Historical Dictionary of Medieval China, 1st Edition

  • Victor Cunrui Xiong
  • Published By:
  • ISBN-10: 0810862581
  • ISBN-13: 9780810862586
  • DDC: 951.0103
  • Grade Level Range: 9th Grade - College Senior
  • 731 Pages | eBook
  • Original Copyright 2008 | Published/Released November 2009
  • This publication's content originally published in print form: 2008

  • Price:  Sign in for price

About

Overview

The crucial period of Chinese history, 220-960, falls naturally into contrasting phases. The first phase, also known as that of "early medieval China," is an age of political decentralization. Following the breakup of the Han empire, China was plunged into civil war and fragmentation and stayed divided for nearly four centuries. The second phase started in 589, during the Sui dynasty, when China was once again brought under a single government. Under the Sui, the bureaucracy was revitalized, the military strengthened, and the taxation system reformed. The fall of the Sui in 618 gave way to the even stronger Tang dynasty, which represents an apogee of traditional Chinese civilization. Inheriting all the great institutions developed under the Sui, the Tang made great achievements in poetry, painting, music, and architecture. The An Lushan rebellion, which also took place during Tang rule, brought about far-reaching changes in the socioeconomic, political, and military arenas. What transpired in the second half of the Tang and the ensuing Five Dynasties provided the foundation for the next age of late imperial China.

The Historical Dictionary of Medieval China fills an urgent need for a standard reference tailored to the interest of Western academics and readers. The history of medieval China is related through the book's introductory essay, maps, a table of Dynastic Periods, a bibliography, and hundreds of cross-referenced dictionary entries on key people, historical geography, arts, institutions, events, and other important terms.

About the Author:
Victor Cunrui Xiong has taught Chinese and East Asian history at Western Michigan University since 1989. He has published extensively on medieval China and edited Early Medieval China (1994-1999).

Table of Contents

Front Cover.
Other Books.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Contents.
Editor’s Foreword.
Conventions and Symbols.
Abbreviations.
Maps.
Index to Maps.
Dynastic Periods: Han–Northern Song.
Chronology.
Introduction.
1: Abe No Nakamaro 阿部仲麻呂 (698–770) [Chao Heng 朝/晁 衡]..
2: Abhidharma [lun 論; śāstras]..
3: Abo Qaghan 阿波可汗 (r. 581–587) [Apa; Daluobian 大邏便]..
4: Ācārya [asheli 阿闍梨; azheliye -遮利耶].
5: Ahan Jing 阿含經 [Āgama sūtras]..
6: Aidi..
7: Ailao 哀牢..
8: Aizhou 愛州..
9: Aluoben 阿羅本 (fl. 635)..
10: Amitābha [Emituofo 阿彌陀佛; Mituo; Jpn.:Amida]/AMITĀYUS [Wuliangshoufo 無量壽佛]..
11: Amoghavajra (705–774) [Bukong 不空]..
12: An 安..
13: An Chonghui 安重誨 (?–931)..
14: An Chongrong 安重榮 (?–942) [Minor zi Tiehu 鐵胡]..
15: An Congjin 安從進 (?–942)..
16: An Lushan Shiji 安祿山事蹟 (Biography of An Lushan)..
17: An Lushan 安祿山 (703–757) [Kang Zhaluoshan 康軋犖山]..
18: An Lushan 安祿山 Rebellion (755–763)..
19: An Qingxu 安慶緒 (?–759) [An Renzhi 安仁執]..
20: An Shigao 安世高 (fl. mid-late 2nd century)..
21: Anagui 阿那瓌 (?–552, r. 520–552)..
22: Ānanda [Anantuo 阿難陀; Anan]..
23: Anātman [wuwo 無我]..
24: Anbei 安北..
25: Anbian 安邊.
26: Ancha Shi/Ancha Chuzhi Shi 按察處置使 (surveillance commissioner)..
27: Ancheng 安城..
28: Ancheng 安成..
29: Ande 安德..
30: Andi, Jin 晉安帝 (382/3–early 419, r. 396–419) [Sima Dezong 司馬 德宗]..
31: Anding 安定..
32: Andong 安東..
33: Anfeng 安豐..
34: Anfu Shi 安撫使 (pacification commissioner)..
35: Anitya [wuchang 無常]..
36: Anle 安樂..
37: Anlu 安陸..
38: Annan 安南 Duhu Fu 都護府 (protectorate)/Jinglue Shi 經略 使 (frontier commissioner)..
39: Anping 安平..
40: Anshi 安市..
41: Anxi..
42: Anxiang/Chang 安鄉/昌..
43: Anyang 安陽..
44: Anyi 安邑..
45: Anyue 安岳..
46: Anzhou 安州..
47: Aocang 敖倉..
48: Āraṇya [alanruo 阿蘭若] (forest)..
49: Arhat [luohan; aluohan 阿羅漢]..
50: Aristocracy..
51: Āryadeva (fl. 3rd century) [Tipo 提婆]..
52: Āryasthāvirāḥ [Sthavirāḥ; Shangzuo Bu 上座部] (the school of the elders)..
53: Asaṇga (ca. 4th–ca. 5th centuries) [Wuzhu 無著]..
54: Ashina Guduolu 阿史那骨咄祿 (r. 682–691/694) [Ashina Gudulu -骨篤祿]..
55: Ashina She’er 阿史那社尒 (604–655)..
56: Aśoka (?–232 BC) [Ayuwang 阿育王]..
57: Asura [xiuluo; axiuluo 阿修羅]..
58: Aśvaghoṣa (fl. 2nd century) [Maming 馬鳴]..
59: Avalokiteśvara [Guanyin; Guanshiyin 觀世音]..
60: AVĪCI [Abi 阿鼻]..
61: BA 巴..
62: Bachuan 巴川..
63: Ba-Cong 巴賨 / Ba-Di 巴氐..
64: Badong 巴東..
65: Bagongshan 八公山..
66: Bai Juyi 白居易 (772–846) [Bai Xiangshan -香山; zi Letian 樂天]..
67: Bai Xingjian 白行簡 (776–826) [zi Zhitui 知退/Tuizhi 退之]..
68: Bai Zhizhen 白志貞 (?–787) [Bai Xiugui -琇珪]..
69: Baidao 白道..
70: Baideng 白登..
71: Baidicheng 白帝城..
72: Baigou 白溝..
73: Baigu 柏谷..
74: Baiji 白籍 (white register)..
75: Bailun 百論 [Śata-śāstra] (Hundred verses)..
76: Bailuyuan 白鹿原..
77: Bailuzhou 白鷺洲..
78: Baima 白馬..
79: Baiman 白蠻..
80: Baimen 白門..
81: Baiqu 白渠..
82: Baisha 白沙..
83: Baishan 白山..
84: Baishui 白水..
85: Baishuiguan 白水關..
86: Baitan 白檀..
87: Baixia 白下..
88: Baixing 白陘 [Mengmen 孟門]..
89: Baiya 白崖..
90: Baiyu Jing 百喻經 (Sūtra of one hundred parables)..
91: Bajiang 巴江..
92: Bajun 巴郡..
93: Baling 巴陵..
94: Ban 班 (rank)..
95: Bao Zhao 鮑照 (ca. 414–466)..
96: Baoyedao 褒斜道..
97: Baqiao 霸 / 灞橋..
98: Baqiu 巴丘..
99: Bashang 霸上..
100: Bashui 巴水..
101: Bashui 霸 / 灞水..
102: Baxi 巴西..
103: Baximi 拔悉蜜/彌..
104: Bayegu 拔也古 [Bayirku]..
105: Bazhou..
106: Bazuo 八座 (eight seats)..
107: Bei Qi Shu 北齊書 / Qi Shu (History of the Northern Qi)..
108: Bei Shi 北史 (History of the Northern Dynasties)..
109: Beidangqu 北宕渠..
110: Beidi 北地..
111: Beiguangping 北廣平..
112: Beihai 北海 (north sea)..
113: Beijiang 北江 (north river)..
114: Beijing 北荊..
115: Beili Zhi 北里志 (Record of the Northern Quarters)..
116: Beiliang 北梁..
117: Beimang Shan 北邙山 [Mangshan]..
118: Beimeng Suoyan 北夢瑣言 (Miscellaneous accounts from north of Meng)..
119: Beiping 北平..
120: Beishan 北山 (north mountains)..
121: Beishenyan 北神堰..
122: Beiting 北庭..
123: Beixu 北徐..
124: Beiyan 北兗..
125: Beiyang 北揚..
126: Beiyuzhou 北豫州..
127: Beizhou 貝州..
128: Benji 本寂 (840–901) [né Huang 黃]..
129: Bhaiṣajyaguru [Yaoshi 藥師]..
130: Bhikṣu [biqiu 比丘] (mendicant)..
131: BHIKṢUṆĪ [biqiuni 比丘尼]..
132: Bhūtatathatā [Zhenru 真如]..
133: Bi 畢 [Betik]..
134: Bi Erqian Shi 比二千石 (equal to 2,000 Shi [bushels] of grain)..
135: Bian Hao 邊鎬 (fl. mid-10th century)..
136: Bianhe 汴河..
137: Bianji 辯機 (fl. early 7th century)..
138: Bianjing 汴京 (metropolis at Bian)..
139: Bianliang 汴梁..
140: Bianqu 汴渠..
141: Bianshui 汳水..
142: Bianshui 汴水..
143: Biansong 汴宋 Jiedu Shi (defense command)..
144: Bianwen 變文 (transformation text)..
145: Bianzhou..
146: Bibu 比部..
147: Biejia 別駕 (mounted rider)..
148: Biji 筆記 (random notes)..
149: Bingbu 兵部..
150: Bingzhou 并州..
151: Binke 賓客 (guest client)..
152: Binning 邠寧 Jiedu Shi (defense command)..
153: Binzhou..
154: Bixia Yuanjun 碧霞元君 (Original Sovereign of the Azure Clouds) [Taishan Niangniang 泰山娘娘]..
155: Biyang 泌陽..
156: Biyuan 畢原..
157: Bizhou..
158: Bochuan 播川..
159: Bodao 僰道..
160: Bodhidharma (?–536)..
161: Bodhiruci..
162: Bodhisattva [Pusa 菩薩] (enlightened being)..
163: Bogulü 薄骨律..
164: Bohai 渤海..
165: Boling 博陵..
166: Bolizhou 勃利州..
167: Bolü 勃律 [Bolor]..
168: Boping. 博平.
169: Bore Lun 般若論 / Jingang bore boluomi jing lun 金剛般若波羅 蜜經論 [Vajracchedikā-Prajñāpāramitopadeśa]..
170: Boshi 博士 (savant)..
171: Bosidi 波斯邸 (Persian store)..
172: Bosisi 波斯寺 (Persian monastery) [Bosi husi 波斯胡寺]..
173: Bowang 博望..
174: Bowu Zhi 博物志 (Treatise on the investigation of things)..
175: Bozhou..
176: Buddha Gayā 佛陀加耶..
177: Buddhabhadra (359–429) [Fotuobatuoluo 佛馱跋陀羅]..
178: Buddhaghoṣa. (fl. early 5th century) [Foyin佛音]..
179: Buddhayaśas 佛陀耶舍 (fl. early 5th century)..
180: Buddhism..
181: Bujia Qaghan 步迦可汗 (r. 576–603) [Bilgä; Datou 達頭 (Tardu) Qaghan; Dianjue 玷厥]..
182: Buqu 部曲 (private soldier or bound retainer).
183: Buque 補闕 (court rectifier)..
184: Cai Yong 蔡邕 (132–192) [zi Bojie 伯喈]..
185: Caifang Shi / Caifang Chuzhi Shi 採訪處置使 (investigative commissioner)..
186: Cairen 才人 (person of talent)..
187: Caishui 蔡水 [Shashui 沙水; Caihe -河]..
Front Cover.
Other Books.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Contents.
Editor’s Foreword.
Conventions and Symbols.
Abbreviations.
Maps.
Index to Maps.
Dynastic Periods: Han–Northern Song.
Chronology.
Introduction.
1: Abe No Nakamaro 阿部仲麻呂 (698–770) [Chao Heng 朝/晁 衡]..
2: Abhidharma [lun 論; śāstras]..
3: Abo Qaghan 阿波可汗 (r. 581–587) [Apa; Daluobian 大邏便]..
4: Ācārya [asheli 阿闍梨; azheliye -遮利耶].
5: Ahan Jing 阿含經 [Āgama sūtras]..
6: Aidi..
7: Ailao 哀牢..
8: Aizhou 愛州..
9: Aluoben 阿羅本 (fl. 635)..
10: Amitābha [Emituofo 阿彌陀佛; Mituo; Jpn.:Amida]/AMITĀYUS [Wuliangshoufo 無量壽佛]..
11: Amoghavajra (705–774) [Bukong 不空]..
12: An 安..
13: An Chonghui 安重誨 (?–931)..
14: An Chongrong 安重榮 (?–942) [Minor zi Tiehu 鐵胡]..
15: An Congjin 安從進 (?–942)..
16: An Lushan Shiji 安祿山事蹟 (Biography of An Lushan)..
17: An Lushan 安祿山 (703–757) [Kang Zhaluoshan 康軋犖山]..
18: An Lushan 安祿山 Rebellion (755–763)..
19: An Qingxu 安慶緒 (?–759) [An Renzhi 安仁執]..
20: An Shigao 安世高 (fl. mid-late 2nd century)..
21: Anagui 阿那瓌 (?–552, r. 520–552)..
22: Ānanda [Anantuo 阿難陀; Anan]..
23: Anātman [wuwo 無我]..
24: Anbei 安北..
25: Anbian 安邊.
26: Ancha Shi/Ancha Chuzhi Shi 按察處置使 (surveillance commissioner)..
27: Ancheng 安城..
28: Ancheng 安成..
29: Ande 安德..
30: Andi, Jin 晉安帝 (382/3–early 419, r. 396–419) [Sima Dezong 司馬 德宗]..
31: Anding 安定..
32: Andong 安東..
33: Anfeng 安豐..
34: Anfu Shi 安撫使 (pacification commissioner)..
35: Anitya [wuchang 無常]..
36: Anle 安樂..
37: Anlu 安陸..
38: Annan 安南 Duhu Fu 都護府 (protectorate)/Jinglue Shi 經略 使 (frontier commissioner)..
39: Anping 安平..
40: Anshi 安市..
41: Anxi..
42: Anxiang/Chang 安鄉/昌..
43: Anyang 安陽..
44: Anyi 安邑..
45: Anyue 安岳..
46: Anzhou 安州..
47: Aocang 敖倉..
48: Āraṇya [alanruo 阿蘭若] (forest)..
49: Arhat [luohan; aluohan 阿羅漢]..
50: Aristocracy..
51: Āryadeva (fl. 3rd century) [Tipo 提婆]..
52: Āryasthāvirāḥ [Sthavirāḥ; Shangzuo Bu 上座部] (the school of the elders)..
53: Asaṇga (ca. 4th–ca. 5th centuries) [Wuzhu 無著]..
54: Ashina Guduolu 阿史那骨咄祿 (r. 682–691/694) [Ashina Gudulu -骨篤祿]..
55: Ashina She’er 阿史那社尒 (604–655)..
56: Aśoka (?–232 BC) [Ayuwang 阿育王]..
57: Asura [xiuluo; axiuluo 阿修羅]..
58: Aśvaghoṣa (fl. 2nd century) [Maming 馬鳴]..
59: Avalokiteśvara [Guanyin; Guanshiyin 觀世音]..
60: AVĪCI [Abi 阿鼻]..
61: BA 巴..
62: Bachuan 巴川..
63: Ba-Cong 巴賨 / Ba-Di 巴氐..
64: Badong 巴東..
65: Bagongshan 八公山..
66: Bai Juyi 白居易 (772–846) [Bai Xiangshan -香山; zi Letian 樂天]..
67: Bai Xingjian 白行簡 (776–826) [zi Zhitui 知退/Tuizhi 退之]..
68: Bai Zhizhen 白志貞 (?–787) [Bai Xiugui -琇珪]..
69: Baidao 白道..
70: Baideng 白登..
71: Baidicheng 白帝城..
72: Baigou 白溝..
73: Baigu 柏谷..
74: Baiji 白籍 (white register)..
75: Bailun 百論 [Śata-śāstra] (Hundred verses)..
76: Bailuyuan 白鹿原..
77: Bailuzhou 白鷺洲..
78: Baima 白馬..
79: Baiman 白蠻..
80: Baimen 白門..
81: Baiqu 白渠..
82: Baisha 白沙..
83: Baishan 白山..
84: Baishui 白水..
85: Baishuiguan 白水關..
86: Baitan 白檀..
87: Baixia 白下..
88: Baixing 白陘 [Mengmen 孟門]..
89: Baiya 白崖..
90: Baiyu Jing 百喻經 (Sūtra of one hundred parables)..
91: Bajiang 巴江..
92: Bajun 巴郡..
93: Baling 巴陵..
94: Ban 班 (rank)..
95: Bao Zhao 鮑照 (ca. 414–466)..
96: Baoyedao 褒斜道..
97: Baqiao 霸 / 灞橋..
98: Baqiu 巴丘..
99: Bashang 霸上..
100: Bashui 巴水..
101: Bashui 霸 / 灞水..
102: Baxi 巴西..
103: Baximi 拔悉蜜/彌..
104: Bayegu 拔也古 [Bayirku]..
105: Bazhou..
106: Bazuo 八座 (eight seats)..
107: Bei Qi Shu 北齊書 / Qi Shu (History of the Northern Qi)..
108: Bei Shi 北史 (History of the Northern Dynasties)..
109: Beidangqu 北宕渠..
110: Beidi 北地..
111: Beiguangping 北廣平..
112: Beihai 北海 (north sea)..
113: Beijiang 北江 (north river)..
114: Beijing 北荊..
115: Beili Zhi 北里志 (Record of the Northern Quarters)..
116: Beiliang 北梁..
117: Beimang Shan 北邙山 [Mangshan]..
118: Beimeng Suoyan 北夢瑣言 (Miscellaneous accounts from north of Meng)..
119: Beiping 北平..
120: Beishan 北山 (north mountains)..
121: Beishenyan 北神堰..
122: Beiting 北庭..
123: Beixu 北徐..
124: Beiyan 北兗..
125: Beiyang 北揚..
126: Beiyuzhou 北豫州..
127: Beizhou 貝州..
128: Benji 本寂 (840–901) [né Huang 黃]..
129: Bhaiṣajyaguru [Yaoshi 藥師]..
130: Bhikṣu [biqiu 比丘] (mendicant)..
131: BHIKṢUṆĪ [biqiuni 比丘尼]..
132: Bhūtatathatā [Zhenru 真如]..
133: Bi 畢 [Betik]..
134: Bi Erqian Shi 比二千石 (equal to 2,000 Shi [bushels] of grain)..
135: Bian Hao 邊鎬 (fl. mid-10th century)..
136: Bianhe 汴河..
137: Bianji 辯機 (fl. early 7th century)..
138: Bianjing 汴京 (metropolis at Bian)..
139: Bianliang 汴梁..
140: Bianqu 汴渠..
141: Bianshui 汳水..
142: Bianshui 汴水..
143: Biansong 汴宋 Jiedu Shi (defense command)..
144: Bianwen 變文 (transformation text)..
145: Bianzhou..
146: Bibu 比部..
147: Biejia 別駕 (mounted rider)..
148: Biji 筆記 (random notes)..
149: Bingbu 兵部..
150: Bingzhou 并州..
151: Binke 賓客 (guest client)..
152: Binning 邠寧 Jiedu Shi (defense command)..
153: Binzhou..
154: Bixia Yuanjun 碧霞元君 (Original Sovereign of the Azure Clouds) [Taishan Niangniang 泰山娘娘]..
155: Biyang 泌陽..
156: Biyuan 畢原..
157: Bizhou..
158: Bochuan 播川..
159: Bodao 僰道..
160: Bodhidharma (?–536)..
161: Bodhiruci..
162: Bodhisattva [Pusa 菩薩] (enlightened being)..
163: Bogulü 薄骨律..
164: Bohai 渤海..
165: Boling 博陵..
166: Bolizhou 勃利州..
167: Bolü 勃律 [Bolor]..
168: Boping. 博平.
169: Bore Lun 般若論 / Jingang bore boluomi jing lun 金剛般若波羅 蜜經論 [Vajracchedikā-Prajñāpāramitopadeśa]..
170: Boshi 博士 (savant)..
171: Bosidi 波斯邸 (Persian store)..
172: Bosisi 波斯寺 (Persian monastery) [Bosi husi 波斯胡寺]..
173: Bowang 博望..
174: Bowu Zhi 博物志 (Treatise on the investigation of things)..
175: Bozhou..
176: Buddha Gayā 佛陀加耶..
177: Buddhabhadra (359–429) [Fotuobatuoluo 佛馱跋陀羅]..
178: Buddhaghoṣa. (fl. early 5th century) [Foyin佛音]..
179: Buddhayaśas 佛陀耶舍 (fl. early 5th century)..
180: Buddhism..
181: Bujia Qaghan 步迦可汗 (r. 576–603) [Bilgä; Datou 達頭 (Tardu) Qaghan; Dianjue 玷厥]..
182: Buqu 部曲 (private soldier or bound retainer).
183: Buque 補闕 (court rectifier)..
184: Cai Yong 蔡邕 (132–192) [zi Bojie 伯喈]..
185: Caifang Shi / Caifang Chuzhi Shi 採訪處置使 (investigative commissioner)..
186: Cairen 才人 (person of talent)..
187: Caishui 蔡水 [Shashui 沙水; Caihe -河]..