Princeton Companion to Mathematics, 1st Edition

  • Timothy Gowers
  • Published By:
  • ISBN-10: 1400830397
  • ISBN-13: 9781400830398
  • Grade Level Range: College Freshman - College Senior
  • 1034 Pages | eBook
  • Original Copyright 2008 | Published/Released June 2010
  • This publication's content originally published in print form: 2008

  • Price:  Sign in for price

About

Overview

This is a one-of-a-kind reference for anyone with a serious interest in mathematics. Edited by Timothy Gowers, a recipient of the Fields Medal, it presents nearly two hundred entries, written especially for this book by some of the world's leading mathematicians, that introduce basic mathematical tools and vocabulary; trace the development of modern mathematics; explain essential terms and concepts; examine core ideas in major areas of mathematics; describe the achievements of scores of famous mathematicians; explore the impact of mathematics on other disciplines such as biology, finance, and music--and much, much more. Unparalleled in its depth of coverage, The Princeton Companion to Mathematics surveys the most active and exciting branches of pure mathematics, providing the context and broad perspective that are vital at a time of increasing specialization in the field. Packed with information and presented in an accessible style, this is an indispensable resource for undergraduate and graduate students in mathematics as well as for researchers and scholars seeking to understand areas outside their specialties.

Table of Contents

Front Cover.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Contents.
Preface.
Contributors.
1: Introduction.
2: What Is Mathematics About?.
3: The Language and Grammar of Mathematics.
4: Some Fundamental Mathematical Definitions.
5: The General Goals of Mathematical Research.
6: The Origins of Modern Mathematics.
7: From Numbers to Number Systems.
8: Geometry.
9: The Development of Abstract Algebra.
10: Algorithms.
11: The Development of Rigor in Mathematical Analysis.
12: The Development of the Idea of Proof.
13: The Crisis in the Foundations of Mathematics.
14: Mathematical Concepts.
15: The Axiom of Choice.
16: The Axiom of Determinacy.
17: Bayesian Analysis.
18: Braid Groups.
19: Buildings.
20: Calabi–Yau Manifolds.
21: Cardinals.
22: Categories.
23: Compactness and Compactification.
24: Computational Complexity Classes.
25: Countable and Uncountable Sets.
26: C*-Algebras.
27: Curvature.
28: Designs.
29: Determinants.
30: Differential Forms and Integration.
31: Dimension.
32: Distributions.
33: Duality.
34: Dynamical Systems and Chaos.
35: Elliptic Curves.
36: The Euclidean Algorithm and Continued Fractions.
37: The Euler and Navier–Stokes Equations.
38: Expanders.
39: The Exponential and Logarithmic Functions.
40: The Fast Fourier Transform.
41: The Fourier Transform.
42: Fuchsian Groups.
43: Function Spaces.
44: Galois Groups.
45: The Gamma Function.
46: Generating Functions.
47: Genus.
48: Graphs.
49: Hamiltonians.
50: The Heat Equation.
51: Hilbert Spaces.
52: Homology and Cohomology.
53: Homotopy Groups.
54: The Ideal Class Group.
55: Irrational and Transcendental Numbers.
56: The Ising Model.
57: Jordan Normal Form.
58: Knot Polynomials.
59: K-Theory.
60: The Leech Lattice.
61: L-Functions.
62: Lie Theory.
63: Linear and Nonlinear Waves and Solitons.
64: Linear Operators and Their Properties.
65: Local and Global in Number Theory.
66: The Mandelbrot Set.
67: Manifolds.
68: Matroids.
69: Measures.
70: Metric Spaces.
71: Models of Set Theory.
72: Modular Arithmetic.
73: Modular Forms.
74: Moduli Spaces.
75: The Monster Group.
76: Normed Spaces and Banach Spaces.
77: Number Fields.
78: Optimization and Lagrange Multipliers.
79: Orbifolds.
80: Ordinals.
81: The Peano Axioms.
82: Permutation Groups.
83: Phase Transitions.
84: π.
85: Probability Distributions.
86: Projective Space.
87: Quadratic Forms.
88: Quantum Computation.
89: Quantum Groups.
90: Quaternions, Octonions, and Normed Division Algebras.
91: Representations.
92: Ricci Flow.
93: Riemann Surfaces.
94: The Riemann Zeta Function.
95: Rings, Ideals, and Modules.
96: Schemes.
97: The Schrödinger Equation.
98: The Simplex Algorithm.
99: Special Functions.
100: The Spectrum.
101: Spherical Harmonics.
102: Symplectic Manifolds.
103: Tensor Products.
104: Topological Spaces.
105: Transforms.
106: Trigonometric Functions.
107: Universal Covers.
108: Variational Methods.
109: Varieties.
110: Vector Bundles.
111: Von Neumann Algebras.
112: Wavelets.
113: The Zermelo–Fraenkel Axioms.
114: Branches of Mathematics.
115: Algebraic Numbers.
116: Analytic Number Theory.
117: Computational Number Theory.
118: Algebraic Geometry.
119: Arithmetic Geometry.
120: Algebraic Topology.
121: Differential Topology.
122: Moduli Spaces.
123: Representation Theory.
124: Geometric and Combinatorial Group Theory.
125: Harmonic Analysis.
126: Partial Differential Equations.
127: General Relativity and the Einstein Equations.
128: Dynamics.
129: Operator Algebras.
130: Mirror Symmetry.
131: Vertex Operator Algebras.
132: Enumerative and Algebraic Combinatorics.
133: Extremal and Probabilistic Combinatorics.
134: Computational Complexity.
135: Numerical Analysis.
136: Set Theory.
137: Logic and Model Theory.
138: Stochastic Processes.
139: Probabilistic Models of Critical Phenomena.
140: High-Dimensional Geometry and Its Probabilistic Analogues.
141: Theorems and Problems.
142: The ABC Conjecture.
143: The Atiyah–Singer Index Theorem.
144: The Banach–Tarski Paradox.
145: The Birch–Swinnerton-Dyer Conjecture.
146: Carleson's Theorem.
147: The Central Limit Theorem.
148: The Classification of Finite Simple Groups.
149: Dirichlet's Theorem.
150: Ergodic Theorems.
151: Fermat's Last Theorem.
152: Fixed Point Theorems.
153: The Four-Color Theorem.
154: The Fundamental Theorem of Algebra.
155: The Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic.
156: Gödel's Theorem.
157: Gromov's Polynomial-Growth Theorem.
158: Hilbert's Nullstellensatz.
159: The Independence of the Continuum Hypothesis.
160: Inequalities.
161: The Insolubility of the Halting Problem.
162: The Insolubility of the Quintic.
163: Liouville's Theorem and Roth's Theorem.
164: Mostow's Strong Rigidity Theorem.
165: The P Versus NP Problem.
166: The Poincaré Conjecture.
167: The Prime Number Theorem and the Riemann Hypothesis.
168: Problems and Results in Additive Number Theory.
169: From Quadratic Reciprocity to Class Field Theory.
170: Rational Points on Curves and the Mordell Conjecture.
171: The Resolution of Singularities.
172: The Riemann–Roch Theorem.
173: The Robertson–Seymour Theorem.
174: The Three-Body Problem.
175: The Uniformization Theorem.
176: The Weil Conjectures.
177: Mathematicians.
178: Pythagoras.
179: Euclid.
180: Archimedes.
181: Apollonius.
182: Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī.
183: Leonardo of Pisa (Known as Fibonacci).
184: Girolamo Cardano.
185: Rafael Bombelli.
186: François Viète.
187: Simon Stevin.
188: René Descartes.
189: Pierre Fermat.
190: Blaise Pascal.
191: Isaac Newton.
192: Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz.
193: Brook Taylor.