The Papers of Carlos Montezuma, M.D.

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Sponsored by the National Historical Publications Records Commission and the American Historical Association.

Carlos Montezuma (ca.1867-1923), a Yavapai Indian raised in urban white society, was both a leading crusader for Native American rights and a prominent physician. The papers of Montezuma form an important collection of sources on Native American history, largely created by the Indians themselves, and on the history of medicine. Montezuma's professional status and eloquence gained him a wide audience for his speeches and monthly newsletter Wassaja, promoting the Indian cause. He lobbied in Congress against the paternalism of the bureau of Indian Affairs, fought for Yavapai land rights, and drafted an Indian citizenship bill, which became law a year after his death.

A partial listing of the contents includes:

Correspondence (1887-1926)

Essays and speeches (1882-1922)

The newspaper Wassaja(1916-1922)

Society of American Indians materials (1911-1923)

Medical papers (1886-1922)

Justice Department's file on Montezuma (1917-1919)

Number of rolls: 9



  • John W. Larner Jr.