Encyclopedia of Medical Decision Making, 1st Edition

  • Clifton D. Bryant
  • Published By: SAGE
  • ISBN-10: 1412971985
  • ISBN-13: 9781412971980
  • DDC: 610.3
  • Grade Level Range: College Freshman - College Senior
  • 1280 Pages | eBook
  • Original Copyright 2009 | Published/Released November 2009
  • This publication's content originally published in print form: 2009

  • Price:  Sign in for price



Decision making is a critical element in the field of medicine that can lead to life-or-death outcomes, yet it is an element fraught with complex and conflicting variables, diagnostic and therapeutic uncertainties, patient preferences and values, and costs. Together, decisions made by physicians, patients, insurers, and policymakers determine the quality of health care, quality that depends inherently on counterbalancing risks and benefits and competing objectives such as maximizing life expectancy versus optimizing quality of life or quality of care versus economic realities. Broadly speaking, concepts in medical decision making (MDM) may be divided into two major categories: prescriptive and descriptive. Work in the area of prescriptive MDM investigates how medical decisions should be done using complicated analyses and algorithms to determine cost-effectiveness measures, prediction methods, and so on. In contrast, descriptive MDM studies how decisions actually are made involving human judgment, biases, social influences, patient factors, and so on. The Encyclopedia of Medical Decision Making gives a gentle introduction to both categories, revealing how medical and healthcare decisions are actually made - and constrained - and how physician, healthcare management, and patient decision making can be improved to optimize health outcomes.

Table of Contents

Front Cover.
Half Title Page.
Editorial Board.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
List of Entries.
Reader’s Guide.
About the Editors.
1: Acceptability Curves and Confidence Ellipses.
2: Accountability.
3: Advance Directives and End-of-Life Decision Making.
4: Allais Paradox.
5: Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA).
6: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA).
7: Applied Decision Analysis.
8: Artificial Neural Networks.
9: Associative Thinking.
10: Attention Limits.
11: Attraction Effect.
12: Attributable Risk.
13: Automatic Thinking.
14: Axioms.
15: Basic Common Statistical Tests: Chi-Square Test, t Test, Nonparametric Test.
16: Bayesian Analysis.
17: Bayesian Evidence Synthesis.
18: Bayesian Networks.
19: Bayes’s Theorem.
20: Beneficence.
21: Bias.
22: Biases in Human Prediction.
23: Bias in Scientific Studies.
24: Bioethics.
25: Bioinformatics.
26: Boolean Algebra and Nodes.
27: Bounded Rationality and Emotions.
28: Brier Scores.
29: Calibration.
30: Case Control.
31: Causal Inference and Diagrams.
32: Causal Inference in Medical Decision Making.
33: Certainty Effect.
34: Certainty Equivalent.
35: Chained Gamble.
36: Chaos Theory.
37: Choice Theories.
38: Clinical Algorithms and Practice Guidelines.
39: Cognitive Psychology and Processes.
40: Coincidence.
41: Complexity.
42: Complications or Adverse Effects of Treatment.
43: Computational Limitations.
44: Computer-Assisted Decision Making.
45: Conditional Independence.
46: Conditional Probability.
47: Confidence Intervals.
48: Confirmation Bias.
49: Conflicts of Interest and Evidence-Based Clinical Medicine.
50: Confounding and Effect Modulation.
51: Conjoint Analysis.
52: Conjunction Probability Error.
53: Constraint Theory.
54: Construction of Values.
55: Consumer-Directed Health Plans.
56: Context Effects.
57: Contextual Error.
58: Contingent Valuation.
59: Cost-Benefit Analysis.
60: Cost-Comparison Analysis.
61: Cost-Consequence Analysis.
62: Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.
63: Cost-Identification Analysis.
64: Cost Measurement Methods.
65: Cost-Minimization Analysis.
66: Costs, Direct Versus Indirect.
67: Costs, Fixed Versus Variable.
68: Costs, Opportunity.
69: Costs, Out-of-Pocket.
70: Costs, Semifixed Versus Semivariable.
71: Costs, Spillover.
72: Cost-Utility Analysis.
73: Counterfactual Thinking.
74: Cox Proportional Hazards Regression.
75: Cues.
76: Cultural Issues.
77: Data Quality.
78: Decisional Conflict.
79: Decision Analyses, Common Errors Made in Conducting.
80: Decision Board.
81: Decision Curve Analysis.
82: Decision Making and Affect.
83: Decision-Making Competence, Aging and Mental Status.
84: Decision Making in Advanced Disease.
85: Decision Modes.
86: Decision Psychology.
87: Decision Quality.
88: Decision Rules.
89: Decisions Faced by Hospital Ethics Committees.
90: Decisions Faced by Institutional Review Boards.
91: Decisions Faced by Nongovernment Payers of Healthcare: Managed Care.
92: Decisions Faced by Patients: Primary Care.
93: Decisions Faced by Surrogates or Proxies for the Patient, Durable Power of Attorney.
94: Decision Tree: Introduction.
95: Decision Trees, Advanced Techniques in Constructing.
96: Decision Trees, Construction.
97: Decision Trees, Evaluation.
98: Decision Trees, Evaluation With Monte Carlo.
99: Decision Trees: Sensitivity Analysis, Basic and Probabilistic.
100: Decision Trees: Sensitivity Analysis, Deterministic.
101: Decision Weights.
102: Declining Exponential Approximation of Life Expectancy.
103: Decomposed Measurement.
104: Deliberation and Choice Processes.
105: Deterministic Analysis.
106: Developmental Theories.
107: Diagnostic Process, Making a Diagnosis.
108: Diagnostic Tests.
109: Differential Diagnosis.
110: Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs).
111: Discounting.
112: Discrete Choice.
113: Discrete-Event Simulation.
114: Discrimination.
115: Disease Management Simulation Modeling.
116: Distributions: Overview.
117: Distributive Justice.
118: Disutility.
119: Dominance.
120: Dual-Process Theory.
121: Dynamic Decision Making.
122: Dynamic Treatment Regimens.
123: Economics, Health Economics.
124: Editing, Segregation of Prospects.
125: Effect Size.
126: Efficacy Versus Effectiveness.
127: Efficient Frontier.
128: Emotion and Choice.
129: Equity.
130: Equivalence Testing.
131: Error and Human Factors Analyses.
132: Errors in Clinical Reasoning.
133: Ethnographic Methods.
134: EuroQoL (EQ-5D).
135: Evaluating and Integrating Research Into Clinical Practice.
136: Evaluating Consequences.
137: Evidence-Based Medicine.
138: Evidence Synthesis.
139: Expected Utility Theory.
140: Expected Value of Perfect Information.
141: Expected Value of Sample Information, Net Benefit of Sampling.
142: Experience and Evaluations.
143: Experimental Designs.
144: Expert Opinion.
145: Expert Systems.
146: Extended Dominance.
147: Factor Analysis and Principal Components Analysis.
148: Fear.
149: Fixed Versus Random Effects.
150: Frequency Estimation.
151: Frequentist Approach.
152: Fuzzy-Trace Theory.
153: Gain/Loss Framing Effects.
154: Gambles.
155: Genetic Testing.
156: Government Perspective, General Healthcare.
157: Government Perspective, Informed Policy Choice.
158: Government Perspective, Public Health Issues.
159: Hazard Ratio.
160: Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act Privacy Rule.
161: Health Outcomes Assessment.
162: Health Production Function.
163: Health Risk Management.
164: Health Status Measurement, Assessing Meaningful Change.
165: Health Status Measurement, Construct Validity.
166: Health Status Measurement, Face and Content Validity.
167: Health Status Measurement, Floor and Ceiling Effects.
168: Health Status Measurement, Generic Versus Condition-Specific Measures.
169: Health Status Measurement, Minimal Clinically Significant Differences, and Anchor Versus Distribution Methods.
170: Health Status Measurement, Reliability and Internal Consistency.
171: Health Status Measurement, Responsiveness and Sensitivity to Change.
172: Health Status Measurement Standards.
173: Health Utilities Index Mark 2 and 3 (HUI2, HUI3).
174: Healthy Years Equivalents.
175: Hedonic Prediction and Relativism.
176: Heuristics.
177: Holistic Measurement.
178: Human Capital Approach.
179: Human Cognitive Systems.
180: Hypothesis Testing.