Political Theory: An Encyclopedia of Contemporary and Classic Terms, 1st Edition

  • Scott John Hammond
  • Published By:
  • ISBN-10: 0313085234
  • ISBN-13: 9780313085239
  • DDC: 320.01
  • Grade Level Range: 9th Grade - College Senior
  • 357 Pages | eBook
  • Original Copyright 2008 | Published/Released April 2010
  • This publication's content originally published in print form: 2008

  • Price:  Sign in for price

About

Overview

Liberty. Justice. Nature. Law. First formulated millennia ago by the founding philosophers of the Western tradition, these basic concepts of human thought remain central to our conception of ourselves, our place in the world, and our relationships with others-that is, our politics. Readers encountering such broad political concepts, their practical expressions in political movements and systems of government, the ideas of influential ancient and modern political thinkers—or simply familiar or unfamiliar catchphrases for which they would like a succinct yet informative explanation—will welcome this accessible encyclopedic guide.

Table of Contents

Front Cover.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Dedication.
Contents.
Author's Note.
Preface.
Acknowledgments.
List of Entries.
1: Absolutes (Universals, Objective Principles, Moral Realism).
2: Adams, John (1735–1826).
3: Administration of Things.
4: Advantage of the Stronger.
5: Advice to Princes.
6: Afrocentrism (Afrocentricity).
7: al-Afghani, Sayyid Jamal al-Din (1837–1897).
8: Alfarabi (al-Farabi, Abu Nasr al-Farabi; c. 870-c. 950).
9: al-Ghazali (Abu-Hamid Muhammad al-Ghazali, 1058-1111).
10: Alienation.
11: Allegory of the Cave.
12: All Men and Women are Created Equal.
13: All Men are Created Equal.
14: All Other Contentments.
15: Althusius, Johannes (1557–1638).
16: Amor Dei/Amor Sui.
17: Amour De Soi/Amour Propre.
18: Analogy of the Jars.
19: Anarchism.
20: Antifederalists.
21: Antifoundationalism.
22: Anti-Semitism.
23: Apartheid (Separate Development).
24: Aquinas, Thomas (1225–1274).
25: Arendt, Hannah (1906–1975).
26: Aristocracy (Aristos Kratein).
27: Aristotle (384 BC-322 BC).
28: Auctoritas.
29: Augustine (Aurelius Augustinus; 354—430).
30: Autarky.
31: Authoritarianism.
32: Autocracy.
33: Averroes (Ibn Roschd, Ibn Rusch, 1126-1198).
34: The Ballot or The Bullet?.
35: Beccaria, Cesare (Marquis of Beccaria-Bonesana), 1738-1794.
36: Behavioralism.
37: Helium Omnium Contra Omnes.
38: Bentham, Jeremy (1748–1832).
39: Big Brother.
40: Biopower.
41: Black Power.
42: Bodin, Jean (1530–1596).
43: Bread and Peace.
44: Buber, Martin (1878–1965).
45: Burke, Edmund (1729–1797).
46: The Butcher, The Brewer, or The Baker.
47: Capillary Power.
48: Carceral Society.
49: Catholic League (Holy League).
50: Catholic Social Teaching.
51: Catholic Worker Movement.
52: Checks and Balances.
53: Cicero, Marcus Tullius (106 BC-43 BC).
54: Circle of Power.
55: Circulation of Elites.
56: City Fit for Pigs.
57: City Upon a Hill.
58: Civil Disobedience.
59: Communism.
60: Complex Equality.
61: Consequentialism.
62: Conservatism.
63: Conspicuous Consumption.
64: Constructivism.
65: Content of Their Character.
66: Conventionalism (Constructivism).
67: Correspondence Theory.
68: Cost as the Limit of Price.
69: Critical Theory.
70: Culture of Death.
71: Democracy.
72: Despot, Despotism (Despotes).
73: Dewey, John (1859–1952).
74: Dhimmi (Those of the Covenant, Care, Custody, Pact of Protection).
75: Dialectical Theory (The Dialectic).
76: Dictator.
77: Dictatorship of Relativism.
78: Dictatorship of the Proletariat.
79: Difference Principle.
80: Differend.
81: Dominance and Monopoly.
82: Doublespeak.
83: End Justifies the Means.
84: Entitlement Theory.
85: Environmentalism.
86: Equality, Egalitarianism.
87: Equality of Condition, Equality of Opportunity.
88: Ethic of Care.
89: Ethic of Conviction and Ethic of Responsibility.
90: Ethic of Right.
91: Existentialism.
92: Faction.
93: Fascism.
94: Federalist Papers.
95: Feminism.
96: First Principle of Justice (Rawls).
97: First Principles.
98: Foucault, Michel (1926–1984).
99: Four Freedoms.
100: Free Development of Each is the Condition for the Free Development of All.
101: Freedom (Liberty).
102: From Each According to His Ability, to Each According to His Need.
103: From Each According to His Ability, to Each According to His Work (or, from Each… to Each According to His Contribution).
104: Fundamentalism.
105: Funeral Oration of Pericles.
106: Game Theory.
107: General Will (Volonte Generate).
108: Gettysburg Address.
109: Gramsci, Antonio (1891–1926).
110: Grotius, Hugo (Huigh or Hugeianus de Groot; 1583-1645).
111: Habermas, Jürgen (b. 1929).
112: Hamilton, Alexander (c. 1755-1804).
113: Harrington, James (1611–1677).
114: Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich (1770–1831).
115: Herzl, Theodor (1860–1904).
116: Hobbes, Thomas (1588–1679).
117: Hume, David (1711–1776).
118: Ibn Khaldun (Abd al-Rahman Ibn Khal-dun, 1332-1406).
119: Ideology.
120: I have a Dream.
121: Immanentize the Eschaton.
122: Incredulity toward Metanarratives (Incredulity toward Grand Narratives).
123: Invisible Hand.
124: Iron Cage of Modernity.
125: Iron Law of Oligarchy.
126: Jefferson, Thomas (1743–1826).
127: Jihād (Struggle, Inner Struggle, Personal Striving, Holy Striving, Holy War).
128: Justice.
129: Just War Theory.
130: Kant, Immanuel (1724–1804).
131: Knowledge is Power.
132: Leviathan.
133: Liberalism.
134: Libertarianism.
135: Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness.
136: Life, Liberty, Property.
137: Locke, John (1632–1704).
138: Logical Positivism (Logical Empiricism, Neopositivism).
139: Machiavelli, Niccolò (1469–1527).
140: Madison, James (1751–1836).
141: Magister Populi.
142: Maimonides, Moses (Moshe ben Maimon; 1135-1204).
143: Marcuse, Herbert (1898–1979).
144: Maritain, Jacques (1882–1973).
145: Marx, Karl (1818–1883).
146: Merleau-Ponty, Maurice (1908–1961).
147: Mill, John Stuart (1806–1873).
148: Monarchomachs (Monarchomaques, “King Killers”).
149: Monarchy.
150: Montesquieu, Charles-Louis de Secondat Baron de la Brede et de la (1689–1755).
151: Muslim Brethren (Society of Muslim Brethren).
152: Nationalism.
153: Natural Law.
154: Negative and Positive Liberty.
155: neo-Marxism.
156: neo-Thomism (neo-Scholasticism).
157: Niebuhr, Reinhold (1892–1971).
158: Nietzsche, Friedrich (1844–1900).
159: Nonsense on Stilts.
160: Ochlocracy.
161: Open-Ended Distributive Principle.
162: Organicism (Medieval Organicisni).
163: Owl of Minerva.
164: Pagan Politics.
165: Panopticon.
166: Pareto Optimality (Pareto Ophelimity, Pareto Efficiency, Pareto Preference or Preferability).
167: Pareto's Law (Pareto Principle, Law of the Vital Few, the 80—20 Rule, Juran's Principle).
168: Paris was Well Worth a Mass.
169: Personalism.
170: The Personal is Political.
171: Phrase Regimen.
172: Plato (427 BC-347 BC).
173: Pleonexia.
174: Plymouth Rock Landed on us.
175: Politics.
176: Politics of Presence, Politics of Ideas.
177: Politiques.
178: Positivism.
179: Potestas.
180: Power Tends to Corrupt, and Absolute Power Corrupts Absolutely.
181: Pragmatic Maxim.
182: Prisoner's Dilemma.
183: Procedural Republic.
184: Propaganda of the Deed.
185: Protestant Reformation and Political Thought.
186: Pufendorf, Samuel, Baron von (1632—1694).
187: Qutb, Sayyid (1906–1966).
188: Raison d'État (Reason of the State).
189: Rawls, John (1921–2002).
190: Republic (Res Publica, Civitas, Things Public, Things Political, Commonwealth, Common Weal).
191: Republic, The (Politeia).