Historical Dictionary of Iraq, 1st Edition

  • Published By:
  • ISBN-10: 0810859289
  • ISBN-13: 9780810859289
  • Grade Level Range: 9th Grade - College Senior
  • 459 Pages | eBook
  • Original Copyright 2004 | Published/Released April 2007
  • This publication's content originally published in print form: 2004

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About

Overview

This reference begins with the earliest civilizations and covers the many periods that followed, ranging from the history of ancient Mesopotamia to the Abbasid Empire to present-day Iraq. Included are a historical overview; a country profile; a review of the economy, oil, fauna, and political institution; coverage of the Iran-Iraq War; and coverage of the Kuwait invasion and the second Gulf War and other conflicts. The major ethnic groups such as the Kurds, the Turkumans and the Assyrians, Islam and Muslim sects, Christianity and Christian sects, as well as other religious groups are profiled. Dictionary entries also highlight the main political, religious, and ideological parties, groups, and organizations; major historical personalities; languages; literature; and cultural elements. A broad range of topics, both ancient and modern, are dealt with throughout the introduction and the dictionary, and a comprehensive bibliography complements this extensive historical reference. Published in print format in 2004.

About the Authors:
Edmund Ghareeb is a resident scholar on Kurdish studies at American University in Washington, D.C. He is also Adjunct Professor of Iraq Studies at Georgetown University, and he has taught at the University of Virginia and George Washington University. Dr. Ghareeb was born and educated in Lebanon, where, as a journalist, he followed and wrote on events in the Middle East, including Iraq.

Beth K. Dougherty is the Manger Professor of International Relations at Beloit College and the chair of the International Relations program. She is the recipient of the 1999 Underkofler Excellence in Teaching Award at Beloit College and the co-recipient of the 2001 Rowman and Littlefield Award for Innovative Teaching in Political Science, awarded through the national political science association. She specializes in nationalism and ethnic conflict, and human rights, with a focus on Africa and the Middle East.

Table of Contents

Front Cover.
Historical Dictionaries of Asia, Oceania, and the Middle East.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Contents.
Editor's Foreword.
Preface.
Acronyms and Abbreviations.
Other Frontmatter.
Chronology.
Introduction.
1: 'Abbadi, Arkan Al-.
2: 'Abbud, Lina (1975–).
3: 'Abd Al-Malik Ibn Marwan.
4: Abizaid, John.
5: Abu.
6: 'Abu-Dulama (?–778).
7: Aflaq, Michel (1910–1989).
8: Agha, Tawfiq Mahmud (1867–1950).
9: Agriculture.
10: Ahali, Jama't Al- (The People's Group).
11: Ahl Al-Bayt (Family of the House of the Prophet).
12: Ahl Al-Haqq (Ali Ilahis).
13: Ahl Al-Kitab (People of the Book).
14: Ahmad, Mir Haj (d. 1988).
15: Ahmad, Muhammad Al- (1943–).
16: Ahwar, Al- (The Marshes).
17: 'Alam Al-Akhdhar, Al-.
18: Algiers Agreement.
19: 'Ali, Salah 'Umar Al- (1937–).
20: 'Ali, Tahsin (1891–1977).
21: 'Allaq, 'Ali Ja'far Al- (1945–).
22: 'Allawi, Iyad (1946–).
23: Alusi, Manal Yunis Al- (1929–).
24: 'Amara, Lami'a Abbas (1928–).
25: Amin, Muhammad, Al-.
26: Amir Al-Mumnin.
27: 'Amiri, Hasan 'Ali Al- (1938–).
28: 'Ammash, Huda (1958–).
29: 'Ammash, Salih Mahdi (1925–1979).
30: Anbar, Al-.
31: Anbari, 'Abd Al-Amir (1934–).
32: Anfal, Al-.
33: Anglo-'Iraqi Special Agreement of 1955.
34: Anglo-'Iraqi Treaty of 1922.
35: Anglo-'Iraqi Treaty of 1926.
36: Anglo-'Iraqi Treaty of 1927.
37: Anglo-'Iraqi Treaty of 1930.
38: 'Ani, Tahir Al- (1934–).
39: 'Ani, Yusuf Al- (1927–).
40: Ankara, Treaty of.
41: Anti-Zionist League ('Usbat Mukafahat Al-Sahyuniya).
42: 'Aqrawi, 'Aziz (1924–199?).
43: 'Aqrawi, Hashim (1926–).
44: 'Aqrawi, Matta (1901–1982).
45: Arabian Nights (Alf Layla Wa Layla).
46: Arab League.
47: Arab Liberation Front (Jabhat Al-Tahrir Al-'Arabiya).
48: Arab-Ottoman Brotherhood (Al-Ikha Al-'Arabi Al-'Uthmani).
49: Arab Union (Al-Ittihad Al-Arabi).
50: Aramaic (Syriac, Suryani).
51: Arbil.
52: 'Arif, 'Abd Al-Rahman (1916–1982).
53: 'Arif, 'Abd Al-Salam (1921–1966).
54: Arslan, Muzaffar (1936–).
55: Ash'ari, Abu Hasan Al- (873–935).
56: 'Ashura.
57: Asil, Naji Al- (1895–1963).
58: 'Askari, 'Ali (1937–1978).
59: 'Askari, Ja'far Al- (1885–1936).
60: Asma'i, Al- (?–831).
61: Assassins.
62: Association of 'Iraqi Democrats.
63: Assyrians.
64: 'Atiyyah, Ghassan Al-.
65: Atrushi, 'Abd Al-Wahhab Al- (1936–).
66: 'Awad, Gworgis (1908–199?).
67: 'Ayish, Muhammad (1934–1979).
68: Ayubi, 'Ali Jawdat Al- (1886–1969).
69: Ayyubids.
70: 'Aziz, Ghanim Khadduri (1937–).
71: 'Aziz, 'Izzat 'Abd Al- (?–1949).
72: 'Aziz, Muhammad.
73: 'Aziz, Shaykh 'Ali Bin 'Abd Al- (1929–).
74: 'Aziz, Tariq (1936–).
75: 'Azzawi, Hikmat Ibrahim Al- (1934–).
76: Babal, Husayn (Shaykh Al-Yazidi) (1941–1978).
77: Baban, Ahmad Mukhtar (1900–1976).
78: Baban, Jalal (1892–199?).
79: Baban, Jamal (1893–1965).
80: Babil.
81: Babylonian Pythagorean Theorem.
82: Baghdad.
83: Baghdad-Berlin Railroad.
84: Baghdad Modern Art Group.
85: Baghdad Pact.
86: Baghdad, Treaty of 1975.
87: Bahri, Yunis Al- (1901–1978).
88: Bakr, Ahmad Hasan Al- (1914–1982).
89: Barrak, Ahmad Al-.
90: Barzani Clan.
91: Barzani, Idris Al- (1944–1987).
92: Barzani, Mas'ud Al- (1946–).
93: Barzani, Mulla Mustafa Al- (1903–1979).
94: Barzani, Nechervan (Nawshirwan) (1966–).
95: Barzani, Shaykh Ahmad Al- (1896–1969).
96: Barzani, 'Ubayd Allah Al- (1927–1980s).
97: Barzinji, Al- (Shaykh Mahmud Al-Hafid) (1884–1956).
98: Bashir, Munir (1930–1997).
99: Basra, Al-.
100: Basri, Mir.
101: Bassam, Sadiq Al- (1899–).
102: Ba'th Party.
103: Battle of the Camel.
104: Battle of Siffin.
105: Bayyati, 'Abd Al- Wahhab Al- (1926–1999).
106: Baykas, Fayiq (1905–1948).
107: Bayt Al-Hikma, Al- (House of Wisdom).
108: Bayyati, Hamid Al-.
109: Bayyati, Hamid Majid Musa Al- (1942–).
110: Bazzaz, 'Abd Al-Rahman Al- (1913–1973).
111: Bazzaz, Sa'd Al- (1951–).
112: Bell, Gertrude (1868–1926).
113: Bid'a.
114: Bidawid, Raphail I (1922–).
115: Boulous, Sargon (1944–).
116: Bremer, L. Paul, III.
117: Brotherhood of Purity (Ikhwan Al-Safa).
118: Butti, Rufayil (1901–1956).
119: Buwayhids (Buyids).
120: Caliph.
121: Central Treaty Organization (CENTO).
122: Chadirchi, Kamil Al- (1897–1964).
123: Chadirchi, Nasir Kamil Al- (1933–).
124: Chalabi, 'Abd Al-Hadi Al-.
125: Chalabi, 'Abd Al-Rahim Al-.
126: Chalabi, 'Abd Al-Rahim Al- (1942–199?).
127: Chalabi, Ahmad (1944–).
128: Chalabi, Fadhil Ja'far Al- (1929–).
129: Chalabi, Rushdi Al-.
130: Chaldeans.
131: Charter of National Principles.
132: Chiawuk, Ma'ruf (1885–1985).
133: Christians.
134: Clemenceau-Lloyd George Agreement.
135: Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA).
136: Committee for National Cooperation (Lajnat Alta'awun Al-Watani).
137: Constantinople Protocol.
138: Constitutional Union Party (Hizb Al-Ittihad Al-Dustari).
139: Covenant Party (Hizb Al-'Ahd).
140: Covenant Society (Jam'yat Al-'Ahd).
141: Cteisiphon.
142: Daftari, 'Ali Mumtaz Al- (1901–199?).
143: Da'wa, Al-Islamiyya, Hizo (Call Party).
144: Dawla.
145: Dawud, Ibrahim 'Abd Al-Rahman Al-.
146: Dawud Pasha (1767–1851).
147: Dhia, 'Imad (1952–).
148: Din, Baha Al- (1950–).
149: Din, Dara Nur-Al- (1953–).
150: Din, Salah Al-.
151: Dira.
152: Dixon, Zuhur (1933–).
153: Duri, 'Izzat Ibrahim Al- (1942–).
154: Dur Kurigalzu ('Aqarquf).
155: Eastern Command.
156: Economy.
157: Erzurum, First Treaty of.
158: Erzurum, Second Treaty of.
159: Euphrates River (Al-Furat).
160: Fadhal, Munthir Al- (1950–).
161: Fahd, Yusuf Salman Yusuf (1901–1949).
162: Fa'iq, Salah (1945–).
163: Farah, Elias (1928–).
164: Farman, Ghaib Tu'ma (1927–).
165: Fattah, Sami.
166: Faysal I (1855–1933).
167: Faysal II (1935–1958).
168: Fertile Crescent.
169: Financial Agreement of the 1922 Anglo-'Iraqi Treaty.
170: Fiqh.
171: Folklore.
172: The Follow-Up and Arrangement Committee (FUAC).
173: Franco-British Convention of 1920.
174: Free 'Iraq Council.
175: Free Party (Al-Hizb Al-Hurr).
176: Front for the Defense of Palestine (Jabhat Al-Difa'an Filastin).
177: Frontier Treaty of 1937.
178: Garner, Jay (1938–).
179: Ghafur, Humam 'Abd Al-Khaliq 'Abd Al- (1945–).
180: Ghanima, Yusuf (1885–?).
181: Ghaydan, Sa'dun (1930–1985).
182: Ghazali, Abu Hamid Al- (1059–1111).
183: Ghazi I (1912–1939).
184: Ghilgamish.
185: Golden Square.
186: Guardians of Independence Group (Jam'yat Haras Al-Istiqlal).
187: Habbubi, Ahmad Al-.
188: Habbubi, Muhammad Al- (?–1916).
189: Hadd.
Front Cover.
Historical Dictionaries of Asia, Oceania, and the Middle East.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Contents.
Editor's Foreword.
Preface.
Acronyms and Abbreviations.
Other Frontmatter.
Chronology.
Introduction.
1: 'Abbadi, Arkan Al-.
2: 'Abbud, Lina (1975–).
3: 'Abd Al-Malik Ibn Marwan.
4: Abizaid, John.
5: Abu.
6: 'Abu-Dulama (?–778).
7: Aflaq, Michel (1910–1989).
8: Agha, Tawfiq Mahmud (1867–1950).
9: Agriculture.
10: Ahali, Jama't Al- (The People's Group).
11: Ahl Al-Bayt (Family of the House of the Prophet).
12: Ahl Al-Haqq (Ali Ilahis).
13: Ahl Al-Kitab (People of the Book).
14: Ahmad, Mir Haj (d. 1988).
15: Ahmad, Muhammad Al- (1943–).
16: Ahwar, Al- (The Marshes).
17: 'Alam Al-Akhdhar, Al-.
18: Algiers Agreement.
19: 'Ali, Salah 'Umar Al- (1937–).
20: 'Ali, Tahsin (1891–1977).
21: 'Allaq, 'Ali Ja'far Al- (1945–).
22: 'Allawi, Iyad (1946–).
23: Alusi, Manal Yunis Al- (1929–).
24: 'Amara, Lami'a Abbas (1928–).
25: Amin, Muhammad, Al-.
26: Amir Al-Mumnin.
27: 'Amiri, Hasan 'Ali Al- (1938–).
28: 'Ammash, Huda (1958–).
29: 'Ammash, Salih Mahdi (1925–1979).
30: Anbar, Al-.
31: Anbari, 'Abd Al-Amir (1934–).
32: Anfal, Al-.
33: Anglo-'Iraqi Special Agreement of 1955.
34: Anglo-'Iraqi Treaty of 1922.
35: Anglo-'Iraqi Treaty of 1926.
36: Anglo-'Iraqi Treaty of 1927.
37: Anglo-'Iraqi Treaty of 1930.
38: 'Ani, Tahir Al- (1934–).
39: 'Ani, Yusuf Al- (1927–).
40: Ankara, Treaty of.
41: Anti-Zionist League ('Usbat Mukafahat Al-Sahyuniya).
42: 'Aqrawi, 'Aziz (1924–199?).
43: 'Aqrawi, Hashim (1926–).
44: 'Aqrawi, Matta (1901–1982).
45: Arabian Nights (Alf Layla Wa Layla).
46: Arab League.
47: Arab Liberation Front (Jabhat Al-Tahrir Al-'Arabiya).
48: Arab-Ottoman Brotherhood (Al-Ikha Al-'Arabi Al-'Uthmani).
49: Arab Union (Al-Ittihad Al-Arabi).
50: Aramaic (Syriac, Suryani).
51: Arbil.
52: 'Arif, 'Abd Al-Rahman (1916–1982).
53: 'Arif, 'Abd Al-Salam (1921–1966).
54: Arslan, Muzaffar (1936–).
55: Ash'ari, Abu Hasan Al- (873–935).
56: 'Ashura.
57: Asil, Naji Al- (1895–1963).
58: 'Askari, 'Ali (1937–1978).
59: 'Askari, Ja'far Al- (1885–1936).
60: Asma'i, Al- (?–831).
61: Assassins.
62: Association of 'Iraqi Democrats.
63: Assyrians.
64: 'Atiyyah, Ghassan Al-.
65: Atrushi, 'Abd Al-Wahhab Al- (1936–).
66: 'Awad, Gworgis (1908–199?).
67: 'Ayish, Muhammad (1934–1979).
68: Ayubi, 'Ali Jawdat Al- (1886–1969).
69: Ayyubids.
70: 'Aziz, Ghanim Khadduri (1937–).
71: 'Aziz, 'Izzat 'Abd Al- (?–1949).
72: 'Aziz, Muhammad.
73: 'Aziz, Shaykh 'Ali Bin 'Abd Al- (1929–).
74: 'Aziz, Tariq (1936–).
75: 'Azzawi, Hikmat Ibrahim Al- (1934–).
76: Babal, Husayn (Shaykh Al-Yazidi) (1941–1978).
77: Baban, Ahmad Mukhtar (1900–1976).
78: Baban, Jalal (1892–199?).
79: Baban, Jamal (1893–1965).
80: Babil.
81: Babylonian Pythagorean Theorem.
82: Baghdad.
83: Baghdad-Berlin Railroad.
84: Baghdad Modern Art Group.
85: Baghdad Pact.
86: Baghdad, Treaty of 1975.
87: Bahri, Yunis Al- (1901–1978).
88: Bakr, Ahmad Hasan Al- (1914–1982).
89: Barrak, Ahmad Al-.
90: Barzani Clan.
91: Barzani, Idris Al- (1944–1987).
92: Barzani, Mas'ud Al- (1946–).
93: Barzani, Mulla Mustafa Al- (1903–1979).
94: Barzani, Nechervan (Nawshirwan) (1966–).
95: Barzani, Shaykh Ahmad Al- (1896–1969).
96: Barzani, 'Ubayd Allah Al- (1927–1980s).
97: Barzinji, Al- (Shaykh Mahmud Al-Hafid) (1884–1956).
98: Bashir, Munir (1930–1997).
99: Basra, Al-.
100: Basri, Mir.
101: Bassam, Sadiq Al- (1899–).
102: Ba'th Party.
103: Battle of the Camel.
104: Battle of Siffin.
105: Bayyati, 'Abd Al- Wahhab Al- (1926–1999).
106: Baykas, Fayiq (1905–1948).
107: Bayt Al-Hikma, Al- (House of Wisdom).
108: Bayyati, Hamid Al-.
109: Bayyati, Hamid Majid Musa Al- (1942–).
110: Bazzaz, 'Abd Al-Rahman Al- (1913–1973).
111: Bazzaz, Sa'd Al- (1951–).
112: Bell, Gertrude (1868–1926).
113: Bid'a.
114: Bidawid, Raphail I (1922–).
115: Boulous, Sargon (1944–).
116: Bremer, L. Paul, III.
117: Brotherhood of Purity (Ikhwan Al-Safa).
118: Butti, Rufayil (1901–1956).
119: Buwayhids (Buyids).
120: Caliph.
121: Central Treaty Organization (CENTO).
122: Chadirchi, Kamil Al- (1897–1964).
123: Chadirchi, Nasir Kamil Al- (1933–).
124: Chalabi, 'Abd Al-Hadi Al-.
125: Chalabi, 'Abd Al-Rahim Al-.
126: Chalabi, 'Abd Al-Rahim Al- (1942–199?).
127: Chalabi, Ahmad (1944–).
128: Chalabi, Fadhil Ja'far Al- (1929–).
129: Chalabi, Rushdi Al-.
130: Chaldeans.
131: Charter of National Principles.
132: Chiawuk, Ma'ruf (1885–1985).
133: Christians.
134: Clemenceau-Lloyd George Agreement.
135: Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA).
136: Committee for National Cooperation (Lajnat Alta'awun Al-Watani).
137: Constantinople Protocol.
138: Constitutional Union Party (Hizb Al-Ittihad Al-Dustari).
139: Covenant Party (Hizb Al-'Ahd).
140: Covenant Society (Jam'yat Al-'Ahd).
141: Cteisiphon.
142: Daftari, 'Ali Mumtaz Al- (1901–199?).
143: Da'wa, Al-Islamiyya, Hizo (Call Party).
144: Dawla.
145: Dawud, Ibrahim 'Abd Al-Rahman Al-.
146: Dawud Pasha (1767–1851).
147: Dhia, 'Imad (1952–).
148: Din, Baha Al- (1950–).
149: Din, Dara Nur-Al- (1953–).
150: Din, Salah Al-.
151: Dira.
152: Dixon, Zuhur (1933–).
153: Duri, 'Izzat Ibrahim Al- (1942–).
154: Dur Kurigalzu ('Aqarquf).
155: Eastern Command.
156: Economy.
157: Erzurum, First Treaty of.
158: Erzurum, Second Treaty of.
159: Euphrates River (Al-Furat).
160: Fadhal, Munthir Al- (1950–).
161: Fahd, Yusuf Salman Yusuf (1901–1949).
162: Fa'iq, Salah (1945–).
163: Farah, Elias (1928–).
164: Farman, Ghaib Tu'ma (1927–).
165: Fattah, Sami.
166: Faysal I (1855–1933).
167: Faysal II (1935–1958).
168: Fertile Crescent.
169: Financial Agreement of the 1922 Anglo-'Iraqi Treaty.
170: Fiqh.
171: Folklore.
172: The Follow-Up and Arrangement Committee (FUAC).
173: Franco-British Convention of 1920.
174: Free 'Iraq Council.
175: Free Party (Al-Hizb Al-Hurr).
176: Front for the Defense of Palestine (Jabhat Al-Difa'an Filastin).
177: Frontier Treaty of 1937.
178: Garner, Jay (1938–).
179: Ghafur, Humam 'Abd Al-Khaliq 'Abd Al- (1945–).
180: Ghanima, Yusuf (1885–?).
181: Ghaydan, Sa'dun (1930–1985).
182: Ghazali, Abu Hamid Al- (1059–1111).
183: Ghazi I (1912–1939).
184: Ghilgamish.
185: Golden Square.
186: Guardians of Independence Group (Jam'yat Haras Al-Istiqlal).
187: Habbubi, Ahmad Al-.
188: Habbubi, Muhammad Al- (?–1916).
189: Hadd.