The Cairo Trilogy (al-Thulathiyya), by Naguib Mahfouz (Egypt, 1956–57).
God Dies by the Nile (Mawt al-rajul alwahīd ‘alā ‘l-ard), by Nawāl El Saadawi (Egypt, 1974).
Petals of Blood, by Ngugi wa Thiong’o (Kenya, 1977).
Nigeria and Senegal.
Things Fall Apart, by Chinua Achebe (Nigeria, 1958).
The Interpreters, by Wole Soyinka (Nigeria, 1965).
So Long a Letter (Une si longue lettre), by Mariama Ba (Senegal, 1980).
Close Sesame, by Nuruddin Farah (Somalia, 1983).
The Story of an African Farm, by Olive Schreiner (South Africa, 1883).
Cry, the Beloved Country, by Alan Paton (South Africa, 1948).
The Path of Thunder, by Peter Abrahams (South Africa, 1948).
The Conservationist, by Nadine Gordimer (South Africa, 1974).
Children of Violence, by Doris Lessing (Zimbabwe, England, 1952–69).
Dream of the Red Chamber (Honglou meng), by Ts’ao Hsueh-ch’in (China, ca. 1769).
Flower in an Ocean of Sin (Nieh-hai hua), by Tseng P’u (China, 1905–1907).
The True Story of Ah-Q (AQ zhengzhuan), by Lu Xun (China, 1921).
Waves (Bodong), by Bei Dao (China, 1979).
Untouchable, by Mulk Raj Anand (India, 1935).
The Satanic Verses, by Salman Rush-die (India, England, 1988).
This Earth of Mankind (Bumi Manusia), by Pramoedya Ananta Toer (Indonesia, Java, 1980).
Silence (Chimmoku), by Shusaku Endo (Japan, 1966).
The Twilight Years (Kokotsu no hito), by Sawako Ariyoshi (Japan, 1972).
For the Term of His Natural Life, by Marcus Clarke (Australia, 1874).
Robbery under Arms, by Rolf Boldre-wood (Australia, 1888).
My Brilliant Career, by Miles Franklin (Australia, 1901).
Coonardoo, by Katharine Susannah Prichard (Australia, 1929).
On The Beach, by Nevil Shute (Australia, 1956).
The Good Soldier Švejk and His Fortunes in the World War (Osudy dobreho vojaka Svejka za svetove valky), by Jaroslav Hasek (Czechoslovakia, 1921–23).
The Trial (Der Prozess), by Franz Kafka (Czechoslovakia, 1925).
The Unbearable Lightness of Being (Nesnesitelna lehkost byti), by Milan Kundera (Czechoslovakia, 1984).
The Pilgrim’s Progress, by John Bunyan (England, 1678, 1679; pt. II, 1684).
Caleb Williams, by William Godwin (England, 1794).
Pride and Prejudice, by Jane Austen (England, 1813).
Waverley, by Sir Walter Scott (England, 1814–19).
Frankenstein, by Mary Shelley (England, 1818).
Jane Eyre, by Charlotte Brontë (England, 1847).
Wuthering Heights, by Emily Brontë (England, 1847).
Vanity Fair, by William Makepeace Thackeray (England, 1848).
Mary Barton, by Mrs. (Elizabeth) Gaskell (England, 1848).
Alton Locke, by Charles Kingsley (England, 1850).
David Copperfield, by Charles Dickens (England, 1850).
Bleak House, by Charles Dickens (England, 1853).
Hard Times, by Charles Dickens (England, 1854).
Silas Marner, by George Eliot (England, 1861).
The Unclassed, by George Gissing (England, 1884).
Diana of the Crossways, by George Meredith (England, 1884).
The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, by Robert Louis Stevenson (England, 1886).
Tess of the d’Urbervilles, by Thomas Hardy (England, 1891).
Children of the Ghetto, by Israel Zangwill (England, 1892).
Jude the Obscure, by Thomas Hardy (England, 1895).
Heart of Darkness, by Joseph Conrad (England, 1902).
The Way of All Flesh, by Samuel Butler (England, 1903).
Tono-Bungay, by H.G. Wells (England, 1908).
Sons and Lovers, by D.H. Lawrence (England, 1913).
The Good Soldier, by Ford Madox Ford (England, 1915).
A Passage to India, by E.M. Forster (England, 1924).
Mrs. Dalloway, by Virginia Woolf (England, 1925).
Brave New World, by Aldous Huxley (England, 1932).
The Complete Memoirs of George Sherston, by Siegfried Sassoon (England, 1937).
The Citadel, by A.J. Cronin (England, 1937).
Animal Farm, by George Orwell (England, 1945).
The Heart of the Matter, by Graham Greene (England, 1948).
Lord of the Flies, by William Golding (England, 1954).
A Clockwork Orange, by Anthony Burgess (England, 1962).
Manon Lescaut, by Abbé Prévost (France, 1731).
Candide; or, Optimism (Candide; ou, L’Optimisme), by Voltaire (France, 1759).
Julie, or the New Heloise (La Nouvelle Heloise), by Jean-Jacques Rousseau (France, 1761).
Émile, by Jean-Jacques Rousseau (France, 1762).
Dangerous Liaisons (Les Liaisons danger euses), by Pierre Choderlos de Laclos (France, 1782).
Paul and Virginia, by Bernardin de Saint-Pierre (France, 1788).
Justine; or The Misfortunes of Virtue (Justine ou Les Malheurs de la vertu), by Marquis de Sade (France, 1791).
Delphine, by Madame Anne Louise Germaine Necker de Staël (France, 1802).
René in The Genius of Christianity (Le Genie du Christianisme), 5 vols., by Francois-René Vicomte de Chateaubriand (France, 1802).
Père Goriot, by Honoré de Balzac (France, 1835).
The Mysteries of Paris (Les Mystères de Paris), by Eugène Sue (France, 1843).
Consuelo, by George Sand (France, 1843).
Madame Bovary, by Gustave Flaubert (France, 1857).
Les Misérables, by Victor-Marie Hugo (France, 1862).
A Sentimental Education (L‘Éducation sentimentale), by Gustave Flaubert (France, 1869).
Twenty Thousand Leagues under the Sea (Vingt milles lieues sous les mers), by Jules Verne (France, 1869–70).
Germinal, by Emile Zola (France, 1885).
Remembrance of Things Past or In Search of Lost Time (À la recherche du temps perdu), by Marcel Proust (France, 1913–27).
Under Fire: The Story of a Squad (Le Feu: Journal d’une escouade), by Henri Barbusse (France, 1916).
The Counterfeiters (Les Faux-Monnayeurs), by André Gide (France, 1925).
Man’s Fate (La Condition humaine), by André Malraux (France, 1933).
Nausea (La Nausea), by Jean-Paul Sartre (France, 1938).
The Plague (La Peste), by Albert Camus (France, Algeria, 1947).
Molloy, by Samuel Beckett (Ireland, France, 1951).
The Mandarins (Les Mandarins), by Simone de Beauvoir (France, 1954).
Night (La Nuit), by Elie Wiesel (Romania, France, 1958).
The Planet of the Apes (La Planete des singes), by Pierre Boulle (France, 1963).
The Sorrows of Young Werther (Die Leiden des jungen Werther), by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (Germany, 1774; rev. 1787).
The Magic Mountain (Der Zauberberg), by Thomas Mann (Germany, 1924).
Steppenwolf (Der Steppenwolf), by Hermann Hesse (Germany, 1927).
All Quiet on the Western Front (Im Westen nichts Neues), by Erich Maria Remarque (Germany, 1929).
Success (Erfolg), by Lion Feuchtwanger (Germany, 1930).
Stalingrad, by Theodor Plevier (Germany, 1948).
Billiards at Half-Past Nine (Billard um halb zehn), by Heinrich Boll (Germany, 1959).
The Tin Drum (Die Blechtrommel), by Günter Grass (Germany, 1959).
Divided Heaven (Der geteilte Himmel), by Christa Wolf (Germany, 1963).
Gulliver’s Travels, by Jonathan Swift (Ireland, 1726).
Castle Rackrent, by Maria Edgeworth (Ireland, England, 1800).
Melmoth The Wanderer, by Charles Maturin (Ireland, 1820).
Dracula, by Bram Stoker (Ireland, England, 1897).
The Ragged Trousered Philanthropists, by Robert Tressell (Ireland, England, 1914).
Ulysses, by James Joyce (Ireland, 1918, 1919, 1922).
Bread and Wine (Brot und Wein), by Ignazio Silone (Italy, 1936).
Men or Not (Uomini e no), by Elio Vittorini (Italy, 1945).
The Path to the Nest of Spiders (Il sentiero dei nidi di ragno), by Italo Calvino (Italy, 1947).
Agnese Goes to Her Death (L’Agnese va a morire), by Renata Vigano (Italy, 1949).
Dead Souls (Mertvye dushi), by Nikolai Gogol (Russia, 1842).
Fathers and Sons (Ottsy i deti), by Ivan Turgenev (Russia, 1862).
War and Peace (Voina i mir), by Leo Tolstoy (Russia, 1863–69).
The Possessed, or The Devils (Besy), by Fyodor Dostoevsky (Russia, 1872).
The Brothers Karamazov (Brat’ia Karamazovy), by Fyodor Dostoevsky (Russia, 1880).
Resurrection (Voskreseniye), by Leo Tolstoy (Russia, 1899).
Mother (Mat’), by Maxim Gorky (Russia, 1906).
Quiet Flows the Don (Tichy Don), by Mikhail Sholokhov (Russia, 1928–40).
One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich (Odin den iz zhizni Ivana Denisovicha), by Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn (Russia, 1962).
The Master and Margarita (Master i Margarita), by Mikhail Bulgakov (Russia, 1966–67).
Don Quixote (El Ingenioso Hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha), by Miguel De Cervantes (Spain, 1605, 1615).
Doña Perfecta, by Benito Pérez Galdós (Spain, 1876).
The Cabin (La Barraca), by Vincente Blasco Ibáñez (Spain, 1898).
Pro Patria (Iman in Spain; Earmarked for Hell in England), by Ramón J. Sender (Spain, 1930).
The Cypresses Believe in God (Los Cipreses creen en Dios), by José María Gironella (Spain, 1953).
As for Me and My House, by Sinclair Ross (Canada, 1941).
The Tin Flute (Bonheur d’occasion), by Gabrielle Roy (Canada, 1945).
The Handmaid’s Tale, by Margaret Atwood (Canada, 1985).
The Death of Artemio Cruz (La muerte de Artemio Cruz) by Carlos Fuentes (Mexico, 1962).
The Last of the Mohicans, by James Fenimore Cooper (United States, 1826).
Typee, by Herman Melville (United States, 1846).
The Scarlet Letter, by Nathaniel Hawthorne (United States, 1850).
White Jacket, by Herman Melville (United States, 1850).
Moby-Dick, by Herman Melville (United States, 1851).
Uncle Tom’s Cabin, by Harriet Beecher Stowe (United States, 1852).
Clotel: or The President’s Daughter, by William Wells Brown (United States, 1853, 1864).