Voting and Political Representation in America: Issues and Trends, 1st Edition

  • Mark P. Jones Rice University
  • Published By:
  • ISBN-10: 1440860858
  • ISBN-13: 9781440860850
  • DDC: 324.60973
  • 864 Pages | eBook
  • Original Copyright 2020 | Published/Released March 2020
  • This publication's content originally published in print form: 2020

  • Price:  Sign in for price



Does the average American have a voice in Washington? Are they well-represented, or marginalized? Do elections reflect fundamental democratic institutions and values, or are they tarnished by voter suppression, voter fraud, gerrymandering, or other factors? To what extent do America's elected officials reflect the diversity of race, religion, gender, socioeconomic background, sexual orientation, and political views of the wider American population? This encyclopedia explores these questions and examines important mechanisms and laws shaping political representation in America in the 21st century, such as term limits, gerrymandering, the electoral college, and "direct democracy" (ballot initiatives and referendums); and the degree to which demographic groups are represented in state and federal legislatures, from Latinos and senior citizens to atheists and residents of rural states. It also explains the basis for escalating concerns about both voter fraud and voter suppression.

Table of Contents

Front Cover.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Alphabetical List of Entries.
1: African American Governors.
2: African American Representation.
3: Alaskan Independence Party.
4: American Civil Liberties Union.
5: American Independent Party.
6: American National Election Studies.
7: Anderson, John, 1980 Presidential Campaign.
8: APIAVote.
9: Approval Voting.
10: Asian American and Pacific Islander Representation in Hawaii.
11: Asian American Governors.
12: Asian American Representation.
13: Australian Ballot.
14: Baker v. Carr (1962).
15: Ballot Design.
16: Ballot Roll-Off.
17: Ballot-Access Rules.
18: Ballot-Order Effects.
19: Big Sort, The.
20: Bilingual/Multilingual Ballots.
21: Birthright Citizenship and “Anchor Babies”.
22: Black Panther Party.
23: Blue Dog Coalition.
24: Bradley or Wilder Effect, The.
25: Bush v. Gore (2000).
26: Campaign Advertising.
27: Campaign Finance.
28: Carter-Baker Commission Report on Federal Election Reform.
29: Caucuses.
30: Chinese Exclusion Act, the.
31: Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission.
32: City Council Elections.
33: Clean Elections.
34: Clinton, Hillary, 2016 Presidential Campaign.
35: Confederate States of America, the.
36: Congressional Black Caucus.
37: Congressional Committee Investigations.
38: Congressional Hispanic Caucus.
39: Congressional Progressive Caucus.
40: Congressional Reapportionment.
41: Conservative Party of New York State.
42: Constitution Party.
43: Convenience Modes of Voting.
44: Councils of Government.
45: Counties and County Governments.
46: Crawford v. Marion County Election Board (2008).
47: Cube Root Law of Assembly Size.
48: Cumulative Voting.
49: Daley Machine, The.
50: Delegate versus Trustee Representation.
51: Democratic Party.
52: Democratic Socialists of America (DSA).
53: Descriptive and Substantive Representation.
54: Deukmejian, George, 1982 Gubernatorial Election.
55: Direct Democracy.
56: Direct Presidential Primaries.
57: Disabilities and Voting.
58: Divisive Primaries.
59: Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857).
60: Duke, David, Political Campaigns.
61: Duverger's Law.
62: Early Voting.
63: Ecological Inference.
64: Election Audits.
65: Election Conspiracy Theories.
66: Election Costs.
67: Election Night Reporting.
68: Electoral College.
69: Electors, Faithless.
70: Electors, Presidential.
71: Electronic Voting.
72: EMILY's List.
73: Federal Election Commission.
74: Federal Government and Voting Rights.
75: Felon Disenfranchisement.
76: Ferraro, Geraldine, 1984 Vice-Presidential Nomination and Campaign.
77: Fifteenth Amendment.
78: 501(c)(4) Organizations.
79: 501(c)(6) Organizations.
80: Fourteenth Amendment.
81: Front-Loading of Presidential Caucuses and Primaries.
82: Fusion Voting.
83: Gender Quotas.
84: Gerrymandering.
85: Get-out-the-Vote and Mobilization.
86: Green Party.
87: Haley, Nikki, 2010 Gubernatorial Election.
88: Hallquist, Christine, 2018 Gubernatorial Election.
89: Hand-Counted Paper Ballots.
90: Help America Vote Act of 2002.
91: Heritage Foundation, The.
92: House Freedom Caucus.
93: Hunt v. Cromartie (1999).
94: Ideology and Valence in Congressional Representation.
95: Independent Voter Myth.
96: Indian Citizenship Act of 1924.
97: Indian Reorganization Act.
98: Interest Groups.
99: Iowa Presidential Caucuses, The.
100: Jackson, Jesse, Presidential Campaigns.
101: Jim Crow Laws.
102: Jungle Primaries.
103: Karcher v. Daggett (1983).
104: King v. Chapman (1946).
105: Kingdom of Hawai‘i, The.
106: La Raza Unida Party.
107: Latino Governors.
108: Latino Representation.
109: Latino Representation and School Board Elections.
110: Latino Representation in New Mexico.
111: Lawful Permanent Residents.
112: League of United Latin American Citizens.
113: League of Women Voters, The.
114: Legislative Professionalism.
LGBTQ Representation.
Libertarian Party.
Limited Vote.
Literacy Tests.
LULAC v. Perry (2006).

Meet the Author

Author Bio

Mark P. Jones

Mark P. Jones is the James A. Baker III Institute for Public Policy's Fellow in Political Science, the Joseph D. Jamail Chair in Latin American Studies and a professor in the political science department at Rice University as well as a senior research fellow at the University of Houston's Hobby School of Public Affairs. His articles have appeared in publications such as the AMERICAN JOURNAL OF POLITICAL SCIENCE, the JOURNAL OF POLITICS, LEGISLATIVE STUDIES QUARTERLY, TEXAS MONTHLY, THE HILL and the TEXAS TRIBUNE. Jones is among the most quoted commentators on Texas politics in state and national media, and his research on the Texas Legislature and on public opinion and elections in Texas is widely cited by media outlets and political campaigns. He received his B.A. from Tulane University and his Ph.D. from the University of Michigan.