The Encyclopedia of Civil Liberties in America, 1st Edition

  • Published By:
  • ISBN-10: 0765681404
  • ISBN-13: 9780765681409
  • Grade Level Range: College Freshman - College Senior
  • 1141 Pages | eBook
  • Original Copyright 2005 | Published/Released July 2007
  • This publication's content originally published in print form: 2005

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About

Overview

Driven by growing concerns about international security, public awareness of civil liberties and individual rights in America is greater today than at any time since the 1950s. At this critical time, when individual freedoms are being weighed against the need for increased security, this comprehensive three volume set provides the most detailed coverage of contemporary and historical issues relating to basic rights covered in the United States Constitution.

The Encyclopedia of Civil Liberties in America examines the history and hotly contested debates surrounding the concept and practice of civil liberties. It provides detailed history of court cases, events, Constitutional amendments and rights, personalities, and themes that have had an impact on our freedoms in America. The Encyclopedia appraises the state of civil liberties in America today, and examines growing concerns over the limiting of personal freedoms for the common good. Complete with selected relevant documents and a chronology of civil liberties developments, and including multiple indexes for quick reference.

Included is in-depth coverage of:

  • freedom of speech, religion, press, and assembly
  • protection against unreasonable search and seizure, as outlined in the Fourth amendment
  • criminal due process rights, as outlined in the Fifth, Sixth, Seventh, and Eighth amendments
  • property rights, economic liberties, and other rights found within the United States Constitution
  • Supreme Court justices, presidents, and other personalities
  • concepts, themes, and events related to civil liberties; both practical and theoretical
  • court cases and their impact on civil liberties, including 2004 Supreme Court decisions

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Table of Contents

Front Cover.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Contents.
Topic Finder.
Contributors.
Preface.
Introduction.
1: Abington School District v. Schempp (1963).
2: Abood v. Detroit Board of Education (1977).
3: Abrams v. United States (1919).
4: Academic Freedom.
5: Actual Malice.
6: Adamson v. California (1947).
7: Adderley v. Florida (1966).
8: Administrative Searches.
9: Adversarial versus Inquisitorial Legal Systems.
10: Aggravating and Mitigating Factors in Death Penalty Cases.
11: Agostini v. Felton (1997).
12: Aguilar v. Texas (1964).
13: Aid to Parochial Schools.
14: Airport Searches.
15: Alabama v. Shelton (2002).
16: Alien and Sedition Acts (1798).
17: Alien Tort Claims Act (1789).
18: Allgeyer v. Louisiana (1897).
19: American Bar Association.
20: American Booksellers Association, Inc. v. Hudnut (1985).
21: American Civil Liberties Union.
22: American Nazi Party.
23: Americans for Democratic Action.
24: Americans United for Separation of Church and State.
25: Amicus Curiae.
26: Amish.
27: Anonymous Political Speech.
28: Anti-Dial-a-Porn Measures.
29: Argersinger v. Hamlin (1972).
30: Arizona v. Evans (1995).
31: Arkansas Educational Television Commission v. Forbes (1998).
32: Arraignment.
33: Arrest.
34: Articles of Confederation.
35: Arts and Humanities Funding.
36: Ashcroft, John D. (b. 1942).
37: Ashcroft v. American Civil Liberties Union (2002).
38: Ashcroft v. Free Speech Coalition (2002).
39: Atkins v. Virginia (2002).
40: Attorney General.
41: Attorney General’s List of Subversive Organizations.
42: Atwater v. City of Lago Vista (2001).
43: Austin v. Michigan Chamber of Commerce (1990).
44: Automobile Searches.
45: Bad-Tendency Test.
46: Bail, Right to.
47: Bailey, F. Lee (b. 1933).
48: Baker v. Carr (1962).
49: Balancing Test.
50: Baldwin, Roger Nash (1884–1991).
51: Barenblatt v. United States (1959).
52: Barnes v. Glen Theatre, Inc. (1991).
53: Barron v. City of Baltimore (1833).
54: Bates v. State Bar of Arizona (1977).
55: Batson v. Kentucky (1986).
56: Beauharnais v. Illinois (1952).
57: Berman v. Parker (1954).
58: Bethel School District v. Fraser (1986).
59: Betts v. Brady (1942).
60: Beyond a Reasonable Doubt.
61: Bifurcation.
62: Bigelow v. Virginia (1975).
63: Bill of Attainder.
64: Bill of Rights.
65: Billboards.
66: Birth Control and Contraception.
67: Bivens and Section 1983 Actions.
68: Black, Hugo L. (1886–1971).
69: Blacklisting.
70: Blackmun, Harry A. (1908–1999).
71: Blackstone, William (1723–1780).
72: Blue Laws, or Sunday-Closing Laws.
73: Board of Education v. Earls (2002).
74: Board of Education v. Grumet (1994).
75: Board of Education v. Pico (1982).
76: Board of Regents v. Southworth (2000).
77: Book Banning.
78: Border Searches.
79: Bowers v. Hardwick (1986).
80: Boy Scouts of America v. Dale (2000).
81: Boycott.
82: Brady Rule.
83: Brandeis, Louis Dembitz (1856–1941).
84: Brandenburg v. Ohio (1969).
85: Branzburg v. Hayes (1972).
86: Bray v. Alexandria Women’s Health Clinic (1993).
87: Brennan, William J., Jr. (1906–1997).
88: Breyer, Stephen G. (b. 1938).
89: Bryan, William Jennings (1860–1925).
90: Buchanan v. Warley (1917).
91: Buck v. Bell (1927).
92: Buckley v. Valeo (1976).
93: Burger, Warren Earl (1907–1995).
94: Burson v. Freeman (1992).
95: Burton, Harold H. (1888–1964).
96: Bus Searches.
97: Bush, George H.W. (b. 1924).
98: Calder v. Bull (1798).
99: Cantwell v. Connecticut (1940).
100: Capital Punishment.
101: Captive Audience.
102: Cardozo, Benjamin N. (1870–1938).
103: Carolene Products, Footnote 4 (1938).
104: Carroll v. United States (1925).
105: Carter, Jimmy (b. 1924).
106: Censorship.
107: Central Hudson Gas and Electric Corp. v. Public Service Commission of New York (1980).
108: Central Intelligence Agency.
109: Chafee, Zechariah, Jr. (1885–1957).
110: Chaplinsky v. New Hampshire (1942).
111: Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge (1837).
112: Chavez v. Martinez (2003).
113: Checks and Balances.
114: Child-Benefit Theory.
115: Child Pornography.
116: Chilling Effect.
117: Christian Roots of Civil Liberties.
118: Christian Science.
119: Church of the Lukumi Babalu Aye, Inc. v. City of Hialeah (1993).
120: Cipollone v. Liggett Group (1992).
121: Citizenship.
122: City of Boerne v. Flores (1997).
123: City of Erie v. Pap’s A.M. (2000).
124: City of Indianapolis v. Edmond (2000).
125: City of Ladue v. Gilleo (1994).
126: City of Los Angeles v. Alameda Books, Inc. (2002).
127: City of Renton v. Playtime Theatres, Inc. (1986).
128: Civil Disobedience.
129: “Civil Disobedience” (1849).
130: Civil Law System.
131: Civil Liberties.
132: Civil Rights Cases (1883).
133: Civil War and Civil Liberties.
134: Civilian Control of the Military.
135: Clear and Present Danger.
136: Clemency.
137: Clinton v. Jones (1997).
138: Cloning Human Beings.
139: Cohen v. California (1971).
140: Colegrove v. Green (1946).
141: Colorado Republican Federal Campaign Committee v. Federal Election Commission (1996).
142: Commercial Speech.
143: Common Law.
144: Communists.
145: Compelling Governmental Interest.
146: Comstock Acts.
147: Confrontation Clause.
148: Congress and Civil Liberties.
149: Congressional Investigations.
150: Conscientious Objectors.
151: Conservatism.
152: Constitutional Amending Process.
153: Constitutional Amendments.
154: Constitutional Interpretation and Civil Liberties.
155: Constitutionalism.
156: Contempt Powers.
157: Contract, Freedom of.
158: Contracts Clause.
159: Cooley, Thomas McIntyre (1824–1898).
160: Copyright, Patent, and Trademark.
161: Corfield v. Coryell (1823).
162: Corporate Speech.
163: Corrupt Practices Act of 1925.
164: County of Allegheny v. American Civil Liberties Union (1989).
165: County of Riverside v. McLaughlin (1991).
166: Court-Packing Plan.
167: Coy v. Iowa (1988).
168: Creation Science.
169: Cruel and Unusual Punishments.
170: Cruzan v. Director, Missouri Department of Health (1990).
171: Darrow, Clarence (1857–1938).
172: Death Penalty for the Mentally Retarded.
173: Death-Qualified Juries.
174: Debs, Eugene Victor (1855–1926).
175: Debs, In re (1895).
176: Declaration of Independence.
177: Deep Throat.
178: Democracy and Civil Liberties.
179: Democratic Party.
180: Dennis v. United States (1951).
181: Department of Justice.
182: DeShaney v. Winnebago County Department of Social Services (1989).
183: Dickerson v. United States (2000).
184: Directed Verdicts.
185: Disability Rights.
186: Discovery.
187: DNA Testing.
188: Doe v. Bolton (1973).
189: Dolan v. City of Tigard (1994).
190: Double Jeopardy.
191: Douglas, William O. (1898–1980).