Figures, Tables, and Maps.
1: An Overview of International Conflict.
2: The Nature of International Conflict.
3: Understanding International Conflict Management.
4: International Organizations and Regional Conflicts.
5: Regional Conflicts.
7: Madagascar—France: Nationalist Rebellion March–August 1947.
8: Eritrea—Ethiopia: Eritrean Nationalism and Agitation for Independence July 1949–December 1950.
9: Tunisia: Tunisian Independence and African Nationalism January 1952–March 1956.
10: Kenya—United Kingdom: Anticolonial Tribal Uprising and Mau Mau Revolt August 1952–December 1963.
11: Algeria: The Fight for Independence November 1954–March 1962.
12: Morocco—Spain: Postindependence Autonomy and the Sahara Conflict November 1957–April 1958.
13: France—Tunisia: Postindependence Autonomy and Military Bases Conflict February–May 1958.
14: France—Tunisia: French-Algerian Border Incidents February–August 1959.
15: Mauritania—Mali: Hodh Region Conflict Mid-1960–February 1963.
16: Congo (Zaire): Secession, Anarchy, Civil War, and the Belgian Congo Crisis July 1960–Mid-1964.
17: The African Territories—Portugal: African Nationalism and Independence Struggle 1961–July 1975.
18: Tunisia—France: Postindependence Autonomy Dispute in Bizerte July–September 1961.
19: Somalia—Kenya/Ethiopia: Somali Expansionism and Separatist Insurgency November 1962–September 1967.
20: Sudan: Southern Separatism, Anya-Nya Terrorism, and the First Sudan Civil War September 1963–March 1972.
21: Morocco—Algeria: Territorial Dispute and the Tindouf War October 1963–February 1964.
22: Niger—Dahomey (Benin): Lete Island Dispute December 1963–June 1965.
23: Somalia—Ethiopia: Somali Expansionism, Separatist Guerrilla Fighting, and the First Ogaden War January–March 1964.
24: Rwanda—Burundi: Postindependence Ethnic Violence Between the Hutu and Tutsi January 1964–January 1965.
25: France—Gabon: Military Putsch, French Military Intervention, and Aubame's Coup February 1964.
26: Ghana—Upper Volta: Ghanaian Border Dispute June 1964–June 1966.
27: Eritrea—Ethiopia: Eritrean Nationalism and War of Secession 1965–May 1993.
28: Ghana—Togo: Ghanaian Expansionism and Border Incidents January–May 1965.
29: Uganda—Congo (Zaire): Rebel Activity and Border Incidents February–March 1965.
30: Chad—Sudan: Internal Strife, Sudanese Intervention, and First Chad Civil War November 1965–1972.
31: Namibia: Violent Insurrection, War, and Independence Struggle 1966–March 1990.
32: Ivory Coast—Guinea: Coup Plot March–April 1966.
33: Ghana—Guinea: Nkrumah's Ouster and Postcoup Tensions October–November 1966.
34: Rhodesia: African Nationalism, Guerrilla Warfare, and Zimbabwe's Struggle for Independence 1967–January 1980.
35: Guinea—Ivory Coast: Regional Rivalry and Hostage Crisis February–September 1967.
36: Nigeria—Biafra: Ethnic and Regional Rivalries, Secession Attempt, and the Biafran Civil War July 1967–January 1970.
37: Congo (Zaire)—Rwanda: Regional Instability and the Mercenaries Dispute August 1967–April 1968.
38: Guinea—Portugal: PAIGC Guerrilla Warfare and the Conakry Raids November 1970.
39: Uganda—Tanzania: Postcoup Border Clashes January 1971–October 1972.
40: Equatorial Guinea—Gabon: Territorial Dispute over the Corisco Bay Islands June–November 1972.
41: Ethiopia—Somalia: Somali Expansionism, Territorial Dispute, and the Second Ogaden War Mid-1972–1985.
42: Morocco—Mauritania: Saharan Nationalism, Territorial Dispute, and the Western Saharan Conflict October 1974–Ongoing.
43: Mali—Upper Volta (Burkina Faso): Territorial and Resource Dispute December 1974–June 1975.
44: Angola—South Africa: Guerrilla Warfare in Namibia, Intervention, and Angolan Civil War 1975–Ongoing.
45: Zaire—Angola: Rebel Activity and Border War November 1975–February 1976.
46: Mozambique—South Africa: African Nationalism, Intervention, and Civil War 1976–October 1992.
47: Uganda—Kenya: Amin Provocations and Border Incidents February–August 1976.
48: Chad—Libya: Guerrilla Warfare, Factional Fighting, and Libyan Annexation of the Aozou Strip June 1976–November 1979.
49: Zaire—Angola: Internal Dissension, Regional Instability, and the First Invasion of Shaba March–May 1977.
50: Chad: Internal Strife, Foreign Intervention, and the Second Chad Civil War January 1978–June 1982.
51: Zaire—Angola: Regional Instability, Congolese Dissension, and the Second Invasion of Shaba May 1978.
52: Tanzania—Uganda: Cross-Border Raids, Tanzanian Invasion, and Ouster of the Amin Regime October 1978–May 1979.
53: Morocco—Algeria: Western Saharan Nationalism and Border Conflict June–October 1979.
54: Cameroon—Nigeria: Border Incident May–July 1981.
55: Uganda: Civil War December 1981–1994.
56: Zaire—Zambia: Lake Mweru Dispute February–September 1982.
57: Libya—Chad: Political Instability, Rebel Fighting, Foreign Intervention, and the Third Chad Civil War Mid-1982–Ongoing.
58: Ghana—Togo: Territorial Dispute and Border Incidents August–October 1982.
59: South Africa—Lesotho: Guerrilla Insurgency Fears and Anti-ANC Raid December 1982.
60: Sudan: Secessionist Fighting, Civil War, and the Second Sudan Civil War January 1983–Ongoing.
61: Liberia—Sierra Leone: Doe Regime Tensions February–March 1983.
62: Chad—Nigeria: Boundary/Resources Dispute and the Lake Chad Conflict April–July 1983.
63: Zaire—Zambia: Regional Tensions, Deportations, and Border Dispute September 1983–January 1984.
64: South Africa—Botswana: African Nationalism and Anti-ANC Raids October 1984–May 1986.
65: Zaire: Internal Dissent and the Third Invasion of Shaba November 1984.
66: Zaire: Internal Strife, the Fourth Invasion of Shaba, and the Collapse of the Mobutu Regime June 1985.
67: Mali—Burkina Faso: Territorial/Resource Dispute and Border War December 1985–January 1986.
68: Togo—Ghana: Regional Rivalry and Coup Attempt September 1986.
69: Zaire—People's Republic of the Congo: Regional Instability and Border Incident January 1987.
70: Ethiopia—Somalia: Somali Expansionism and the Third Ogaden War February 1987–April 1988.
71: South Africa—Zambia: African Nationalism, Insurgency Fears, and Anti-ANC Raid April 1987.
72: People's Republic of the Congo: Civil Unrest and Army Rebellion September 1987–July 1988.
73: Uganda—Kenya: Ugandan Civil War, Refugee Influx, and Border Conflict December 1987.
74: Somalia: Clan-Based Violence and the Somalian Civil War May 1988–Ongoing.
75: Burundi: Tribe—Based Communal Violence and the Hutu Conflict August 1988–Ongoing.
76: Uganda—Kenya: Border Conflict March 1989.
77: Mauritania—Senegal: Ethnic Violence and Border Incidents April 1989–January 1990.
78: Liberia: Civil War December 1989–Ongoing.
79: Guinea-Bissau—Senegal: Border Conflict April–May 1990.
80: Tuareg—Niger: Confrontation and Reprisals May 1990–October 1994.
81: Senegal: The Casamance Rebellion Mid-1990–Ongoing.
82: Tuareg—Mali: Sahel Pastoralist Rebellion and Military Coup June 1990–Ongoing.
83: Rwanda: Tribal Conflict, Genocide, and Exiles Invasion September 1990–Ongoing.
84: Liberia—Sierra Leone: Intervention, Destabilization, and the Sierra Leone Civil War March 1991–Ongoing.
85: Djibouti: Ethnic—Based Violence and Civil War November 1991–July 1993.
86: Nigeria—Cameroon: Territorial Dispute and the Diamond and Djabane Islands Dispute December 1993–March 1994.
87: Ghana—Togo: Border Incidents January—February 1994.
88: Uganda: Intervention and Democratic Movements May 1995–Ongoing.
89: Federal Republic of Grande Comoros: Coup Attempt and Anjouan and Moheli Independence September 1995–Ongoing.
90: Eritrea—Yemen: Invasion of the Hunish Islands November 1995–October 1998.
91: Congo: Independence Movements October 1996–Ongoing.
92: Uganda—Kenya: Ethnic Cross-Border Clashes November 1996–July 1998.
93: Niger: Diffa Border Insurgency December 1996–April 1999.
94: Congo—Brazzaville: Democratic Struggle May 1997–Late 2000.
95: Djibouti: Intervention and Djibouti Civil War Early 1998–December 2000.
96: Lesotho: Intervention and Military Factions May 1998–March 1999.
97: Eritrea—Ethiopia: Yirga Triangle Territorial Dispute May 1998–June 1999.
98: Guinea-Bissau: Military Factions June 1998–January 2000.
99: Ethiopia—Kenya: Ethnic Border Clashes October 1998–January 1999.
100: Liberia—Guinea: Border Dispute September 1999–April 2001.
101: Ivory Coast: Civil War September 1999–Ongoing.
102: Central African Republic—Chad: Attempted Coup, Foreign Intervention, and Territorial Occupation Mid-2001–December 2002.
103: Angola—Zambia: Civil Strife and Border Skirmishes November 2001.
105: Dominican Republic—Haiti/Cuba: Regional Aggression Early 1947–December 1951.
106: Costa Rica: Anticorruption Military Insurgency and Civil War March–April 1948.
107: Nicaragua—Costa Rica: Border Conflict December 1948–February 1949.
108: Argentina—Chile: The Beagle Channel Border Dispute July 1952–August 1993.
109: Guatemala: Civil War and Insurgency June 1954–Ongoing.
110: Nicaragua—Costa Rica: Exiles Invasion Attempt January 1955.
111: Dominican Republic—Cuba/Venezuela: Dominican Republic Aggression and Exiles Conflict February 1956–January 1962.
112: Cuba: Communist Revolution and Cuban Civil War December 1956–January 1959.
113: Nicaragua—Honduras: Boundary Dispute and Mocoran Seizure April–June 1957.
114: Panama: Cuban-Backed Invasion and Panama Revolutionaries Conflict 1958–May 1959.
115: Guatemala—Mexico: Mexican Shrimp Boat Incident December 1958–September 1959.
116: Paraguay—Argentina: Paraguayan Exiles Conflict Early 1959–December 1961.
117: Cuba—Haiti: Cuban-Sponsored Military Invasion and Haitian Exiles Conflict August 1959.
118: United States—Cuba: Anti-Castro Military Invasion—The Bay of Pigs April–May 1961.
119: Venezuela—Guyana (UK): Essequibo River Dispute February 1962–June 1970.
120: Chile—Bolivia: Lauca River Dam Dispute March 1962–1964.
121: United States—USSR: Cold War Dispute and the Cuban Missile Crisis September–November 1962.
122: Haiti—Dominican Republic: Exiles Asylum and Invasion Attempt April–September 1963.
123: Cuba—Venezuela: Terrorism and Invasion Attempt November 1963–May 1967.
124: Panama—United States: Sovereignty Dispute and the Flag Riots January–April 1964.
125: Colombia: Banditry and Leftist Guerrilla Insurgency 1965–Ongoing.
126: United States—Dominican Republic: Civil War, U.S. Military Intervention, and the Constitutionalist Rebellion April 1965–September 1966.
127: Bolivia: Cuban-Assisted Guerrilla Insurgency November 1966–July 1970.
128: El Salvador—Honduras: The “Football War” Border Dispute July 1969.
129: Guyana—Suriname: New River Triangle Border Dispute August 1969–November 1970.
130: El Salvador—Honduras: Territorial Dispute and Border Incidents July 1976–October 1980.
131: El Salvador: Civil Conflict and the Salvadoran Civil War January 1977–Late 1992.
132: Ecuador—Peru: Regional Rivalry, Territorial Dispute, and the Amazon/Marañón Waterway Incidents June 1977–January 1978.
133: Nicaragua—Costa Rica: Regional Rivalry and Border Incidents October 1977.
134: Nicaragua—Costa Rica: Regional Rivalry, Cross-Border Raids, and Border Incidents September–December 1978.
135: Honduras—Nicaragua: Right-Wing Insurgency and the Contra War January 1980–February 1994.
136: Ecuador—Peru: Territorial Dispute and Border War January–April 1981.
137: United Kingdom—Argentina: Sovereignty Dispute and the Falklands War April–June 1982.
138: Guatemala—Mexico: Regional Instability, Guatemalan Civil War, and Border Incidents September 1982–January 1983.
139: United States—Grenada: Anti- Communist Military Invasion October–December 1983.
140: Ecuador—Peru: Regional Rivalry, Territorial Dispute, and Border Conflict January 1984.
141: Guatemala—Mexico: Regional Instability, Guatemalan Civil War, and Border Incident April 1984.
142: Nicaragua—Costa Rica: Regional Rivalry and Border Incidents May–June 1985.
143: Nicaragua—Costa Rica: Regional Rivalry and Border Incidents April 1986.
144: Suriname: Guerrilla Insurgency July 1986–December 1992.
145: United States—Panama: U.S. Anti- Noriega Military Invasion December 1989.
146: United States—Haiti: U.S. Military Invasion and Aristide's Return from Exile September 1994.
147: Ecuador—Peru: Regional Rivalry and Cenepa Headwaters Confrontation January–March 1995.
148: Ecuador—Peru: Condor Mountain Territorial Dispute January 1995–October 1998.
149: Belize—Guatemala: Postindependence Territorial Dispute and Border Incidents August 1995.
150: Asia: East Asia And The Pacific.
151: China: Civil War 1945–1949.
152: The Netherlands—The Dutch East Indies: Indonesian Nationalism And War Of Independence Late 1945–November 1949.
153: France—Indochina: Independence Struggle December 1945–July 1954.
154: United Kingdom—Malaya and Singapore: Anti-British Communist Insurgency and the Malayan Emergency June 1948–July 1960.
155: Burma: Kuomintang/People's Liberation Army Cross-Border Conflict August 1948–1954.
156: Burma (Myanmar): Karen Separatist Insurgency and Civil War January 1949–Ongoing.
157: China—Taiwan: Communist-Nationalist Conflict in the Straits of Formosa October 1949–June 1953.
158: United States—USSR: Cold War Air Incidents April–October 1950.
159: United States—North Korea: Cold War Territorial Dispute and the Korean War June 1950–July 1953.
160: China—Portugal: The Macao Territorial Conflict July–August 1952.
161: USSR—United States: Cold War Air Incidents October 1952–July 1956.
162: Cambodia—Siam (Thailand): Border Conflict and the Occupation of the Temple of Preah Vihear Early 1953–May 1975.
163: China—United States/Taiwan: The Quemoy Confrontation April 1954–April 1955.
164: Taiwan—South Vietnam: The Paracel Islands Dispute June–August 1956.
165: China—United States/Taiwan: Communist—Nationalist Territorial Dispute and Bombardment of the Quemoy Islands July–December 1958.
166: Laos: Political Anarchy and the First Laotian Civil War December 1958–1962.
167: North Vietnam—South Vietnam/United States: Communist Vietcong Insurgency, Anti-communist U.S. Military Intervention, and Civil War December 1960–May 1975.
168: Indonesia—Malaysia: Separatist Civil Disturbances and the Borneo Conflict 1962–November 1965.
169: Indonesia—The Netherlands: West Irian Administration Dispute and Separatist Insurgency January–August 1962.
170: China—Taiwan: CCP-KMT Territorial Dispute and Invasion Threat March–December 1962.
171: South Vietnam—Cambodia: Anti-Vietminh Cross-Border Raids March–December 1964.
172: North Vietnam—Laos: Political Anarchy and the Second Laotian Civil War April 1964–December 1966.
173: North Vietnam—United States: The Vietnam War August 1964–May 1975.
174: Irian Jaya—Indonesia: Territorial Dispute and Secession Insurgency 1965–Ongoing.
175: North Korea—South Korea: Cold War Dispute and Border Incidents Mid-1965–March 1968.
176: North Korea—United States: USS Pueblo Seizure January–December 1968.
177: China—Burma: Tribal Conflicts and Border Incidents January–November 1969.
178: Cambodia (Kampuchea)—South Vietnam/United States: U.S. Bombing Campaign and Vietnam War January 1970–April 1975.
179: Mindanao—The Philippines: Communal Violence, Land Disputes, and Muslim Secessionist Insurgency January 1970–Ongoing.
180: South Vietnam—China: Territorial Dispute and the Paracel Islands January 1974.
181: North Korea—South Korea: Demilitarized Zone and Invasion Threat February–July 1975.
182: Cambodia (Kampuchea)—United States: Post—Vietnam War Tensions and the Mayaguez Incident May 1975.
183: Laos—Thailand: Postrevolution Exodus and Border Incidents June 1975–January 1976.
184: East Timor—Indonesia: Independence Struggle October 1975–May 2002.
185: Cambodia (Kampuchea)—Thailand: Refugee Influx, Regional Tensions, and Border Skirmishes December 1975–February 1976.
186: Thailand—Cambodia (Kampuchea): Refugee Influx, Regional Instability, and Khmer Rouge Border Incidents November–December 1976.
187: Cambodia (Kampuchea)—Thailand: Refugee Influx, Regional Instability, and Khmer Rouge Border Incidents January 1977–October 1978.
188: Cambodia (Kampuchea)—Vietnam: Border Fighting, Vietnamese Invasion, and the Cambodian Civil War January 1979–Ongoing.
189: China—Vietnam: Regional Rivalry and Border War January 1979–June 1982.
190: Cambodia (Kampuchea)—Thailand: Khmer Rouge Insurgency and Border Conflict December 1979–October 1980.
191: Espiritu Santo—Vanuatu (The New Hebrides): Secession Attempt May–September 1980.