Hydrogen Sulfide: Integrative Analysis of Acute Toxicity Data for Estimating Human Health Risk.
15: Immune Response to Environmental Exposure.
16: Immunological Effects of the Chernobyl Accident.
17: Impact of Mass Casualties Resulting from Radiation Exposure on Healthcare Systems.
18: Impact of Natural Dusts on Human Health.
19: Indonesia: Threats to the Country’s Biodiversity.
20: Indoor Air Pollution Attributed to Solid Fuel Use for Heating and Cooking and Cancer Risk.
21: Indoor Air Pollution: Unusual Sources.
22: Indoor Radon Prevention and Mitigation.
23: Industrial Livestock Production Facilities: Airborne Emissions.
24: Infectious/Medical/Hospital Waste: General Characteristics.
25: Infectious Processes and Medical Geology.
26: Inhaled Woodsmoke.
27: Insect Repellents: Assessment of Health Risks.
28: Integrated Management of Source Water Quantity and Quality for Human Health in a Changing World.
29: Intercontinental Air Pollution Transport: Links to Environmental Health.
30: International Environmental Agreements and Environmental Health.
31: Iodine in the Environment.
32: Ionizing Radiation Exposure: Psychological and Mental Health Aspects.
33: Irrigation Strategies for Sustainable Environmental and Influence on Human Health.
34: Issues and Challenges for Determining Environmental Risk Factors and Causes of Disease Among Children.
35: Itai-Itai Disease.
36: Jamaica: Heavy Metals in the Natural and Anthropic Environments.
37: Jordan: Environmental Status of Water, Soil and Air.
38: Kuwait: Before and After the Gulf War.
39: Labelling of Genetically Modified Foods.
40: Land Disposal of Wastes.
41: Land Quality: Environmental and Human Health Effects.
42: Landscape Epidemiology of Human Onchocerciasis in Southern Venezuela.
43: Landslides: Human Health Effects.
44: Land Use Change and Human Health.
45: Lead and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.
46: Lead, Deliquency and Violence.
47: Lead Exposure and Caries in Children.
48: Lead Exposure and Female Infertility.
49: Lebanon: Health Valuation of Water Pollution at the Upper Litani River Basin.
50: Legionnaires’ Disease: Environmental Risk Factors.
51: Leishmaniases.
52: Leishmaniasis and Environment in Argentina: An Eco-Epidemiological Approach.
53: Life Course Epidemiology and Inequality in Health.
54: Lithium: Environmental Pollution and Health Effects.
55: Liver Toxicology.
56: Long-Range Transport and Deposition of Air Pollution.
57: Long-Term Effects of Particulate Air Pollution on Human Health.
58: Lyme Disease.
59: Magnesium and Calcium in Drinking Water and Heart Diseases.
60: Magnetic Fields: Possible Environmental Health Effects.
61: Malaria as an Environmental Disease.
62: Malaria, Bilharzia and Geo-Helminth Transmission in Kenya: Environmental Determinants.
63: Malaysia: Environmental Health Issues.
64: Malformations of Cortical Development and Epilepsy in Children.
65: Management and Export of Wastes: Human Health Implications.
66: Manganese: Environmental Exposure.
67: Manganese: Environmental Pollution and Health Effects.
68: Maternal and Child Health Disparities: Environmental Contribution.
69: Measurement of Air Pollutants.
70: Measuring Noise for Health Impact Assessment.
71: Mechanisms of Environmental Carcinogenesis.
72: Mechanisms of Immune Modulation by Xenobiotics.
73: Medical Anthropology.
74: Mental Health Effects of Noise.
75: Mercury in Air.
76: Mercury in Fish: Human Health Risks.
77: Mercury Toxicity.
78: Metal-Induced Toxicologic Pathology: Human Exposure and Risk Assessment.
79: Methodologies for Assessing Bioaerosol Exposures.
80: Methods for Estimating Exposure to Metals in Drinking Water.
81: Mexican Epidemiological Paradox: A Developing Country with a Burden of "Richness" Diseases.
82: Microbes and Water Quality in Developed Countries.
83: Microbial Risks Associated with Biogas and Biodigestor Sludge.
84: Microwaves: Exposure and Potential Health Consequences.
85: Minamata Disease.
86: Mineral and Fuel Extraction: Health Consequences.
87: Mining Activities: Health Impacts.
88: Mobile Source Related Air Pollution: Effects on Health and the Environment.
89: Modeling Exposure to Disinfection ByProducts.
90: Models of Human Exposure to Environmental Contaminants.
91: Modulation of Human Mobile Elements and Genetic Instability by Environmental Factors.
92: Molybdenum in the Environment and Its Relevance for Animal and Human Health.
93: Monetary Valuation of Greenhouse Gases.
94: Monetary Valuation of Trace Pollutants.
95: Mozambique: Environment and Health in One of the World’s Poorest Nations.
96: Mutagenicity of PM2.5.
97: Mycotoxins in Foods.
98: Mycotoxins: Natural Food Chain Contaminants and Human Health.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Section Editors.
Guide to Use of the Encyclopedia.
Subject Classification.
1: Nanomaterials: Potential Ecological Uses and Effects.
2: Nanoscale Titanium Dioxide: Environmental Health and Ecotoxicological Effects.
3: Nano Silver: Environmental Health Effects.
4: Nanotechnology: Human Safety Issues, Research Gaps and Potential Beneficial Opportunities.
5: Natural Health Products (NHPs).
6: Neighborhood Environment, Physical Activity and Obesity.
7: Neighborhoods and Birth Outcomes.
8: Neighborhoods and Environmental Determinants of Infectious Diseases.
9: Neighbourhood ‘Social Infrastructure’ for Health: The Role of Social Capital, Fear of Crime and Area Reputation.
10: Neurodevelopmental Toxicants.
11: Neurotoxicology.
12: New Molecular Aspects of Ultraviolet-Induced Immunosuppression.
13: Nigeria: Environmental Health Concerns.
14: 1976 Trichlorophenol Reactor Explosion at Seveso, Italy.
15: Nitrate and Nitrite in Drinking Water: A Toxicological Review.
16: Noise and Cognition in Children.
17: Noise and Health: Annoyance and Interference.
18: Noise Management: International Regulations.
19: Noise Management: Soundscape Approach.
20: Nuclear Energy and Human Health.
21: Nucleic Acids: Environmental Chemistry, Structures and Interactions as Revealed by Computational Studies.
22: Nutrigenomics: A New Frontier in Environmental Health Sciences.
23: Objectivity and Ethics in Environmental Health Science.
24: Occupational Cancer: Modern History.
25: Oceans and Human Health.
26: Oil and Chemical Spills.
27: Oil Industry and the Health of Communities in the Niger Delta of Nigeria.
28: Oil Spills.
29: On-Site Wastewater Treatment.
30: Optimal Pollution: The Welfare Economic Approach to Correct Market Failures.
31: Organochlorines and the Effect on Female Reproductive System.
32: Organophosphate Insecticides: Neurodevelopmental Effects.
33: Overview of how Ecosystem Changes Can Affect Human Health.
34: Oxidation-Antioxidation-Reduction Processes in the Cell: Impacts of Environmental Pollution.
35: Palladium: Exposure, Uses, and Human Health Effects.
36: Pancreatic Toxicology.
37: Parasite Zoonoses.
38: PCBs.
39: Perceptions and Physiological Responses to Indoor Air Quality.
40: Perchlorate: Human Toxicity.
41: Perchlorate: Origin and Occurrence in Drinking Water.
42: Perfluorinated Substances.
43: Persistent Organohalogen Pollutants and Phthalates: Effects on Male Reproductive Function.
44: Personal Care Products and Breast Cancer.
45: Pesticide Exposure and Diabetes.
46: Pesticide Exposure and Human Cancer.
47: Pesticide Poisoning in Brazil.
48: Pesticides and Thyroid Hormones.
49: Pesticides: Human Health Effects.
50: Pets as Sentinels of Human Exposure.
51: Pharmaceuticals: Environmental Effects.
52: Pharmaceuticals in Drinking Water.
53: Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Considerations in Children’s Human Health Risk Assessment.
54: Phthalates: Human Exposure.
55: Physical and Social Environmental Influences on Asthma and Asthma Disparities.
56: Physical Infrastructure Service and Environmental Health Deficiencies in Urban and Peri-Urban Areas.
57: Physical Urban Environment.
58: Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) Modeling and Risk Assessment.
59: Plants as a Tool for the Environmental Health Assessment.
60: Platinum: Environmental Pollution and Health Effects.
61: Plutonium: Environmental Pollution and Health Effects.
62: PM2.5 Sources and Their Effects on Human Health in China: Case Report.
63: Policy Responses to Climate Change.
64: Political and Social Violence: Health Effects.
65: Polymorphism and Gene–Environment Interactions in Environmental Cancer.
66: Power Generation and Human Health.
67: Prenatal Exposure to Industrial Chemicals and Pesticides and Effects on Neurodevelopment.
68: Prenatal Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs).
69: Principles of Medical Geology.
70: Prioritizing Community Environmental and Health Needs: Novel Approaches and Methods.
71: Productivity and Health Effects of High Indoor Air Quality.
72: Psychobiological Factors in Environmental Health.
73: Pyrethroids.
74: Radiation Exposures Due to the Chernobyl Accident.
75: Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields: Health Effects.
76: Radiological and Depleted Uranium Weapons: Environmental and Health Consequences.
77: Radon: An Overview of Health Effects.
78: Radon Measurement.
79: Reach and Human Health in Lithuania.
80: Recreational Exposure to Cyanobacteria.
81: Remediation of Aquatic Post-Industrial Inorganic Pollutants.
82: Renal and Neurological Effects Heavy Metals in the Environment.
83: Reproductive and Developmental Effects of Exposure to Disinfection Byproducts in Humans.
84: Residential and Non-Residential Biomass Combustion: Impacts on Air Quality.
85: Residential Radon Levels Around the World.
86: Respiratory and Cardiovascular Effects of NO2 in Epidemiological Studies.
87: Respiratory Effects of Chlorination Products.
88: Respiratory Effects of Short Term Peak Exposures to Sulfur Dioxide.
89: Retrospective Dosimetry and Dose Reconstruction of Ionizing Radiation.
90: Risk Management in Environmental Health Decision.
91: Risk of Radiation Exposure to Children and Their Mothers.
92: Risk to Populations Exposed from Atmospheric Testing and Those Residing Near Nuclear Facilities.
93: Road Traffic Injuries.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Section Editors.
Guide to Use of the Encyclopedia.
Subject Classification.
Permission Acknowledgements.
1: Sars.
2: Schistosomiasis.
3: Sense of Coherence and Social Structure.
4: Shigellosis.
5: Shipping and Maritime Transport.
6: Shooting Ranges: Environmental Contamination.
7: Short-Term Effects of Air Pollution on Health.
8: Sick Building Syndrome.
9: Sierra Leone: Environmental Health Concerns.
10: Singapore: Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants and Human Health Risks.
11: Sleep Disturbance in Adults by Noise.
12: Sleep Disturbance in Children by Noise.
13: Small Scale Industries and Informal Sector Activity Premises: Environmental and Occupational Health Issues.
14: Social Capital and Its Links to Health.
15: Social Environment: Overview.
16: Social Support and Social Networks.
17: Soil Quality Criteria for Environmental Pollutants.
18: Solid Fuel: Health Effects.
19: Solid Fuel Use: Health Effect.
20: Solid Waste Incinerators: Health Impacts.
21: Spain: Natural Hazards in the Country.
22: Spatial Mapping and Environmental Risk Identification.
23: Splenic Toxicology.
24: Sri Lanka: Acute Poisoning by Pesticides in the Country.
25: Stratospheric Ozone.
26: Stress Axis as the Locus of Gene-Environment Interactions in Major Depressive Disorder.
27: Strontium in the Environment and Possible Human Health Effects.
28: Substandard Housing: The Social Dimension of Environmental Health.
29: Sulfur Oxides: Sources, Exposures and Health Effects.
30: Sustainable Management of Agricultural Systems: Physical and Biological Aspects of Soil Health.
31: Taiwan: Environmental Health Concerns.
32: Take-Home Route of Pesticide Exposure.
33: Thallium: Environmental Pollution and Health Effects.
34: Thermal Stress.
35: Thyroid Cancer Associated with the Chernobyl Accident.
36: Tin: Environmental Pollution and Health Effects.
37: Toenails for Biomonitoring of Environmental Exposures.
38: Toxicokinetics of Disinfection By-Products.
39: Toxicological Pathways of Relevance to Medical Geology.
40: Toxicoproteomic Applications to Environmental Health and Diseases.
41: Trade, Trade Agreements and the Environment.
42: Transportation and Health: The Impact of Commuting.
43: Tuberculosis.
44: Tungsten: Environmental Pollution and Health Effects.
45: Tunisia: Salinization and Sustainability of Agriculture.
46: Uganda: Environmental Health Concerns.
47: Ultraviolet Exposure: Health Effects.
48: Ultraviolet: Ocular Effects.
49: Ultraviolet Radiation and the Skin.
50: Ultraviolet Radiation Protection.
51: Un Convention on Wetlands (RAMSAR): Implications for Human Health.
52: Un Convention to Combat Desertification.
53: Understanding Environmental Quality Through Quality of Life (QOL) Studies.
54: Uranium: Environmental Pollution and Health Effects.
55: Uranium: Toxicity to Renal Cells and Osteoblasts.
56: Urban Environmental Quality: Perceptions and Measures.
57: Urban Environments and Health.
58: Urban Health: An Overview.
59: Urban Planning, the Natural Environment, and Public Health.
60: Urban Social Environment.
61: Urban Transportation and Human Health.
62: Uruguay: Environmental Conditions in the Coast of Montevideo:.
63: Use of Years of Potential Life Lost (YPLL) for Risk Assessment at Hazardous Waste Sites.
64: Valuation of Children’s Health Impacts.
65: Valuing the Health Impacts of Air Emissions.
66: Vanadium: Environmental Pollution and Health Effects.
67: Vector Borne Disease and Climate Change.
68: Vehicular Exhausts.
69: Ventilation.
70: Volcanic and Geothermal Processes: Health Effects.
71: Volcanoes and Human Health.
72: Volcanogenic Contaminants: Chronic Exposure.
73: Vulnerability to Parkinson’s Disease: Towards an Unifying Theory of Disease Etiology.
74: Vulnerable Populations and Regions.
75: Waterborne Disease Surveillance.
76: Water Consumption and Implications for Exposure Assessment.
77: Water Hardness and Risk of Death from Coronary Heart Disease.
78: Water-Related Diseases in the Developing World.
79: Weather, Pollen Concentrations and Allergic Rhenitis.
80: West Nile Virus.
81: Who-QOL Instrument and Environmental Health Assessment.
82: Worldwide Regulatory Strategies and Policies for Drinking Water.
83: Zinc Deficiency in Human Health.
84: Zinc Toxicity in Humans.