Encyclopedia of Food Safety, 1st Edition

  • Published By:
  • ISBN-10: 0123786134
  • ISBN-13: 9780123786135
  • DDC: 363.1926
  • Grade Level Range: College Freshman - College Senior
  • 2304 Pages | eBook
  • Original Copyright 2014 | Published/Released June 2014
  • This publication's content originally published in print form: 2014

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With a growing global population, providing a safe and nutritious food supply has become a major challenge. To meet this goal, effective risk management based on sound science and unbiased information is required by the food industry, governments, and consumers. The globalization of the food supply also requires harmonizing policies and standards based on a common understanding of food safety. The 280 chapters of the Encyclopedia of Food Safety concisely cover a broad range of food safety topics, including history and basic sciences, food-borne diseases and hazards, substances added to food, food technologies and commodities, food safety management systems, and the roles of stakeholders. The Encyclopedia provides a platform for experts in food safety and related fields to share and learn from state-of-the art expertise. Assembled with the objective of facilitating the work of those in food safety and related fields, this work covers the spectrum of food safety topics in one comprehensive reference work. The editors have made every effort to ensure that this work meets strict quality and pedagogical thresholds such as contributions by the foremost authorities in their fields; unbiased and concise overviews on a multitude of food safety subjects; references for further information' and specialized and general definitions of food safety terminology. Sound scientific information is key to effectively and efficiently assessing, managing, and communicating food safety risks. Yet, professionals and other specialists are finding it increasingly difficult to stay abreast of developments outside their immediate areas of expertise. A single source of concise, reliable, and authoritative information on food safety has, more than ever, become a necessity.

Table of Contents

Front Cover.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Foreword I.
Foreword II.
Co-Editors Biography.
Editors and Editorial Advisory Board.
How to Use the Encyclopedia.
Glossary of Selected Terms.
Abbreviations of Technical Terms.
1: History, Science and Methods: History of Food Safety and Related Sciences.
2: History of Foodborne Disease – Part I – Ancient History.
3: History of Foodborne Disease – Part II – The Greek and Roman Periods (1200 BCE–CE 500).
4: History of Foodborne Disease – Part III – The Renaissance and the Enlightenment (CE 1300–1750).
5: History of Foodborne Disease – Part IV – Modern Times (CE 1900–Present Day).
6: History of Foodborne Disease in Asia – Examples from China, India, and Japan.
7: History, Science and Methods: Disciplines Associated with Food Safety.
8: Food Microbiology.
9: Parasitology.
10: Food Virology.
11: Epidemiology.
12: Food Safety Toxicology.
13: History, Science and Methods: Risk Analysis.
14: Risk Analysis of Hazards in Food: An Overview.
15: Risk Assessment: Principles, Methods, and Applications.
16: Estimating the Burden of Foodborne Disease.
17: Risk Assessment: Microbiological Hazards.
18: Risk Assessment: Chemical Hazards.
19: Risk Management: Application to Chemical Hazards.
20: Risk Management: Application to Biological Hazards.
21: Risk Communication.
22: Risk Communication: Chemical Hazards.
23: Risk Communication: Biological Hazards.
24: Risk Communication: Novel Foods and Novel Technologies.
25: Risk Communication: Diet, Nutrition, and Health.
26: Food Safety Training and Health Education: Principles and Methods.
27: History, Science and Methods: Analytical Methods.
28: Overview of Methods of Analysis for Chemical Hazards.
29: Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy Diagnosis.
30: Hazards and Diseases: Characteristics of Foodborne Hazard and Diseases.
31: Pathogenesis and Virulence.
32: Microbial Stress Response.
33: Sublethally Injured and Viable but Nonculturable Cells.
34: Drug Resistant Pathogens.
35: Cost of Foodborne Diseases.
36: International Classification of Diseases.
37: Hazards and Diseases: Foodborne Diseases.
38: Overview of Biological Hazards and Foodborne Diseases.
39: Overview of Chemical, Physical, and Other Significant Hazards.
40: Overview of Emerging Food Technologies.
41: Prevalence of Foodborne Diseases in Africa.
42: Prevalence of Foodborne Diseases in North America.
43: Prevalence of Foodborne Diseases in South East and Central Asia.
44: Prevalence of Foodborne Diseases in Australia and New Zealand.
45: Prevalence of Foodborne Diseases in Europe.
46: Prevalence of Foodborne Diseases in Western Pacific Region.
47: Foodborne Diseases and Vulnerable Groups.
48: Foodborne Diseases in Travelers.
49: Hazards and Diseases: Bacteria.
50: Acinetobacter.
51: Aeromonas.
52: Arcobacter.
53: Bacillus Anthracis.
54: Bacillus cereus and Other Pathogenic Bacillus Species.
55: Brucella.
56: Campylobacter.
57: Clostridium Botulinum.
58: Clostridium Perfringens.
59: Toxigenic Corynebacteria.
60: Coxiella Burnetii.
61: Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli and Other Pathogenic Escherichia coli.
62: Cronobacter (Enterobacter) sakazakii and Other Cronobacter spp..
63: Other Pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae – Enterobacter and Other Genera.
64: Francisella tularensis.
65: Helicobacter pylori.
66: Listeria monocytogenes.
67: Mycobacterium Avium ssp. paratuberculosis.
68: Mycobacterium Bovis.
69: Pasteurella Multocida.
70: Plesiomonas Shigelloides.
71: Proteus.
72: Pseudomonas.
73: Salmonella Non-Typhi.
74: Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi.
75: Shigella.
76: Staphylococcus Aureus.
77: Streptococcus.
78: Vibrio Cholerae.
79: Vibrio Parahaemolyticus.
80: Vibrio Vulnificus.
81: Other Vibrios.
82: Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
1: Prions and Agents of TSEs.
2: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy in Cattle.
3: Creutzfeldt–Jakob Disease.
4: Protozoa.
5: Cryptosporidium spp..
6: Cyclospora Cayetanensis.
7: Entamoeba Histolytica.
8: Giardia Lamblia.
9: Cystoisospora belli (Syn. Isospora belli).
10: Sarcocystis.
11: Toxoplasma Gondii.
12: Helminth-Cestode.
13: Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus mutilocularis.
14: Taenia saginata and Taenia solium.
15: Helminth-Nematode.
16: Anisakid Nematodes.
17: Ascaris.
18: Capillaria hepatica and Capillaria philippinensis.
19: Gnathostoma spinigerum.
20: Haplorchis.
21: Trichinella spiralis and Other Trichinella Species.
22: Trichuris Trichiura.
23: Helminth-Trematode.
24: Clonorchis Sinensis.
25: Dicrocoelium Dendriticum.
26: Diphyllobothrium.
27: Echinostoma.
28: Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica.
29: Fasciolopsis Buski.
30: Heterophyes Heterophyes.
31: Metagonimus Yokogawai.
32: Opisthorchis Viverrini and Opisthorchis Felineus.
33: Paragonimus westermani and Paragonimus Species.
34: Spirochetes.
35: Leptospira.
36: Viruses.
37: Hantavirus.
38: Hepatitis A Virus.
39: Hepatitis E Virus.
40: Lassa Fever Virus.
41: Nipah Virus.
42: Norovirus.
43: Organisms of Concern but not Foodborne or Confirmed Foodborne.
44: Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus.
45: Classical Swine Fever Virus.
46: Bolivian Hemorrhagic Fever Virus (Machupo Virus).
47: African Swine Fever Virus.
48: Spoilage Microorganisms.
49: Natural Toxicants.
50: Alkaloids.
51: Naturally Occurring Toxins of Plant Origin.
52: Mushrooms and Toadstools.
53: Tetrodotoxin.
54: Mycotoxins.
55: Mycotoxins – General.
56: Aflatoxins.
57: Deoxynivalenol and Other Trichothecenes.
58: Fumonisins.
59: Ochratoxin A.
60: Patulin.
61: Zearalenone.
62: Environmental Contaminants.
63: Dioxins, Furans, and Dioxin-like Polychlorinated Biphenyls.
64: Environmental Estrogens – Hazard Characterization.
65: Nitrate and Nitrite.
66: Perchlorate.
67: Toxic Metals.
68: Arsenic.
69: Cadmium.
70: Lead.
71: Mercury.
72: Trace Metals – Chromium, Nickel, Copper, and Aluminum.
73: Processing Contaminants.
74: Acrylamide.
75: Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs).
76: Benzene.
77: Biogenic Amines.
78: Chloropropanols and Related Esters.
79: Furan.
80: Hydroxymethylfurfural.
81: N-Nitrosamines.
82: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs).
83: Hazards of Food Contact Material.
84: Bisphenol A and Endocrine Disruption.
85: Food Packaging Contaminants.
86: Phthalates.
87: Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials.
88: Food Additives.
89: Food Additives – General.
90: Antioxidants.
91: Colorants.
92: Flavors and Flavor Enhancers.
93: Preservatives.
94: Natural Preservatives.
95: Sweeteners.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
1: Pesticide Residues.
2: Conazoles.
3: Dithiocarbamates.
4: Herbicides.
5: Inorganic and Other Metal-Containing Compounds.
6: Organophosphates and Carbamates.
7: Organochlorines.
8: Pyrethroids.
9: Veterinary Drugs Residues.
10: Veterinary Drugs – General.
11: Antibacterials.
12: Anthelmintics.
13: Anabolics.
14: Coccidiostats.
15: Ectoparasiticides.
16: Control of Helminths.
17: Nutriential Hazards.
18: Micronutrients: Vitamins and Minerals.
19: Macronutrients: Essential Fatty Acids.
20: Other Significant Hazards.
21: Food Allergies and Intolerances.
22: Food-Related Choking.
23: Physical Hazards in Foods.
24: Food Technologies: Food Technologies.
25: Aseptic Packaging.
26: Biopreservation.
27: Chilling.
28: Cleaning and Disinfection Technologies (Clean-In-Place, Clean-Out-of-Place).
29: Drying.
30: Fermentation.
31: Food Irradiation.
32: Freezing.
33: High Pressure Processing.
34: Microwave Heating.
35: Nanotechnology and Food Safety.
36: Packaging.
37: Pasteurization.
38: Pulsed Ultraviolet Radiation Processing.
39: Pulsed Electric Field Technology.
40: Sterilization.
41: Foods, Materials and Risks: Safety of Food and Beverages.
42: Fruits and Vegetables.
43: Seafood.
44: Meat and Meat Products.
45: Poultry and Eggs.
46: Milk and Dairy Products.
47: Dairy Products: Cheese.
48: Cereals and Derived Products.
49: Oils and Fats.
50: Spices and Seasonings.
51: Oilseeds and Legumes.
52: Nuts.
53: Water (Bottled Water, Drinking Water) and Ice.
54: Soft Drinks and Fruit Juices.
55: Alcoholic Beverages.
56: Coffee, Tea and Herbals, Cocoa and Derived Products.
57: Packaging Material and Auxiliary Items.
58: Safety of Food in Vending Machines.
59: Promotional Material.
60: Risks of Food Adulteration.
61: Safety of Organic Foods.
62: Safety Consideration in Developing Functional Foods.
63: Probiotics and Prebiotics.
64: Safety of Probiotics and Prebiotics.
65: Safety of Irradiated Foods.
66: Safety of Genetically Modified Foods.
67: Safety of Regional Specialities – Korean Fermented Foods.
68: Safety of Human Milk: Microbiological Aspects.
69: Safety of Human Milk: Chemical Aspects.
70: Halal Food Requirements.
71: Kosher Food Requirements.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
1: Food Safety Management: Public Health Measures.
2: Modern Approach to Food Safety Management: An Overview.
3: Risk Governance.
4: Challenges of Developing Countries in Management of Food Safety.
5: Challenges of Industrialized Countries in Food Safety Management.
6: Fundamentals of Food Legislation.
7: International Standards and Harmonization of Food Safety Legislation.
8: Food Inspections and Enforcement Systems.
9: Alerts and Early Warning Systems.
10: Monitoring of Contaminants.
11: Assessment of Novel Foods and Ingredients.
12: Food Defense: Prevention of Sabotage and Bioterrorism.
13: Evaluation of the Efficacy of National Food Control Programs.
14: Surveillance of Foodborne Diseases.
15: Foodborne Disease Outbreak Investigation.
16: Environmental Assessment in Outbreak Investigations.
17: Safe Use of Wastewater for Agricultural Production.
18: Food Control and Public Health Laboratories.
19: Health Education, Information, and Risk Communication.
20: Management of Food Safety in Food Service Sector.
21: Food Safety in Hospitals and Other Healthcare Settings.
22: Food Safety Assurance Systems: Food Safety Assurance Systems.
23: Food Safety Assurance Systems: Food Safety and Quality Management Systems.
24: Good Practices in Fisheries and Aquaculture.
25: Good Animal Husbandry Practice.
26: Building Design.
27: Hygienic Design of Equipment.
28: Infestation Management in Food Production Premises.
29: Personal Hygiene and Employee Health.
30: Cleaning and Disinfection.
31: Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point System (HACCP): Principles and Practice.
32: Management of Biofilm Risk.
33: Microbiological Testing, Sampling Plans, and Microbiological Criteria.
34: Management of Allergens in Food Industry.
35: Management of Supplier and Raw Material.
36: Documentation and Record Keeping.
37: Labeling and Information for Consumers.
38: Audits of Food Safety Management Systems.
39: Quality Assurance and Good Laboratory Practice.
40: Investigation of Incidents in Industry.
41: Recall Systems and Disposal of Food.
42: Tampering.
43: Essentials of Crisis Management.
44: Root Cause Analysis of Incidents.
45: Food Safety and Ethics.
46: Institutions Involved in Food Safety.
47: FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC).
48: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).
49: World Health Organization (WHO).
50: World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE).
51: Consumer Organizations.
52: National Industry Organizations – Case of UK Food and Drink Federation.
53: International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
54: International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI).
55: FoodDrinkEurope.
56: International Food Information Council (IFIC) and Other Food Information Organizations.
57: International Union of Food Science and Technology (IUFoST).
58: Trust in Animals and Food Safety (TAFS) Forum.
59: Global Harmonization Initiative (GHI).
60: Abbreviation of Selected Organizations Involved in Food Safety.