The Great Black Migration: A Historical Encyclopedia of the American Mosaic, 1st Edition

  • Editor: Steven A. Reich
  • Published By:
  • ISBN-10: 1610696662
  • ISBN-13: 9781610696661
  • DDC: 307.240899
  • Grade Level Range: 9th Grade - College Senior
  • 496 Pages | eBook
  • Original Copyright 2014 | Published/Released January 2015
  • This publication's content originally published in print form: 2014

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The movement of Southern blacks to the urban North and West over the course of the 20th century had a profound impact on black life, affecting everything from politics and labor to literature and the popular arts. This encyclopedia provides readers and researchers with a comprehensive reference work on this central topic of African American history, exploring the breadth of the black migration experience from its origins in the agricultural economy of the post-Civil War South to the return migration of the late 20th century. Entries cover such topics as the destinations that attracted black migrants, the impact of the Great Migration on black religion, the relationship between migration and black politics, and the patterns of discrimination and racial violence migrants encountered. Unlike more general reference works on African American history, each entry in the encyclopedia situates its subject within the context of black migration and articulates connections between the subject of the entry and the overall history of the migration.



  • Steven A. Reich

Table of Contents

Front Cover.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Dedication Page.
List of Entries.
List of Primary Documents.
Guide to Related Topics.
The Great Migration Chronology.
1: African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Church.
2: American Federation of Labor (AFL).
3: Appalachia.
4: Atlanta, Georgia.
5: Baltimore, Maryland.
6: Baptist Church.
7: Beauty Culture.
8: Black Consumer Market.
9: Black Migration Before World War I, Patterns of.
10: Black Press.
11: Black Suburbanization.
12: Blockbusting.
13: Blues.
14: Boll Weevil.
15: Caribbean Migration.
16: Chain Migration.
17: Chicago, Illinois.
18: Chicago Defender, The.
19: Cincinnati, Ohio.
20: Civil Rights Movement.
21: Cleveland, Ohio.
22: Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO).
23: Cotton Belt.
24: Dance Halls and Nightclubs.
25: Demographic Patterns of the Great Black Migration (1915–1940).
26: Demographic Patterns of the Great Black Migration (1940–1970).
27: Detroit, Michigan.
28: DuBois, William Edward Burghardt (1868–1963).
29: Electoral Politics.
30: Employment, Black Female Patterns of.
31: Employment, Black Male Patterns of.
32: Federal Surveillance of Black Migrants.
33: Garvey, Marcus Mosiah, Jr. (1887–1940).
34: Ghettos.
35: Great Migration, Black Opposition to.
36: Great Migration, Causes of.
37: Great Migration, White Opposition to.
38: Gulf South.
39: Harlem Renaissance.
40: Hughes, James Mercer Langston (1902–1967).
41: Hurston, Zora Neale (1891–1960).
42: Insurers and Insurance Companies.
43: Intraracial Class Conflict.
44: Jazz.
45: Johnson, Charles Spurgeon (1893–1956).
46: Labor Agents.
47: Lawrence, Jacob (1917–2000).
48: Literature, The Great Migration in.
49: Los Angeles, California.
50: Lynching.
51: Masculinity.
52: Miami, Florida.
53: Migrants, Economic Characteristics of.
54: Migrants, Expectations of.
55: Migrants, Social Characteristics of.
56: Military Service, World War I.
57: Military Service, World War II.
58: Mississippi River Delta.
59: Nation of Islam.
60: National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).
61: National Urban League (NUL).
62: Negro Leagues.
63: New York City.
64: Northeastern States, Black Migration to.
65: Nurses.
66: Occupational Mobility.
67: Organized Labor.
68: Packinghouse Workers and Unions.
69: Pentecostalism.
70: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
71: Physicians.
72: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
73: Political Activism (1915–1945).
74: Political Realignment.
75: Public Housing.
76: Racial Violence and World War II.
77: Railroads.
78: Randolph, Asa Philip (1889–1979).
79: Red Summer of 1919.
80: Restrictive Covenants.
81: Return Migration.
82: Skilled Workers.
83: Sport.
84: Steelworkers.
85: Storefront Churches.
86: Swing.
87: Unemployment.
88: Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA).
89: Urban Crisis of the 1960s.
90: Urban Renewal.
91: Visual Arts, the Great Migration in.
92: Wartime Mobilization, World War II.
93: Washington, DC.
94: Western States, Black Migration to.
95: White Flight.
96: Women.
97: Woodson, Carter Godwin (1875–1950).
Primary Documents.
“Bound for the Promised Land” (The Chicago Defender, 1917).
But it is a Fine Place to Make Money (Letters of Black Migrants, 1917).
“The East St. Louis Pogrom: An Eyewitness Account” (Carlos F. Hurd, 1917).
Finding Child Care in Philadelphia (Beulah Collins, 1920s).
“Is Migration a Panacea?” (Cleveland Advocate, 1920).
“Lynching—One Cause of Black Migration” (James Weldon Johnson, 1924).
“Olivet—A Community-Serving Church in Chicago” (1924).
Why are They So Hard on a Colored Man in this Town? (Migrant to South Bend, 1921).
Struggle to Find Housing in World War II Cleveland (1944–1945).
Selected Bibliography.
About the Editor.