Environmental Debate: A Documentary History, 2nd Edition

  • Published By:
  • ISBN-10: 1592376770
  • ISBN-13: 9781592376773
  • Grade Level Range: 9th Grade - College Senior
  • 460 Pages | eBook
  • Original Copyright 2011 | Published/Released September 2011
  • This publication's content originally published in print form: 2011

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About

Overview

This unique collection of primary documents examines the evolution of concern about environmental degradation, pollution, and resource conservation in America from the Colonial period the present. This edition has a new chapter with documents from 2000 to 2010, a new Resources section that features hundreds of environmentally significant organizations, with descriptions and contact information, more photos and an expanded Timeline. Chapters are arranged chronologically to illustrate how environmental thought has changed. Documents include the writings of naturalists, conservationists, scientists, philosophers, lawyers, judges, politicians, sociologists, artists and poets, as well as from government reports, federal, state, and local legislation, and court cases.

Table of Contents

Front Cover.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Contents.
Foreword.
Preface.
Acknowledgments.
Introduction.
1: Foundations of American Environmental Thought and Action.
2: Biblical Views of Nature and Humanity.
3: Virgil’s Pastoral View of Nature (c. 50 B.C.E.).
4: Christopher Columbus Inventories the New World’s Natural Resources (1493).
5: Jean Ribaut Discovers the Natural Abundance of Terra Florida (1563).
6: Baltasar de Obregon’s Account of the Riches of New Mexico (1584).
7: Thomas Hariot on the Death of Indians from Diseases Brought from Europe (1588).
8: William Bradford on Life in the Wilderness (1620, 1621).
9: Francis Bacon on Science and Technology (1629).
10: Regulating the Herring Run in the Town of Plymouth (1637, 1638, 1639, 1662).
11: Predator Control and Game Hunting Regulation in Rhode Island Colony (1639, 1646).
12: Thomas Hobbes’s Social Contract Theory (1651).
13: Pollution in Plymouth Colony Harbor (1668).
14: William Penn Contracts to Set Aside Timbered Lands (1681).
15: John Locke on Property and Labor (1690).
16: John Ray on Gardens and Wilderness (1691).
17: Jonathan Edwards on God and Nature (1739).
18: Peter Kalm on Land Management (1753).
19: William Blackstone’s On the Rights of Things (1765-1769).
20: John Bartram on Reclaiming Florida’s Wetlands (1767).
21: Politicians, Naturalists, and Artists in the New Nation, 1776-1839.
22: Thomas Jefferson on Agrarianism and Industrialization (1785, 1816).
23: James Madison on Population and Property (1786, 1788).
24: Philip Freneau’s Noble Savage (1788).
25: William Bartram on the Human Impact on the Environment (1791).
26: Benjamin Rush on Saving the Sugar Maple (1791).
27: The Founding Fathers on the Care of the Land (1793, 1818).
28: Thomas Malthus’s Essay on the Principle of Population (1798).
29: Meriwether Lewis on the Slaughter of Buffaloes (1805-1806).
30: Act Establishing the First Federal Forest Reserve (1817).
31: Act to Protect Useful Birds in Massachusetts (1818).
32: James Fenimore Cooper Laments the Disappearance of Unregulated Wilderness (1823).
33: George Catlin’s Proposal for a National Park (1832).
34: Black Hawk on the Indians and the Land (1833).
35: John James Audubon on the Senseless Destruction of Fish, Birds, and Quadrupeds (1833).
36: The Origins of Environmental Activism, 1840-1889.
37: Thomas Cole’s Lament of the Forest (1841).
38: John James Audubon on the Decimation of the Bison Herds (1843).
39: Ralph Waldo Emerson on Nature (1844, 1884).
40: William Cullen Bryant’s Proposal for a Great Municipal Park (1844).
41: Andrew Jackson Downing Talks about Public Parks and Gardens (1848).
42: Swamp and Overflow Act (1850).
43: The Shattuck Report’s Recommendations for Sanitary Improvement (1850).
44: Rebecca Harding Davis on Smoke and Soot in a Mill Town (1861).
45: Homestead Act (1862).
46: George Perkins Marsh’s Man and Nature (1864).
47: Henry David Thoreau on the Value of Living Things (1864).
48: Act Granting Yo-Semite Valley to California (1864).
49: The Citizens’ Association of New York on Sewage and Disease (1865).
50: John Muir on the Spirituality of Nature (1866).
51: Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux on Creating Parks to Serve the Public (1866, 1872).
52: Charles Darwin on the Similarity between Humans and Other Animals (1871).
53: Act Establishing Yellowstone National Park (1872).
54: Mining Act (1872).
55: Carl Schurz on the Need for Federal Forest Conservation (1877).
56: Henry George on Land Development (1879).
57: Act Establishing the Adirondack Forest Preserve Act (1885).
58: American Ornithologists’ Union’s Model Law (1886).
59: George Bird Grinnell and Celia Thaxter on the Audubon Society Cause (1886).
60: Constitution of the Boone and Crockett Club (1887).
61: John Wesley Powell on the Lands of the Arid Regions (1890).
62: The Conservation Movement Era, 1890-1919.
63: Forest Reserve Act (1891).
64: Frederick J. Turner on the Disappearance of the Frontier (1894).
65: Rivers and Harbors Act (1899).
66: Theodore Roosevelt Addresses Congress on Forest Preservation and Land Reclamation (1901).
67: Reclamation Act (1902).
68: Upton Sinclair on the Adulteration of Processed Food (1906).
69: Ellen Swallow Richards on Sanitation and Human Ecology (1907).
70: Theodore Roosevelt on the Conservation and Use of Natural Resources (1907).
71: Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr., on the Smoke Nuisance (1908).
72: John Muir, James Phelan, and the Battle over the Flooding of the Hetch Hetchy Valley (1908-1913).
73: Richard Ballinger on the Development of the West (1909).
74: Report of the National Conservation Commission (1909).
75: WJ McGee on Conservation (1909).
76: Jane Addams on Garbage (1910).
77: Gifford Pinchot on Conservation and the National Interest (1911).
78: Rethinking Our Relationship to Nature, 1920-1959.
79: Pennsylvania Coal Company v. Mahon et al. (1922).
80: Village of Euclid et al. v. Ambler Realty Company (1926).
81: Henry Beston on the Human Relationship with Nature (1928).
82: Franklin D. Roosevelt on the Destruction of America’s Forests (1930).
83: Stuart Chase on Waste in the Machine Age (1931).
84: Arthur Kallet and F.J. Schlink on the Dangers of Manufactured Products (1932).
85: Luther Standing Bear on Native Americans and the Rights of Other Living Things (1933).
86: Arthur Tansley on the Concept of the Ecosystem (1935).
87: H.V. Harlan and M.L. Martini on the Loss of Genetic Diversity (1936).
88: Lewis Mumford on Regional Planning (1938).
89: John Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath (1939).
90: Marjory Stoneman Douglas on the Everglades (1947).
91: Roger Tory Peterson on Bird Population (1948).
92: Fairfield Osborn on the Interrelatedness of All Living Things (1948).
93: Aldo Leopold’s Land Ethic (1949).
94: Harry Truman’s Materials Policy Commission on Economic Growth and Resource Policy (1952).
95: Samuel H. Ordway, Jr., on Limits to Growth (1953).
96: J. Robert Oppenheimer on the Use of Science (1953).
97: Bernard Frank on Land Development and Water Availability (1955).
98: Clean Air Act (1955).
99: M. King Hubbert on Fossil Fuels and Nuclear Energy (1956).
100: John Kenneth Galbraith Asks, “How Much Should a Country Consume?” (1958).
101: David Brower Demands Support for the Wilderness Act (1959).
102: The Heyday of the Environmental Movement, 1960-1979.
103: The Surgeon General’s Report on Environmental Health (1960).
104: Lorus J. Milne and Margery Milne on the Balance of Nature (1961).
105: Murray Bookchin on the Synthetic Environment (1962).
106: Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring (1962).
107: Stewart L. Udall on the Land Ethic (1963).
108: John F. Kennedy on the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (1963).
109: Scenic Hudson Preservation Conference v. Federal Power Commission (1965).
110: California Land Conservation Act (1965) and Article XXVIII of the California Constitution (1966).
111: Kenneth E. Boulding on the Spaceship Economy (1966).
112: Lynn White, Jr., on Western Religions and the Environmental Crisis (1967).
113: Paul Ehrlich’s The Population Bomb (1968).
114: Garrett Hardin on Controlling Access to the Commons (1968).
115: John Teal and Mildred Teal on the Productivity of the Salt Marsh (1969).
116: Ian McHarg on the Fitness of Ecosystems (1969).
117: National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (1970).
118: Richard Nixon on the Need for Environmental Regulation (1970).
119: Clean Air Act Amendments (1970).
120: Dennis Puleston on the Founding of the Environmental Defense Fund (1971).
121: Barry Commoner on the Ecosphere (1971).
122: Clean Water Act (1972).
123: Christopher Stone Proposes Legal Rights for Natural Objects (1972).
124: Sierra Club v. Morton (1972).
125: Stockholm Declaration on the Human Environment (1972).
126: Endangered Species Act (1973).
127: Ernest Callenbach’s Ecotopia (1975).
128: Edward Abbey’s The Monkey Wrench Gang (1975).
129: Greenpeace’s Declaration of Interdependence (1976).
130: Confronting Economic and Social Realities, 1980-1999.
131: Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (1980).
132: Mark Sagoff on the Public Interest (1981).
133: Lester R. Brown on Building a Sustainable Society (1981).
134: Julian L. Simon on Population Growth (1981).
135: Coastal Barrier Resources Act (1981).
136: Arne Naess on Deep Ecology (1982, 1984).
137: United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (1983).
138: Bernard Cohen on Nuclear Energy and Risk Assessment (1983).
139: Bob Graham on Restoring of the Kissimmee River—Lake Okeechobee—Everglades Ecosystem (1983).
140: Edward O. Wilson on the Need for a Conservation Ethic (1984, 1998).
141: Jurgen Schmandt, Hilliard Roderick and Andrew Morriss on Acid Rain and Friendly Neighbors (1985).
142: United Nations Convention (1985) and Protocol (1987) on Ozone Depletion.
143: United Church of Christ Commission for Racial Justice’s Report on Toxic Waste and Race (1987).
144: James Hansen Makes the Case for Climate Change (1988).
145: Dixy Lee Ray Asks, “Who Speaks for Science?” (1990).
146: Roger Smith on Industry and the Environment (1990).
147: California Air Resources Board Lowers Its Vehicle Emissions Standards (1990, 1996).
148: John P. Holdren on Energy and Human Well-Being (1990).
149: Barry Lopez on a Sense of Place (1990).
150: United Nations Convention (1992) and Protocol (1997) on Climate Change.
151: Donella Meadows on the Complexity of the Malthusian Debate (1993).
152: Carl Safina on the Decline of Fishes (1995).
153: Edward Tenner on Shifting Liability (1996).
154: The Business Roundtable Objects to the Kyoto Protocol (1998).
155: Jeremy Rifkin on Biotechnology and the Environment (1998).
156: Challenges for the Twenty-First Century.
157: Norman E. Borlaug on Biotechnology and AntiScience (2000).
158: Solid Waste Agency of Northern Cook County v. United States Army Corps of Engineers et al. (2001).
159: Mendocino County Ordinance Prohibiting the Propagation, Cultivation, Raising, and Growing of Genetically Modified Organisms (2004).
160: Bruce Babbitt Proposed a New Approach to Federal Land-Use Planning (2005).
161: Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River Basin Sustainable Water Resources Agreement (2005).
162: Milton R. Copulos on the Dangers of Imported Oil (2006).
163: Al Gore on the Politicization of Global Warming (2006).
164: Oakland’s Zero Waste Resolution (2006).
165: American College & University Presidents’ Climate Commitment (2006).
166: New York City’s PlaNYC 2030 (2007).
167: Massachusetts et al. v. Environmental Protection Agency et al. (2007).
168: Christine MacDonald on Sustainable Development and Corporate Policy (2008).
169: Leed and the Green Building Revolution (2008, 2010).
170: Jeff Biggers Questions the Concept of “Clean Coal” (2008).
171: Jared Diamond on Consumption, Population, and Sustainability (2008).
172: Mark Bittman on the Environmental Impact of the American Diet (2009).
173: P. Ozge Kaplan, Joseph DeCarolis and Susan Thorneloe on Clean Electricity Generation from Waste (2009).
174: Eric Sanderson on the City of the Future (2009).
175: Barack Obama Recommends a National Policy for Stewardship of the Ocean, our Coasts, and the Great Lakes (2010).
176: Paul Krugman on Economics and Global Change (2010).
177: Significant Dates in American Environmental History.
178: Major Environmental Organizations.
Glossary.
Notes.
Further Readings.
Copyright Acknowledgments.
Index.