Half Title Page.
1: Introduction: The Study of Interest Groups.
2: Special Features of This Book and the Purpose of This Chapter.
3: Defining Interest Group and Related Terms.
4: The Functions of Interest Groups: Their Private Goals and Public Roles.
5: Problems of Studying Interest Groups.
6: Theoretical Approaches in the Study of Interest Groups and the Schools of Focus of Scholars.
7: The Two Major Categories of Subject Matter of Interest Group Studies.
8: Types of Studies and Methods of Study.
9: Guidelines for Using This Book.
10: Sources of Information on Interest Groups in the American Political System: An Overview.
12: Popular Writing: Newspapers, Magazines, and Books.
14: Conference Papers, Journal Articles, and Monographs.
15: Major Categories of Research and Their Findings.
16: Primary Sources of Data on Interest Groups.
17: Conclusion: Looking beyond the American Perspective.
18: General Theories of Interest Group Activity: Pluralism, Corporatism, Neo-Marxism, and Other Explanations.
20: Pluralism and Its Modifications.
22: Corporatism and Neocorporatist Theory.
23: Political Economy Approaches and Explanations.
24: The Responsible or Strong Political Party Model.
25: Statist-Centered Approaches.
26: Neo-Marxist Approaches.
27: The New Institutionalist Perspective on Interest Groups.
28: Interest Groups and the Socioeconomic and Political System.
29: Introduction: A Minimally Investigated Topic.
30: Interest Group System Development and Variation: An Overview.
31: Interest Groups and the Structure of the Political and Governmental System.
32: Interest Groups and Political Culture.
33: Interest Groups and Political Parties.
34: Interest Groups and the Social Structure.
35: Interest Groups and Economic Development.
36: Interest Groups and Public Opinion.
37: National Cultures and Lobbying: The Case of the European Union and Its Implications.
38: Peak Associations.
39: The Origin, Maintenance, Organization, and Mortality of Interest Groups.
41: The Origin and Maintenance of Interest Groups.
42: The Internal Organization of Interest Groups.
43: The Composition and Development of the Interest Group System and Group Competition.
44: The Mortality of Interest Groups.
45: Conclusions: Subjects for Further Study.
46: Interest Groups in National, State, Local, and Intergovernmental Politics in the United States.
48: The Interest Group Universe in Washington, D.C., and the States.
49: Interest Groups in U.S. National Politics.
50: State Interest Groups.
51: Interest Groups in Local Politics.
52: The Intergovernmental Activity of Interest Groups.
53: Public Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Interest Groups and Lobbyists in the United States.
54: Interests and Interest Groups in the Public Policy Process: (I) Strategies and Tactics.
55: Introduction to Chapters 7, 8, and 9.
56: Strategy and Tactics: Placing U.S. Practice in Perspective.
57: Nonfinancial Involvement of Interest Groups in the Election Process.
58: Political Action Committees (PACs).
59: Interest Group Involvement in Direct Democracy.
60: Lobbyists: Definitions, Types, and Varying Designations.
61: The Role of Lobbyists.
62: Lobbyists in Washington, D.C., and the American States.
63: Lobbyists in Countries Outside the United States.
64: Legislative Lobbying.
65: Executive Branch Lobbying in Washington, D.C..
66: Judicial Branch Lobbying in the United States.
67: Grassroots Lobbying.
68: Use of the Media, Public Relations, and Advertising.
69: Protests, Demonstrations, and Violence.
70: Iron Triangles, Policy Networks, and Other Subgovernmental Systems of Interest Group Activity.
71: Interest Group Power and Influence.
72: Interests and Interest Groups in the Public Policy Process: (II) The Traditional Interests—Business, Labor, Agriculture, Education, and Government.
73: Classifying Interests and Interest Groups: Problems and Approaches.
74: Business Interests and Politics: An Overview.
75: Chambers of Commerce.
76: The Energy Lobby.
77: Utility Interests.
78: Industrial and Manufacturing Interests.
79: Banking and Finance Interests.
80: Insurance Interests.
81: Agricultural Interests.
82: Labor Interest Groups.
83: Education Interest Groups.
84: Selected Aspects of the Government Lobby in the United States.
85: U.S. States Lobbying in Washington, D.C..
86: U.S. State Agencies as a Lobbying Force.
87: The Local Government Lobby in the United States.
88: Nonmembership Lobbies.
89: Private Foundations.
90: Think Tanks.
91: Interest Groups and U.S. Foreign Policy.
92: The Foreign Lobby in the United States.
93: Interests and Interest Groups in the Public Policy Process: (III) The New Interests and Groups.
95: Ethnic and Racial Minority Groups.
96: African Americans.
98: Native Americans.
99: Asian Americans.
100: Indigenous Peoples’ Interest Groups.
101: The Women’s Lobby.
102: Public Interest Groups.
103: Good Government Groups.
104: Criminal Justice Interest Groups.
105: Social Issue and Identity Interests.
106: Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Interests.
107: The Poverty, Welfare, and Hunger Lobby.
108: Animal Rights Interest Groups.
109: Pro-Life and Pro-Choice Interest Groups.
110: Environmental Interest Groups.
111: Consumer Groups.
112: Health-Care Interest Groups.
113: Religious Interests.
114: The Senior Citizens’ Lobby.
115: Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs).
116: Governance Interests: Antitax and Term Limit Groups.
117: Pro– and Anti–Gun Control Interest Groups.
118: The Tobacco and Antismoking Lobbies.
119: Civil Liberties Interest Groups and Lobbies in the United States.
120: Human Rights Interests: Definitional Problems, Cross-References, and Supplementary Sources.
121: Comparative Interest Group Studies.
122: Comparative Analysis and Interest Group Studies.
123: The Evolution of Comparative Interest Group Studies: The Dominance and Resilience of the Neocorporatist Approach.
124: Variations in Research: Differences in Approach, Focus, and Scope.
125: A Critical Assessment of Cross-National Interest Group Studies.
126: Additional Future Directions for Comparative Interest Group Research.
127: Interest Groups in Selected Western European and Other Advanced Pluralist Democracies.
128: The “Recent Discovery” of Interest Groups.
129: The United Kingdom.
130: Continental Europe.
131: Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and the Benelux Countries.
132: France, Italy, Spain, Portugal, and Greece.
133: Interest Representation in the European Union.
134: The Nordic Countries.
136: Australia and New Zealand.
139: Interest Groups in Selected Nonpluralist Regimes, Transitional Democracies, and Developing Societies.
140: The Characteristics of Interests and Interest Group Activity and Approaches to Studying Interests.
141: India and South Asia.
142: The People’s Republic of China (PRC).
143: Taiwan—Republic of China (ROC).
144: The Middle East and North Africa (Excluding Israel).
145: South Africa.
146: Sub-Saharan Africa.
147: Eastern Europe: Communist and Transitional Systems.
148: Russia: Post-Communist Interest Group Activity.
149: Latin America.