Encyclopedia of Biological Chemistry, 2nd Edition

  • Published By:
  • ISBN-10: 0123786312
  • ISBN-13: 9780123786319
  • DDC: 572.03
  • Grade Level Range: College Freshman - College Senior
  • 3232 Pages | eBook
  • Original Copyright 2014 | Published/Released May 2015
  • This publication's content originally published in print form: 2014

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The 4-volume Encyclopedia of Biological Chemistry, Second Edition, represents the current state of a dynamic and crucial field of study.  The Encyclopedia pulls together over 500 articles that help define and explore contemporary biochemistry, with content experts carefully chosen by the Editorial Board to assure both breadth and depth in its coverage. Editors-In-Chief William J. Lennarz and M. Daniel Lane have crafted a work that proceeds from the acknowledgement that understanding every living process—from physiology, to immunology, and genetics—is impossible without a grasp on the basic chemistry that provides its underpinning.  Each article in the work provides an up-to-date snapshot of a given topic, written by experts, as well as suggestions for further readings for students and researcher wishing to go into greater depth.

Table of Contents

Front Cover.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Editorial Board.
How to Use the Encyclopedia.
Contents by Subject Area.
1: AAA-ATPases.
2: ABC Transporters.
3: Actin Assembly/Disassembly.
4: Actin-Capping and -Severing Proteins.
5: Actin Organization.
6: Actin-Related Proteins.
7: Adenylyl Cyclases.
8: Adipocyte Fat Mobilization: The Regulatory Roles of Perilipin 1, Adipose Triglyceride Lipase, and Hormone-Sensitive Lipase.
9: Adipogenesis.
10: Adrenergic Receptors.
11: Affinity Tags for Protein Purification.
12: Algal Hydrogen Production.
13: Allosteric Regulation.
14: Alternative Splicing.
15: Alternative Splicing: Regulation of Drosophila Melanogaster Sex Determination.
16: Amine Oxidases.
17: Amino Acid Metabolism.
18: Aminopeptidases.
19: Amyloid.
20: Anaplerosis.
21: Angiotensin Receptors.
22: Anorexigenic and Orexigenic Gut Peptides.
23: Aquaporin Water Channels.
24: Arachidonic Acid Regulated Calcium Channel.
25: Arf Family.
26: Aspartic Proteases.
27: ATP in Plant Mitochondria: Substrates, Inhibitors, and Uncouplers.
28: ATP Synthesis: Mitochondrial Cyanide-Resistant Terminal Oxidases.
29: Autophagy in Fungi and Mammals.
30: B12-Containing Enzymes.
31: B-Cell Antigen Receptor.
32: Bcl2 Family: Cell Death Enhancers and Inhibitors.
33: Bile Salts.
34: Biochemistry: Niacin/NAD(P).
35: Biochemistry of Development: Striated Muscle.
36: Biochemistry of Hematopoiesis.
37: Biochemistry of Liver Regeneration.
38: Biochemistry of Neurogenesis.
39: Biochemistry of Thiamine and Thiamine Phosphate Compounds.
40: Bioenergetics and the Mitochondrial Genome.
41: Bioenergetics: General Definition of Principles.
42: Biotin.
43: Biotinylation of Proteins.
44: Bmp Signaling and Vascular Disease.
45: Bradykinin Receptors.
46: Branched-Chain Amino Acids.
47: Brassinosteroids.
48: Cadherin-Mediated Cell–Cell Adhesion.
49: Cadherin Signaling.
50: Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide and Adrenomedullin Receptors.
51: Calcitonin Receptor.
52: Calcium-Binding Proteins: Cytosolic (Annexins, Gelsolins, and C2-Domain Proteins).
53: Calcium, Biological Fitness of.
54: Calcium-Buffering Proteins: Calbindin.
55: Calcium-Buffering Proteins: ER Luminal Proteins.
56: Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II.
57: Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases.
58: Calcium in the Regulation of Gene Expression.
59: Calcium-Modulated Proteins (EF-Hand).
60: Calcium Oscillations.
61: Calcium-Sensing Receptor (CaSR).
62: Calcium Signaling by Cyclic ADP-Ribose and NAADP.
63: Calcium Signaling: Calmodulin-Dependent Phosphatase.
64: Calcium Signaling: NO Synthase.
65: Calcium Transport in Mitochondria.
66: Calpain.
67: Carbohydrate Chains: Enzymatic and Chemical Synthesis.
68: Carbohydrate Metabolism in the Central Nervous System.
69: Carbohydrate-Responsive Element Binding Protein.
70: Cardiac Excitation–Contraction Coupling.
71: Carnitine and β-Oxidation.
72: Caspases and Cell Death.
73: Catalysis by RNA, Structural Themes: Group I Introns.
74: Cell Cycle: Control of Entry and Progression through S Phase.
75: Cell-Cycle Controls in G1 and G0.
76: Cell Cycle: DNA Damage Checkpoints.
77: Cell Cycle: Mitotic Checkpoint.
78: Cell Death by Apoptosis and Necrosis.
79: Cell–Matrix Interactions.
80: Cell Migration.
81: Cell Migration Within Three-Dimensional Matrices.
82: Centromeres.
83: c-fes Proto-Oncogene.
84: Chaperonins.
85: Chemiluminescence and Bioluminescence.
86: Chemiosmotic Theory.
87: Chemistry of Alzheimer Disease.
88: Chemokine Receptors.
89: Chemolithotrophy.
90: Chemotactic Peptide/Complement Receptors.
91: Chlorophylls and Carotenoids.
92: Chloroplasts.
93: Chloroplast Signaling and Redox Control.
94: Cholesterol Synthesis and Regulation.
95: Chromatin: Methyl-CpG-Binding Proteins.
96: Chromatin: Nucleosome Positioning – The GAL Promoter.
97: Chromatin: Physical Organization.
98: Chromosome Organization and Structure, Overview.
99: Coenzyme A.
100: Collagenases.
101: Collagens.
102: Color Vision.
103: Conservative Site-Specific Recombination.
104: Cyclic AMP Receptors of Dictyostelium.
105: Cyclic GMP Phosphodiesterases.
106: Cyclic Nucleotide-Dependent Protein Kinases.
107: Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases.
108: Cyclic Nucleotide-Regulated Cation Channels.
109: Cysteine Proteases.
110: Cytochrome bc1 Complex (Respiratory Chain Complex III).
111: Cytochrome c.
112: Cytochrome Oxidases, Bacterial.
113: Cytochrome P-450.
114: Cytokines.
115: Cytokinesis.
116: Cytokinin.
117: Cytoskeletal Motors: General Principles.
118: Desmosomes and Hemidesmosomes.
119: Detergent Properties.
120: Diabetes.
121: Diacylglycerol Kinases and Phosphatidic Acid Phosphatases.
122: Disulfide Bond Formation.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
1: DNA Base Excision Repair Pathways.
2: DNA Damage: Alkylation.
3: DNA Glycosylases: Mechanisms.
4: DNA Helicases: Hexameric Enzyme Action.
5: DNA Ligases: Mechanism and Functions.
6: DNA Ligases: Structures.
7: DNA Methyltransferases: Eubacterial GATC.
8: DNA Mismatch Repair and Homologous Recombination.
9: DNA Mismatch Repair and the DNA Damage Response.
10: DNA Mismatch Repair in Bacteria.
11: DNA Mismatch Repair in Disease and Aging.
12: DNA Mismatch Repair in Mammals.
13: DNA Modification, Restriction Endonucleases: Type I Enzymes.
14: DNA Oxidation.
15: DNA Polymerase β, Eukaryotic.
16: DNA Polymerase I, Bacterial.
17: DNA Polymerase III, Bacterial.
18: DNA Polymerases: Kinetics and Mechanism.
19: DNA Polymerases: Reverse Transcriptase Integrase, and Retrovirus Replication.
20: DNA Replication: Eukaryotic Origins and the Origin Recognition Complex.
21: DNA Replication Fork, Bacterial.
22: DNA Replication Fork, Eukaryotic.
23: DNA Replication: Initiation in Bacteria.
24: DNA Replication, Mitochondrial.
25: DNA Restriction and Modification: Type II Enzymes.
26: DNA Restriction and Modification: Type III Enzymes.
27: DNA Secondary Structure.
28: DNA Sequence Recognition by Proteins.
29: DNA Supercoiling.
30: DNA Topoisomerases: Type I.
31: DNA Topoisomerases: Type II.
32: Dopamine Receptors.
33: Dynactin.
34: Dynamic Behavior of Photosystem II Light Harvesting.
35: Dynein.
36: Eicosanoid Receptors.
37: Elastin.
38: Endocannabinoids.
39: Endocytosis.
40: Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Protein Degradation.
41: Energy Transduction in Anaerobic Bacteria.
42: Enzyme Inhibitors.
43: Enzyme Kinetics.
44: Enzyme Reaction Mechanisms: Stereochemistry.
45: ER/SR Calcium Pump: Function.
46: ER/SR Calcium Pump: Structure.
47: Eukaryotic Chemotaxis.
48: Eukaryotic DNA Polymerase α.
49: Eukaryotic DNA Polymerase δ.
50: Eukaryotic Protein Biosynthesis: The Elongation Cycle.
51: Evolving Concepts of Leptin.
52: Exosomes and Microvesicles.
53: FAK Family.
54: F-ATPases.
55: Fatty Acid Metabolism and Cancer.
56: Fatty Acid Oxidation.
57: Fatty Acid Structure and Synthesis.
58: Fatty Acyl-CoA Synthetases.
59: Ferredoxin.
60: Ferredoxin-NADP+ Reductase.
61: Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptors and Cancer-Associated Perturbations.
62: Flavins.
63: Flippases.
64: Focal Adhesions and Related Integrin Contacts.
65: Folate and Vitamin B12 Function.
66: Free Oligosaccharides: Formation and Degradation (Free Oligosaccharides Related to N-Linked Glycans).
67: Friedreich's Ataxia.
68: FX, FA, and FB Iron–Sulfur Clusters in Type I Photosynthetic Reaction Centers.
69: G12/G13 Family.
70: GABAA Receptor.
71: GABAB Receptor.
72: Gastrointestinal Digestion and Absorption.
73: Gene Expression in Bacterial Systems: The trp Operon and Attenuation.
74: Gene Expression in Eukaryotes: RNA Polymerase II Structure.
75: Genome-Wide Analysis of Gene Expression.
76: Giant Mitochondria (Megamitochondria).
77: Gi Family of Heterotrimeric G Proteins.
78: Gluconeogenesis.
79: Glucose/Sugar Transport in Bacteria.
80: Glucose/Sugar Transport in Mammals.
81: Glutamate Receptors, Metabotropic.
82: Glutathione Peroxidases.
83: Glycation.
84: Glycerolipid Structure, Function, and Synthesis in Eukaryotes.
85: Glycine Receptors.
86: Glycogen Metabolism.
87: Glycogen Storage Diseases.
88: Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3.
89: Glycolipid-Dependent Adhesion Processes.
90: Glycolysis Overview.
91: Glycoprotein Folding and Processing Reactions.
92: Glycoprotein-Mediated Cell Interactions, Nonmucin-Type O-Linked.
93: Glycoproteins, N-Linked.
94: Glycoproteins, Plant.
95: Glycosylation, Congenital Disorders of.
96: Glycosylphosphatidylinositol Anchors.
97: Golgi Complex.
98: G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinases and Arrestins.
99: G Protein Signaling Regulators.
100: Gq Family.
101: Green Bacteria: Chlorophyll Biosynthesis, Light-Harvesting, Reaction Centers, and Electron Transport.
102: Green Bacteria: Secondary Electron Donor (Cytochromes).
103: Green Bacteria: The Light-Harvesting Chlorosome.
104: Gs Family of Heterotrimeric G Proteins.
105: Heat/Stress Responses.
106: Hematopoietin Receptors.
107: Heme Proteins.
108: Heme Synthesis.
109: Hexokinase/Glucokinase.
110: HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Structures.
111: HIV Protease.
112: Homologous Recombination in Meiosis.
113: Hydrogenases, Structure and Function.
114: Immunoglobulin (Fc) Receptors.
115: Indicators of Intracellular Calcium.
116: Inositol Phosphate Kinases and Phosphatases.
117: Inositol Trisphosphate and Calcium Signaling.
118: Insect Biochemistry/Hormones.
119: Insulin- and Glucagon-Secreting Cells of the Pancreas.
120: Insulin Mechanisms/Metabolic Actions.
121: Integrin Signaling.
122: Intercellular Ca2+ Waves: Mechanisms of Initiation and Propagation.
123: Interferon Receptors.
124: Intermediate Filament Linker Proteins: Plectin and BPAG1.
125: Intermediate Filaments.
126: Intracellular Calcium Channels: NAADP+-Modulated.
127: Intracellular Calcium Waves.
128: Ion Channel Protein Superfamily.
129: IP3 Receptors.
130: Iron–Sulfur Proteins.
131: Keratins and the Skin.
132: Kinesins as Microtubule Disassembly Enzymes.
133: Kinesin Superfamily Proteins.
134: Kinetic Isotope Effects.
135: lac Operon.
136: Lectins.
137: LexA Regulatory System.
138: Ligand-Operated Membrane Channels: Calcium (Glutamate).
139: Ligand-Operated Membrane Channels: GABA.
140: Light-Harvesting Complex I and II: Pigments and Proteins.
141: Lipases.
142: Lipid Bilayer Structure.
143: Lipid Modification of Proteins: Targeting to Membranes.
144: Lipid Rafts.
145: Lipid Signaling and Ion Channels.
146: Live Cell Imaging of Nuclear Dynamics.
147: Low-Barrier Hydrogen Bonds.
148: Luft's Disease.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
1: Major Sperm Protein and Sperm Locomotion.
2: Mammalian DNA Methyltransferase Structural Themes.
3: Mass Spectrometry of Native Complexes.
4: Meiosis.
5: Melanocortin System.
6: Membrane-Associated Energy Transduction in Bacteria and Archaea.
7: Membrane Fusion.
8: Membrane Transporters: Na+/Ca2+ Exchangers.
9: Membrane Transport, General Concepts.
10: Messenger RNA Degradation in Bacteria.
11: Messenger RNA Processing in Eukaryotes.
12: Metabolic Control during Ischemia of the Heart.
13: Metabolic Roles of Adiponectin.
14: Metabolic Roles of the Orexigenic and Anorexigenic Neuropeptides.
15: Metabolite Channeling: Creatine Kinase Microcompartments.
16: Metalloproteases.
17: Metalloproteinases, Matrix.
18: MicroRNAs in Eukaryotes.
19: Microtubule-Associated Proteins.
20: Mitochondria in Myocardial Ischemia.
21: Mitochondrial Auto-Antibodies.
22: Mitochondrial Calcium Transport: Historical Aspects.
23: Mitochondrial Channels.
24: Mitochondrial DNA.
25: Mitochondrial Dynamics.
26: Mitochondrial Genes and Their Expression: Yeast.
27: Mitochondrial Membranes, Structural Organization.
28: Mitochondrial Metabolite Carrier Protein Family.
29: Mitochondrial Outer Membrane and the VDAC Channel.
30: Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore.
31: Mitochondria: Source and Target of Free Radicals.
32: Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Family.
33: Mitosis.
34: Monoamine Oxidase.
35: mRNA Polyadenylation in Eukaryotes.
36: mTOR and Its Downstream Targets.
37: Mucin Family of Glycoproteins.
38: Mucins in Embryo Implantation.
39: Multidrug Resistance Membrane Proteins.
40: Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors.
41: Myosin Motors.
42: Natriuretic Peptides, Their Receptors and Therapeutic Applications.
43: Neoglycoproteins.
44: Neuronal Intermediate Filaments.
45: Neurotransmitter Transporters.
46: Neurotrophin Receptor Signaling.
47: Nicotinamide Nucleotide Transhydrogenase.
48: Nitric Oxide Signaling.
49: N-Linked Glycan-Processing Glucosidases and Mannosidases.
50: Nonhexameric SF1 DNA Helicases/Translocases.
51: Nonhomologous End Joining in Bacteria.
52: Nonhomologous End Joining in Eukaryotes.
53: Nonhomologous Recombination: Bacterial Transposons.
54: Nonhomologous Recombination: Retrotransposons.
55: Nuclear Calcium in Synapse-to-Nucleus Communication: Common Regulator of Persistent Adaptations in the Nervous System.
56: Nuclear Compartmentalization.
57: Nuclear Factor Kappa B.
58: Nuclear Genes Involved in Mitochondrial Function and Biogenesis.
59: Nuclear Lamina.
60: Nuclear Organization, Chromatin Structure, and Gene Silencing.
61: Nuclear Pores and Nuclear Import/Export.
62: Nucleolus, Overview.
63: Nucleotide Excision Repair, Bacterial: The UvrABCD System.
64: Nucleotide Excision Repair: Biology.
65: Nucleotide Excision Repair in Eukaryotes.
66: Olfactory Receptors.
67: O-Linked GlcNAc Biosynthesis and Function.
68: Opioid Receptors.
69: ORAI Store-Operated Calcium Channel.
70: Organization of the Bacterial Nucleoid.
71: Oxygenases.
72: P2Y Receptors.
73: p53 Family.
74: Parathyroid Hormone/Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein Receptor.
75: Pentose Phosphate (Hexose Mono Phosphate) Pathway.
76: Peptide Amidation.
77: Periplasmic Electron-Transport Systems in Bacteria.
78: Peroxidase Biochemistry and Redox Signaling.
79: Peroxisomal Metabolism.
80: Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors.
81: Peroxisomes.
82: Phage Display for Protein Binding.
83: Phagocytosis.
84: Pheromone Receptors (Yeast).
85: Phosphatidylinositol-3-Phosphate.
86: Phosphatidylinositol Bisphosphate and Trisphosphate.
87: Phosphofructokinase-2/Fructose Bisphosphatase-2.
88: Phosphoinositide 4- and 5-Kinases and Phosphatases.
89: Phosphoinositide-Dependent Protein Kinases.
90: Phospholipase C.
91: Phospholipase D.
92: Phospholipid Synthesis in Yeast.
93: Photoinhibition and Photoprotection in Plants, Algae, and Cyanobacteria.
94: Photoreceptors.
95: Photosynthesis.
96: Photosynthetic Carbon Dioxide Fixation.
97: Photosystem I.
98: Photosystem II: Assembly and Turnover of the D1 Protein.
99: Photosystem II: Redox and Protein Components.
100: Photosystem II: Water Oxidation, Overview.
101: Plasma-Membrane Calcium Pump: Structure and Function.
102: Plastocyanin.
103: Platelet-Activating Factor Receptor.
104: Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor Family.
105: Porphyrin Metabolism.
106: Potassium Channels in the Inner Membrane of Mitochondria in Various Organisms: From Unicellular Eukaryotes to Higher Plants and Mammals.
107: Pre-tRNA and Pre-rRNA Processing in Bacteria.
108: Primary Biliary Cirrhosis.
109: Prions of Yeast and Fungi: Proteins Acting as Genes.
110: Prions Overview.
111: Processivity Clamps in DNA Replication.
112: Prostaglandins and Leukotrienes.
113: Proteases in Blood Clotting.
114: Proteasomes, Overview.
115: 26S Proteasome: Structure and Function.
116: Proteinase-Activated Receptors.
117: Protein Carboxyl Esterification.
118: Protein Data Resources.
119: Protein Degradation.
120: Protein Folding and Assembly.
121: Protein Import into Mitochondria.
122: Protein Kinase C Family.
123: Protein N-Myristoylation.
124: Protein Palmitoylation.
125: Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases.
126: Proteoglycans.
127: Proton Pumping in the Respiratory Chain.
128: Pteridines.
129: P-Type Pumps: Copper Pump.
130: P-Type Pumps: H+/K+ Pump.
131: P-Type Pumps: Na+,K+-ATPase.
132: P-Type Pumps: Plasma-Membrane H+ Pumps.
133: Purple Bacteria: Electron Acceptors and Donors.
134: Purple Bacteria: Photosynthetic Reaction Centers.
135: Pyridoxal Phosphate.
136: Pyrimidine Biosynthesis and Degradation (Catabolism).
137: Pyruvate Kinase.
138: Quinones.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
1: Rab Family.
2: Ran GTPase.
3: Ras Family.
4: Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species: Interactions with Mitochondria and Pathophysiology.
5: Recombination-Dependent DNA Replication.
6: Recombination: DNA Helicases and Nucleases.
7: Recombination: DNA-Strand Transferases.
8: RecQ Helicase Systems.
9: Regulated Intramembrane Proteolysis.
10: Regulation of Body Weight by Malonyl-CoA in the CNS.
11: Regulation of Chromatin Dynamics.
12: Regulation of Gene Transcription by Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1.
13: Renewable Hydrogen from Biomass.
14: Repair of G–T Mismatches by Escherichia coli Vsr and Eukaryotic DNA Glycosylases.
15: Respiration in Phototrophic Microorganisms.
16: Respiratory Chain and ATP Synthase.
17: Respiratory Chain Complex I.
18: Respiratory Chain Complex II and Succinate: Quinone Oxidoreductases.
19: Respiratory Chain Complex IV.
20: Retinoblastoma Protein (pRB).
21: Retinoic Acid Receptors.
22: Rho GTPases and Actin Cytoskeleton Dynamics.
23: Ribosome Assembly.
24: Ribosome Regulation by EF-G and EF-Tu.
25: Ribosome Structure.
26: Riboswitches.
27: Ribozymes and Evolution.
28: Ribozyme Structural Elements: Group II Introns and the Spliceosome.
29: RNA Editing.
30: RNA Polymerase I and RNA Polymerase III in Eukaryotes.
31: RNA Polymerase II and Its General Transcription Factors.
32: RNA Polymerase II Elongation Control in Eukaryotes.
33: RNA Polymerase Reaction in Bacteria.
34: RNA Polymerase Structure, Bacterial.
35: RNA Splicing.
36: Roles of Micro-RNAs in Metabolism.
37: Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Ion Channels.
38: Secretases.
39: Secretory Pathway.
40: Selenoprotein Synthesis.
41: Septins and Cytokinesis.
42: Serine/Threonine Phosphatases.
43: Serotonin Receptor Signaling.
44: Siglecs.
45: Sigma Factors.
46: Sliding Clamps in DNA Replication: Escherichia coli β-Clamp and PCNA Structure.
47: Small GTPases.
48: Small RNAs in Bacteria.
49: Sodium–Calcium Exchanger: Structural Aspects.
50: Somatostatin Receptors.
51: Spastic Paraplegia.
52: Spectrophotometric Assays.
53: Sphingolipid Biosynthesis.
54: Sphingolipid Catabolism.
55: Src Family of Protein Tyrosine Kinases.
56: Starvation.
57: Steroid/Thyroid Hormone Receptors.
58: Store-Operated Calcium Channels.
59: Structure and Regulation of Pyruvate Dehydrogenases.
60: Structure–Function of the Cytochrome b6f Complex of Oxygenic Photosynthesis.
61: Structure of P-Type Adenosine Triphosphatases.
62: Structure of Respiratory Complex I.
63: Substrate Binding, Catalysis, and Product Release.
64: Sugar Nucleotide Transporters.
65: Superoxide Dismutase.
66: T7 RNA Polymerase.
67: Tachykinin/Substance P/Neurokinin-1 Receptors.
68: Taste Receptors.
69: T-Cell Antigen Receptor.
70: T-Cell Receptor Signaling to NF-κB.
71: Telomeres: Maintenance and Replication.
72: Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone/Luteinizing Hormone/Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Receptors.
73: Tight Junctions.
74: Toll-Like Receptors.
75: Transcription-Coupled DNA Repair Overview.
76: Transcription Termination.
77: Transient Receptor Potential Channels.
78: Translation Elongation in Bacteria.
79: Translation Initiation in Bacteria: Factors and Mechanisms.
80: Translation Initiation in Eukaryotes: Factors and Mechanisms.
81: Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle.
82: tRNA Synthetases.
83: Troponin.
84: Tubulin and Its Isoforms.
85: Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptors.
86: Two-Hybrid Protein–Protein Interactions.
87: Tyrosine Sulfation.
88: Ubiquitin-Like Proteins.
89: Ubiquitin System.
90: UmuC D Lesion Bypass DNA Polymerase V.
91: Uncoupling Proteins.
92: Unfolded Protein Responses.
93: Urea Cycle: Disease Aspects.
94: Vacuoles.
95: Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptors.
96: Vasopressin/Oxytocin Receptor Family.
97: V-ATPases.
98: Vitamin A (Retinoids).
99: Vitamin C.
100: Vitamin D.
101: Vitamin D Receptor.
102: Vitamin E.
103: Vitamin K: Biochemistry, Metabolism, and Nutritional Aspects.
104: Voltage-Dependent K+ Channels.
105: Voltage-Gated Ca2+ Channels.
106: Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels: Structure, Function, and Pathophysiology.
107: von Hippel–Lindau (VHL) Protein.
108: XPV Polymerase and the Bypass of Ultraviolet DNA Damage.
109: Zinc Fingers.