eBook Historical Dictionary of Native American Movements, 1st Edition

  • Todd Leahy
  • Published By:
  • ISBN-10: 081086262X
  • ISBN-13: 9780810862623
  • Grade Level Range: 9th Grade - College Senior
  • 205 Pages | eBook
  • Original Copyright 2008 | Published/Released June 2009
  • This publication's content originally published in print form: 2008
  • Price:  Sign in for price

About

Overview

Native Americans in the United States, similar to other indigenous people, created political, economic, and social movements to meet and adjust to major changes that impacted their cultures. For centuries, Native Americans dealt with the onslaught of non-Indian land claims, the appropriation of their homelands, and the destruction of their ways of life. Through various movements, Native Americans accepted, rejected, or accommodated themselves to the non-traditional worldviews of the colonizers and their policies.

The Historical Dictionary of Native American Movements - through a chronology, an introductory essay, appendixes, a bibliography, and hundreds of cross-referenced dictionary entries on important persons, places, events, and institutions and significant political, economic, social, and cultural aspects - is a useful reference on topics dealing with key movements, organizations, leadership strategies, and the major issues Native Americans have confronted.

About the Authors:
Todd Leahy is assistant professor of history at Fort Hays State University.

Raymond Wilson is chair of the department of history and professor of history at Fort Hays State University.

Table of Contents

Front Cover.
Historical Dictionaries.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Dedication.
Contents.
Editor’s Foreword.
Preface.
Acknowledgments.
Map of Native American Movements.
Acronyms and Abbreviations.
Chronology.
Introduction.
1: Adams, Hank (1944–)..
2: Alaska Federation of Natives (AFN)..
3: Alaska Native Brotherhood (ANB)..
4: Acatraz, Occupation Of..
5: Alcohol and Alcoholism..
6: All Indian Pueblo Council (AIPC)..
7: American Association on Indian Affairs..
8: American Indian Association (AIA)..
9: American Indian Chicago Conference..
10: American Indian Christian Tepee Mission (AICTM)..
11: American Indian Community House, Inc. (AICH).
12: American Indian Defense Association (AIDA)..
13: American Indian Development, Inc. (AID)..
14: American Indian Federation (AIF)..
15: American Indian Higher Education Consortium (AIHEC)..
16: American Indian Institute (ROE Institute)..
17: American Indian League (AIL)..
18: American Indian Movement (AIM)..
19: American Indian Movement for Equal Rights (AMERIND)..
20: American Indian Progressive Association (AIPA)..
21: Americans for Indian Opportunity (AIO)..
22: Annuities..
23: Anthropology and Indians..
24: Apess, William (1798–1839)..
25: Aquash, Anna Mae Pictou (1945–1975)..
26: Arrow, Inc..
27: Association on American Indian Affairs (AAIA)..
28: Banks, Dennis (1937–)..
29: Bellecourt, Clyde (1939–)..
30: Bellecourt, Vernon (1931–2007)..
31: Black Drink..
32: Black Hawk (c. 1767–1838)..
33: Black Mesa Legal Defense Fund..
34: Blackfoot Confederacy..
35: Board of Indian Commissioners..
36: Bonnin, Gertrude Simmons (AKA Zitkala-SA) (1876–1938)..
37: Brant, Joseph (c. 1742–1807)..
38: Brave Bird, Mary (AKA Mary Crow Dog) (1953–)..
39: Bronson, Ruth Muskrat (1897–1982)..
40: Brotherhood of North American Indians..
41: Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA)..
42: Cacique..
43: Calumet..
44: Captives..
45: Catawba..
46: Churchill, Ward (1947–)..
47: Cliff Dwellers..
48: Cobell Case (AKA Cobell V. Babbitt; Cobell V. Norton; and Cobell V. Kempthorne)..
49: Cody, Iron Eyes (1904–1999)..
50: Collier, John (1884–1968)..
51: Columbus Day..
52: Council of Energy Resource Tribes (CERT)..
53: Crazy Horse (c. 1842–1877)..
54: Crazy Horse Memorial Foundation..
55: Daughters of Pocahontas..
56: Daughters of Sacajawea..
57: Dawes Severaltyact (Dawes Generalallotment Act), 1887..
58: Deer, Ada (1935–)..
59: Deganawida..
60: Deloria, Vine, Jr. (1933–2005)..
61: Determined Residents United for Mohawk Sover-Eignty (DRUMS)..
62: Disease..
63: Eastern Association on Indian Affairs (EAIA)..
64: Eastman, Charles Alexander (1858–1939)..
65: Education..
66: Fire Thunder, Cecilia (1946–)..
67: Fishing Rights..
68: Five Civilized Tribes..
69: Five Civilized Tribes Foundation, INC..
70: Fort Berthold Indian Defense Association (FBIDA)..
71: Fur Trade..
72: Gaming..
73: Geronimo (c. 1829–1909)..
74: Ghost Dance..
75: Great Lakes Inter-Tribal Council (GLITC)..
76: Green Corn Ceremony..
77: Handsome Lake (c. 1735–1815)..
78: Harris, Ladonna (1931–)..
79: Haudenosaunee..
80: Herding and Ranching..
81: Hiawatha (c. 1525–c. 1575)..
82: Hillis Hadjo (c. 1770–1818)..
83: Horses and Indians..
84: Hunting Rights..
85: Improved Order of Red Men..
86: Indian Actors Association (IAA)..
87: Indian Arts and Crafts Board (IACB)..
88: Indian Association of America (IAA)..
89: Indian Centers, Inc (ICI)..
90: Indian Confederation of America (ICA)..
91: Indian Council Fire..
92: Indian Defense League of America (IDLA)..
93: Indian Hope Association..
94: Indian Law Resource Center..
95: Indian Removal Act, 1830..
96: Indian Reorganization Act (IRA), 1934..
97: Indian Rights Association (IRA)..
98: Indian Shaker Church..
99: Indian Territory..
100: Indians of All Tribes..
101: Institute for the Development of Indian Law..
102: Institute of American Indian Arts (IAIA)..
103: Iroquois Confederacy..
104: Johnson–O’Malley Act (JOM), 1934..
105: Kachina..
106: Keetowah..
107: Keokuk (c. 1783–1848)..
108: King Philip’s War..
109: Kiva..
110: Lacrosse..
111: Laduke, Winona (1959–)..
112: Lake Mohonk Conference of Friends of the Indian (LMC)..
113: Law..
114: Little Crow (c. 1810–1863)..
115: Little Turtle (c. 1752–1812)..
116: Longest Walk..
117: Lord Dunmore’s War..
118: Loyal Order of Tecumseh..
119: Lyons, Oren (1930–)..
120: Macdonald, Peter (1928–)..
121: Manitou..
122: Mankiller, Wilma (1945–)..
123: Mascots..
124: Mcnickle, D’arcy (1904–1977)..
125: Means, Russell (1939–)..
126: Medicine Bundle..
127: Menominee Drums..
128: Metacom (c. 1639–1676)..
129: Mohawk Blockade..
130: Montauk Confederacy..
131: Montezuma, Carlos (c. 1866–1923)..
132: Mooney, James (1861–1921)..
133: Morning Star Institute..
134: Mound Builders..
135: Mourning Wars..
136: National American Indian Court Judges Association (NAICJA)..
137: National American Indian Memorial Association (NAIMA)..
138: National Center for American Indian Enterprise Development (NCAIED)..
139: National Congress of American Indians (NCAI)..
140: National Council of American Indians..
141: National Indian Defence Association (NIDA)..
142: National Indian Education Association (NIEA)..
143: National Indian Gaming Association (NIGA)..
144: National Indian Gaming Commission (NIGC)..
145: National Indian Youth Council (NIYC)..
146: National League for Justice to American Indians (NLJAI)..
147: National Society of Indian Women..
148: National Tribal Chairmen’s Association..
149: Native American Church..
150: Native American Rights Fund (NARF)..
151: Native American Studies..
152: Navajo Code Talkers..
153: Neolin..
154: Oakes, Richard (1942–1972)..
155: Oglala Sioux Civil Rights Organization (OSCRO)..
156: Orenda..
157: Pan-Indianism..
158: Parker, Arthur Caswell (1881–1955)..
159: Parker, Ely Samuel (1828–1895)..
160: Parker, Quanah (c. 1853–1911)..
161: Peltier, Leonard (1944–)..
162: Peterson, Helen (1915–2000)..
163: Peyote..
164: Pocahontas (c. 1596–1617)..
165: Pontiac (c. 1720–1769)..
166: Pope (Po’pay) (c. 1630–?)..
167: Potlatch..
168: Powhatan Confederacy..
169: Powwow..
170: Prayer Stick..
171: Praying Indians..
172: Red Power Movement..
173: Red Progressivism..
174: Red Stick War..
175: Religion..
176: Repatriation..
177: Reservations..
178: Revitalization Movements..
179: Sacajawea (c. Mid-1780s–1812/1884)..
180: Sainte-Marie, Buffy (1941–)..
181: Shaman..
182: Prophet, Shawnee (1775–1836)..
183: Silverheels, Jay (1912–1980)..
184: Bull, Sitting (c. 1831–1890)..
185: Smohalla (c. 1815–1895)..
186: Society of American Indians (SAI)..
187: Society of Oklahoma Indians..
Front Cover.
Historical Dictionaries.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Dedication.
Contents.
Editor’s Foreword.
Preface.
Acknowledgments.
Map of Native American Movements.
Acronyms and Abbreviations.
Chronology.
Introduction.
1: Adams, Hank (1944–)..
2: Alaska Federation of Natives (AFN)..
3: Alaska Native Brotherhood (ANB)..
4: Acatraz, Occupation Of..
5: Alcohol and Alcoholism..
6: All Indian Pueblo Council (AIPC)..
7: American Association on Indian Affairs..
8: American Indian Association (AIA)..
9: American Indian Chicago Conference..
10: American Indian Christian Tepee Mission (AICTM)..
11: American Indian Community House, Inc. (AICH).
12: American Indian Defense Association (AIDA)..
13: American Indian Development, Inc. (AID)..
14: American Indian Federation (AIF)..
15: American Indian Higher Education Consortium (AIHEC)..
16: American Indian Institute (ROE Institute)..
17: American Indian League (AIL)..
18: American Indian Movement (AIM)..
19: American Indian Movement for Equal Rights (AMERIND)..
20: American Indian Progressive Association (AIPA)..
21: Americans for Indian Opportunity (AIO)..
22: Annuities..
23: Anthropology and Indians..
24: Apess, William (1798–1839)..
25: Aquash, Anna Mae Pictou (1945–1975)..
26: Arrow, Inc..
27: Association on American Indian Affairs (AAIA)..
28: Banks, Dennis (1937–)..
29: Bellecourt, Clyde (1939–)..
30: Bellecourt, Vernon (1931–2007)..
31: Black Drink..
32: Black Hawk (c. 1767–1838)..
33: Black Mesa Legal Defense Fund..
34: Blackfoot Confederacy..
35: Board of Indian Commissioners..
36: Bonnin, Gertrude Simmons (AKA Zitkala-SA) (1876–1938)..
37: Brant, Joseph (c. 1742–1807)..
38: Brave Bird, Mary (AKA Mary Crow Dog) (1953–)..
39: Bronson, Ruth Muskrat (1897–1982)..
40: Brotherhood of North American Indians..
41: Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA)..
42: Cacique..
43: Calumet..
44: Captives..
45: Catawba..
46: Churchill, Ward (1947–)..
47: Cliff Dwellers..
48: Cobell Case (AKA Cobell V. Babbitt; Cobell V. Norton; and Cobell V. Kempthorne)..
49: Cody, Iron Eyes (1904–1999)..
50: Collier, John (1884–1968)..
51: Columbus Day..
52: Council of Energy Resource Tribes (CERT)..
53: Crazy Horse (c. 1842–1877)..
54: Crazy Horse Memorial Foundation..
55: Daughters of Pocahontas..
56: Daughters of Sacajawea..
57: Dawes Severaltyact (Dawes Generalallotment Act), 1887..
58: Deer, Ada (1935–)..
59: Deganawida..
60: Deloria, Vine, Jr. (1933–2005)..
61: Determined Residents United for Mohawk Sover-Eignty (DRUMS)..
62: Disease..
63: Eastern Association on Indian Affairs (EAIA)..
64: Eastman, Charles Alexander (1858–1939)..
65: Education..
66: Fire Thunder, Cecilia (1946–)..
67: Fishing Rights..
68: Five Civilized Tribes..
69: Five Civilized Tribes Foundation, INC..
70: Fort Berthold Indian Defense Association (FBIDA)..
71: Fur Trade..
72: Gaming..
73: Geronimo (c. 1829–1909)..
74: Ghost Dance..
75: Great Lakes Inter-Tribal Council (GLITC)..
76: Green Corn Ceremony..
77: Handsome Lake (c. 1735–1815)..
78: Harris, Ladonna (1931–)..
79: Haudenosaunee..
80: Herding and Ranching..
81: Hiawatha (c. 1525–c. 1575)..
82: Hillis Hadjo (c. 1770–1818)..
83: Horses and Indians..
84: Hunting Rights..
85: Improved Order of Red Men..
86: Indian Actors Association (IAA)..
87: Indian Arts and Crafts Board (IACB)..
88: Indian Association of America (IAA)..
89: Indian Centers, Inc (ICI)..
90: Indian Confederation of America (ICA)..
91: Indian Council Fire..
92: Indian Defense League of America (IDLA)..
93: Indian Hope Association..
94: Indian Law Resource Center..
95: Indian Removal Act, 1830..
96: Indian Reorganization Act (IRA), 1934..
97: Indian Rights Association (IRA)..
98: Indian Shaker Church..
99: Indian Territory..
100: Indians of All Tribes..
101: Institute for the Development of Indian Law..
102: Institute of American Indian Arts (IAIA)..
103: Iroquois Confederacy..
104: Johnson–O’Malley Act (JOM), 1934..
105: Kachina..
106: Keetowah..
107: Keokuk (c. 1783–1848)..
108: King Philip’s War..
109: Kiva..
110: Lacrosse..
111: Laduke, Winona (1959–)..
112: Lake Mohonk Conference of Friends of the Indian (LMC)..
113: Law..
114: Little Crow (c. 1810–1863)..
115: Little Turtle (c. 1752–1812)..
116: Longest Walk..
117: Lord Dunmore’s War..
118: Loyal Order of Tecumseh..
119: Lyons, Oren (1930–)..
120: Macdonald, Peter (1928–)..
121: Manitou..
122: Mankiller, Wilma (1945–)..
123: Mascots..
124: Mcnickle, D’arcy (1904–1977)..
125: Means, Russell (1939–)..
126: Medicine Bundle..
127: Menominee Drums..
128: Metacom (c. 1639–1676)..
129: Mohawk Blockade..
130: Montauk Confederacy..
131: Montezuma, Carlos (c. 1866–1923)..
132: Mooney, James (1861–1921)..
133: Morning Star Institute..
134: Mound Builders..
135: Mourning Wars..
136: National American Indian Court Judges Association (NAICJA)..
137: National American Indian Memorial Association (NAIMA)..
138: National Center for American Indian Enterprise Development (NCAIED)..
139: National Congress of American Indians (NCAI)..
140: National Council of American Indians..
141: National Indian Defence Association (NIDA)..
142: National Indian Education Association (NIEA)..
143: National Indian Gaming Association (NIGA)..
144: National Indian Gaming Commission (NIGC)..
145: National Indian Youth Council (NIYC)..
146: National League for Justice to American Indians (NLJAI)..
147: National Society of Indian Women..
148: National Tribal Chairmen’s Association..
149: Native American Church..
150: Native American Rights Fund (NARF)..
151: Native American Studies..
152: Navajo Code Talkers..
153: Neolin..
154: Oakes, Richard (1942–1972)..
155: Oglala Sioux Civil Rights Organization (OSCRO)..
156: Orenda..
157: Pan-Indianism..
158: Parker, Arthur Caswell (1881–1955)..
159: Parker, Ely Samuel (1828–1895)..
160: Parker, Quanah (c. 1853–1911)..
161: Peltier, Leonard (1944–)..
162: Peterson, Helen (1915–2000)..
163: Peyote..
164: Pocahontas (c. 1596–1617)..
165: Pontiac (c. 1720–1769)..
166: Pope (Po’pay) (c. 1630–?)..
167: Potlatch..
168: Powhatan Confederacy..
169: Powwow..
170: Prayer Stick..
171: Praying Indians..
172: Red Power Movement..
173: Red Progressivism..
174: Red Stick War..
175: Religion..
176: Repatriation..
177: Reservations..
178: Revitalization Movements..
179: Sacajawea (c. Mid-1780s–1812/1884)..
180: Sainte-Marie, Buffy (1941–)..
181: Shaman..
182: Prophet, Shawnee (1775–1836)..
183: Silverheels, Jay (1912–1980)..
184: Bull, Sitting (c. 1831–1890)..
185: Smohalla (c. 1815–1895)..
186: Society of American Indians (SAI)..
187: Society of Oklahoma Indians..
Front Cover.
Historical Dictionaries.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Dedication.
Contents.
Editor’s Foreword.
Preface.
Acknowledgments.
Map of Native American Movements.
Acronyms and Abbreviations.
Chronology.
Introduction.
1: Adams, Hank (1944–)..
2: Alaska Federation of Natives (AFN)..
3: Alaska Native Brotherhood (ANB)..
4: Acatraz, Occupation Of..
5: Alcohol and Alcoholism..
6: All Indian Pueblo Council (AIPC)..
7: American Association on Indian Affairs..
8: American Indian Association (AIA)..
9: American Indian Chicago Conference..
10: American Indian Christian Tepee Mission (AICTM)..
11: American Indian Community House, Inc. (AICH).
12: American Indian Defense Association (AIDA)..
13: American Indian Development, Inc. (AID)..
14: American Indian Federation (AIF)..
15: American Indian Higher Education Consortium (AIHEC)..
16: American Indian Institute (ROE Institute)..
17: American Indian League (AIL)..
18: American Indian Movement (AIM)..
19: American Indian Movement for Equal Rights (AMERIND)..
20: American Indian Progressive Association (AIPA)..
21: Americans for Indian Opportunity (AIO)..
22: Annuities..
23: Anthropology and Indians..
24: Apess, William (1798–1839)..
25: Aquash, Anna Mae Pictou (1945–1975)..
26: Arrow, Inc..
27: Association on American Indian Affairs (AAIA)..
28: Banks, Dennis (1937–)..
29: Bellecourt, Clyde (1939–)..
30: Bellecourt, Vernon (1931–2007)..
31: Black Drink..
32: Black Hawk (c. 1767–1838)..
33: Black Mesa Legal Defense Fund..
34: Blackfoot Confederacy..
35: Board of Indian Commissioners..
36: Bonnin, Gertrude Simmons (AKA Zitkala-SA) (1876–1938)..
37: Brant, Joseph (c. 1742–1807)..
38: Brave Bird, Mary (AKA Mary Crow Dog) (1953–)..
39: Bronson, Ruth Muskrat (1897–1982)..
40: Brotherhood of North American Indians..
41: Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA)..
42: Cacique..
43: Calumet..
44: Captives..
45: Catawba..
46: Churchill, Ward (1947–)..
47: Cliff Dwellers..
48: Cobell Case (AKA Cobell V. Babbitt; Cobell V. Norton; and Cobell V. Kempthorne)..
49: Cody, Iron Eyes (1904–1999)..
50: Collier, John (1884–1968)..
51: Columbus Day..
52: Council of Energy Resource Tribes (CERT)..
53: Crazy Horse (c. 1842–1877)..
54: Crazy Horse Memorial Foundation..
55: Daughters of Pocahontas..
56: Daughters of Sacajawea..
57: Dawes Severaltyact (Dawes Generalallotment Act), 1887..
58: Deer, Ada (1935–)..
59: Deganawida..
60: Deloria, Vine, Jr. (1933–2005)..
61: Determined Residents United for Mohawk Sover-Eignty (DRUMS)..
62: Disease..
63: Eastern Association on Indian Affairs (EAIA)..
64: Eastman, Charles Alexander (1858–1939)..
65: Education..
66: Fire Thunder, Cecilia (1946–)..
67: Fishing Rights..
68: Five Civilized Tribes..
69: Five Civilized Tribes Foundation, INC..
70: Fort Berthold Indian Defense Association (FBIDA)..
71: Fur Trade..
72: Gaming..
73: Geronimo (c. 1829–1909)..
74: Ghost Dance..
75: Great Lakes Inter-Tribal Council (GLITC)..
76: Green Corn Ceremony..
77: Handsome Lake (c. 1735–1815)..
78: Harris, Ladonna (1931–)..
79: Haudenosaunee..
80: Herding and Ranching..
81: Hiawatha (c. 1525–c. 1575)..
82: Hillis Hadjo (c. 1770–1818)..
83: Horses and Indians..
84: Hunting Rights..
85: Improved Order of Red Men..
86: Indian Actors Association (IAA)..
87: Indian Arts and Crafts Board (IACB)..
88: Indian Association of America (IAA)..
89: Indian Centers, Inc (ICI)..
90: Indian Confederation of America (ICA)..
91: Indian Council Fire..
92: Indian Defense League of America (IDLA)..
93: Indian Hope Association..
94: Indian Law Resource Center..
95: Indian Removal Act, 1830..
96: Indian Reorganization Act (IRA), 1934..
97: Indian Rights Association (IRA)..
98: Indian Shaker Church..
99: Indian Territory..
100: Indians of All Tribes..
101: Institute for the Development of Indian Law..
102: Institute of American Indian Arts (IAIA)..
103: Iroquois Confederacy..
104: Johnson–O’Malley Act (JOM), 1934..
105: Kachina..
106: Keetowah..
107: Keokuk (c. 1783–1848)..
108: King Philip’s War..
109: Kiva..
110: Lacrosse..
111: Laduke, Winona (1959–)..
112: Lake Mohonk Conference of Friends of the Indian (LMC)..
113: Law..
114: Little Crow (c. 1810–1863)..
115: Little Turtle (c. 1752–1812)..
116: Longest Walk..
117: Lord Dunmore’s War..
118: Loyal Order of Tecumseh..
119: Lyons, Oren (1930–)..
120: Macdonald, Peter (1928–)..
121: Manitou..
122: Mankiller, Wilma (1945–)..
123: Mascots..
124: Mcnickle, D’arcy (1904–1977)..
125: Means, Russell (1939–)..
126: Medicine Bundle..
127: Menominee Drums..
128: Metacom (c. 1639–1676)..
129: Mohawk Blockade..
130: Montauk Confederacy..
131: Montezuma, Carlos (c. 1866–1923)..
132: Mooney, James (1861–1921)..
133: Morning Star Institute..
134: Mound Builders..
135: Mourning Wars..
136: National American Indian Court Judges Association (NAICJA)..
137: National American Indian Memorial Association (NAIMA)..
138: National Center for American Indian Enterprise Development (NCAIED)..
139: National Congress of American Indians (NCAI)..
140: National Council of American Indians..
141: National Indian Defence Association (NIDA)..
142: National Indian Education Association (NIEA)..
143: National Indian Gaming Association (NIGA)..
144: National Indian Gaming Commission (NIGC)..
145: National Indian Youth Council (NIYC)..
146: National League for Justice to American Indians (NLJAI)..
147: National Society of Indian Women..
148: National Tribal Chairmen’s Association..
149: Native American Church..
150: Native American Rights Fund (NARF)..
151: Native American Studies..
152: Navajo Code Talkers..
153: Neolin..
154: Oakes, Richard (1942–1972)..
155: Oglala Sioux Civil Rights Organization (OSCRO)..
156: Orenda..
157: Pan-Indianism..
158: Parker, Arthur Caswell (1881–1955)..
159: Parker, Ely Samuel (1828–1895)..
160: Parker, Quanah (c. 1853–1911)..
161: Peltier, Leonard (1944–)..
162: Peterson, Helen (1915–2000)..
163: Peyote..
164: Pocahontas (c. 1596–1617)..
165: Pontiac (c. 1720–1769)..
166: Pope (Po’pay) (c. 1630–?)..
167: Potlatch..
168: Powhatan Confederacy..
169: Powwow..
170: Prayer Stick..
171: Praying Indians..
172: Red Power Movement..
173: Red Progressivism..
174: Red Stick War..
175: Religion..
176: Repatriation..
177: Reservations..
178: Revitalization Movements..
179: Sacajawea (c. Mid-1780s–1812/1884)..
180: Sainte-Marie, Buffy (1941–)..
181: Shaman..
182: Prophet, Shawnee (1775–1836)..
183: Silverheels, Jay (1912–1980)..
184: Bull, Sitting (c. 1831–1890)..
185: Smohalla (c. 1815–1895)..
186: Society of American Indians (SAI)..
187: Society of Oklahoma Indians..