Global Events: Milestone Events Throughout History, 1st Edition

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  • ISBN-10: 1414491344
  • ISBN-13: 9781414491349
  • DDC: 909.003
  • Grade Level Range: 9th Grade - College Senior
  • 2768 Pages | eBook
  • Original Copyright 2014 | Published/Released March 2014
  • This publication's content originally published in print form: 2014

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Global Events: Milestone Events Throughout History is a six-volume set that explores the seminal events of human history (from ancient to modern-day) that helped shape the world we live in today. Each volume is arranged chronologically and focused on one of the following 6 regions of the world: North America, South and Central America, Asia and Oceania, Middle East, Europe, and Africa. Each entry provides background information on the origin/causes of each event, a summary of the event itself, and concludes with a brief analysis of the event's ultimate legacy. Also included in each entry are short biographies of the key players involved in each event and a bibliography of sources for further research.

Features and Benefits

  • Includes 820 entries covering key global historical events from a regional perspective.
  • Covering ancient civilizations to the present, important events in history are explored with an emphasis on their significance to overall world history.
  • Each volume is chronologically arranged and covers the following 6 regions of the world: Africa, Asia and Oceania, Central and South America, Europe, Middle East, and North America.
  • Approx. 1,800 pages in 6 volumes with 900 illustrations.

Alternate Formats

  • Casebound Edition

    ISBN-10: 1414491271 | ISBN-13: 9781414491271

Table of Contents

Overview. Chronology.
1. Prehistory to Antiquity.
Overview. Chronology. Humans Migrate from Africa (c. 100,000 bce). The Egyptians Develop Hieroglyphic Writing (c. 3400 bce). Abydos Becomes a Sacred Egyptian Burial Site (c. 3100 bce). Imhotep Is Deified (c. Twenty-Seventh Century bce). The Great Pyramid of Giza Is Built (c. 2560-c. 2540 bce). The New Kingdom Begins in Egypt (c. 1557 bce). The Bantu Migrations Begin (c. 1000 bce). The Nok Culture Develops (c. 1000 bce). Carthage Is Founded (814 bce). Meroë Becomes the Capital of the Kingdom of Kush (c. 550 bce). The Urewe Culture Enters the Iron Age (c. 500 bce). Ptolemy I Soter Founds a Dynasty in Egypt (305 bce). The Kingdom of Aksum Rises to Prominence (c. 300 bce). Hannibal Is Defeated at Battle of Zama (202 bce). The Fall of Carthage (146 bce). The Library of Alexandria Destroyed (c. 48 bce). Cleopatra VII Commits Suicide (30 bce). Saint Mark Founds the Catechetical School of Alexandria (c. 41). The Beta Israel Community Refuses to Convert to Christianity (Fourth Century). The Nsibidi Writing System Develops (400). Saint Augustine of Hippo Dies (430).
2. African Empires Period.
Overview. Chronology. The Walls of Benin are Constructed (c. 800-c. mid-1400s). The Kingdom of Nri Is Founded (c. 900). Yusuf ibn Tashfin Founds Marrakech (1062). Construction of Great Zimbabwe Begins (c. 1100). Sundiata Founds the Mali Empire (c. 1217). Dunama Dabbalemi Declares a Jihad (c. 1230). Mansa Musa Undertakes the Hajj (1324). Ibn Battuta Travels Throughout Africa and the Middle East (1325-1354). The University of Sankoré Is Founded in Timbuktu (1327). Ewuare Brings the Benin Empire into a Golden Age (1440-1473).
3. European Colonialism and the Slave Trade.
Overview. Chronology. Nzinga a Nkuwu Converts to Christianity (1485). Askia Mohammad I Becomes Emperor of the Songhai Empire (1493). The Portuguese Colonize Cape Verde (1456-1460). The Portuguese Build Elima Castle (1482). The Maravi Confederacy Expands (Sixteenth Century). The Ottomans Win the Battle of Ksar El Kebir (1578). The Kingdom of Dahomey Thrives Off the Atlantic Slave Trade (Eighteenth Century). The Oyo Empire Dominates the Trans-Saharan Trade (Seventeenth Century). The Kongo-Portuguese War (1622). The Dutch Cape Colony Is Established (1652). The Kongo Civil War Begins (1665). Portugal Loses Zanzibar (1698). The Ashanti Empire Defeats the Denkyira (1701). The Darfur Sultanate Is Founded (1603). A Colony for Former Slaves Is Founded in Sierra Leone (1787). Olaudah Equiano Publishes His Memoirs (1789). Mungo Park Reaches the Niger River (1796). Usman dan Fodio Leads the Fulani Jihad (1804). William Wilberforce Publishes A Letter on the Abolition of the Slave Trade (1806). Saartje Baartman Travels to London (1810). Shaka Becomes Chief of the Zulu State (1816). The American Colonization Society Establishes a Colony for Freed Slaves in Liberia (1821). Muhammad 'Ali Invades Sudan (1821). Moshoeshoe Establishes the Kingdom of Lesotho (1822).
4. Imperialism and Resistance.
Overview. Chronology. The French Invade Algiers (1830). Oman Signs the Treaty of Trade and Friendship with France (1844). Joseph Jenkins Roberts Becomes the First President of Liberia (1848). Abdelkader Receives the Legion of Honor (1860). The Ashanti Repel the British in the Second Anglo-Ashanti War (1863-1864). Great Britain Annexes Transvaal (1877). The Battle of Isandlwana (1879). The Battle of Ulundi (1879). Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza Reaches the Congo River (1880). Muhammad Ahmad Declares Himself the Mahdi (1881). Carl Peters Signs Treaties with African Nations in East Africa (1884). The Berlin Conference Carves Up Africa (1884-1885). Charles George Gordon Dies in the Siege of Khartoum (1885). King Leopold II of Belgium Establishes the Congo Free State (1885). George Goldie founds the Royal Niger Company (1886). King Jaja of Opobo Is Arrested by the British (1887). Cecil Rhodes Establishes the De Beers Mining Company (1888). The Heligoland Treaty Is Signed (1890). The Battle of Adwa (1896). The Battle of Omdurman (1897). Bai Bureh Leads the Hut Tax War (1898). The Fashoda Incident (1898). Lord Roberts Takes Pretoria (1900). The Voulet-Chanoine Mission (1900). The British Conquer the Aro Confederacy (1902). The British Conquer the Sokoto Caliphate (1903). Ota Benga Is Displayed at the World's Fair (1904). The Herero and Namaqua Genocide (1904-1907). Frederick Lugard Unifies Nigeria (1912-1914). Paul Emil von Lettow-Vorbeck Takes Charge of the East African Campaign (1914). The Aba Women's War (1929). Haile Selaassie I Becomes Emperor of Ethiopia (1930). Italy Invades Ethiopia (1935-1936). The Burma Boys Fight the Japanese in World War II (1942). The First Sudanese Civil War Begins (1955). The Mau Mau Uprising (1952-1956).
5. Post-Colonial Period.
Overview. Chronology. Ghana Gains Independence from Great Britain (1957). Miriam Makeba Records "Pata Pata" (1957). Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd Formalizes the Apartheid System (1958-1966). Félix Houphouët-Boigny Becomes the First President of Côte d'Ivoire (1960). Nnamdi Azikiwe Becomes the First President of Nigeria (1963). The Sharpeville Massacre (1960). The Congo Crisis (1960-1966). The Africa National Congress Founds Umkhonto we Sizwe (Spear of the Nation). (1961). W. E. B. Du Bois Begins Encyclopedia Africana (1961). Frantz Fanon Publishes The Wretched of the Earth (1961). Patrice Lumumba Is Executed (1961). Nelson Mandela Sentenced to Life in Prison (1964). The Organization of African Unity Is Formed (1963). Jomo Kenyatta Becomes the First President of Kenya (1964). Julius Nyerere Establishes African Socialism (1964). Ian Smith Declares Rhodesian Independence (1965). Mobutu Sese Seko Seizes Control of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (1965). The Nigerian Civil War Begins (1967). Mozambique Wins Independence from Portugal (1975). UNITA Fights a Civil War in Angola (1975). The Soweto Uprising (1976). Steven Biko Is Killed in Police Custody (1977). Fela Kuti Releases Zombie (1977). Somalia and Ethiopa Fight the Ogaden War (1977-1978). Idi Amin Flees Uganda (1978). Olusegun Obasanjo Returns Nigeria to Civilian Control (1979).
6. Late Twentieth and Early Twenty-First Centuries.
Overview. Chronology. Robert Mugabe Leads the Liberation of Zimbabwe (1980). Ruth First Is Killed by a Mail Bomb (1982).Thomas Sankara Leads a Coup in Upper Volta (1983). Desmond Tutu Promotes "Disinvestment" in South Africa (c. 1984). Sam Nujoma Become the First President of Namibia (1990). Operation Solomon Brings Ethiopian Jews to Israel (1991). The Kingdom of Buganda Is Restored (1993). Eritrea Is Established (1993). South Africa Holds Its First Multiracial Election (1994). Mohamed Farrah Aidid Takes Control of Somalia (1995). Frederick Willem de Klerk and Nelson Mandela Win the Nobel Peace Prize (1996). Mohammed Yusuf Founds Boko Haram (2001). The Darfur Conflict Begins (2003). Wangari Maathai Becomes the First African Woman to Win Nobel Peace Prize (2004). Somali Pirates Threaten International Shipping (2005-2012). South Africa Grants Same-Sex Marriage Rights (2006). Sub-Saharan Africa Accounts for 70 Percent of New HIV Infections Worldwide (2010). South Africa Hosts the World Cup (2010). Hosni Mubarak Resigns as President of Egypt (2011). South Sudan Becomes an Independent Nation (2011). Uganda Passes Anti-Homosexuality Bill (2012). Further Readings. Index.
Overview. Chronology.
1. Ancient Period.
Overview. Chronology. Aborigines Arrive in Australia (c. 75,000 bce). Rice Feeds a Civilization (c. 10,000 bce). Pastoral Nomads Roam Central Asia (c. 8500 bce). Harappa Emerges as Major Indus Valley City (c. 2600 bce). Leizu Discovers the Secret of Silk (c. 2600 bce). The Proto-Shiva Is Worshipped at Indus Valley Fire Altars (c. 2600 bce). The Tungus Promote Shamanism (c. 2000 bce). Europoids Are Mummified in Tarim Basin (1800-200 bce).
2. Classical Period.
Overview. Chronology. Aryans Compose the Reg Veda (c. 1500 bce). The Duke of Zhou Describes the Mandate of Heaven (c. 1000 bce). Jainism Prescribes Non-Violence (c. 900 bce). Scythians Ride the Steppes (c. 700 bce). Confucius Creates a Political System (c. 500 bce). Siddhartha Gautama Becomes the Buddha (c. 500 bce). Alexander the Great Defeats King Porus at the Battle of Hydaspes (326 bce). Chandragupta Founds the Mauryan Empire (321 bce). Ashoka Spreads Buddhism Throughout Central Asia (269-232 bce). Shi Huangdi Becomes Emperor of a Unified China (221 bce). Modun Establishes the Xiongnu Empire (209 bce). The Han Dynasty Is Established (206 bce). The Yuezhi Migrate to Central Asia (Second Century bce). The Chinese Invent the Stirrup (c. 300). The Gupta Empire Promotes Hinduism (Fifth Century).
3. Medieval Period.
Overview. Chronology. Alopen Brings Nestorian Christianity to China (635 ). Wu Zetian Becomes Empress of China (690). The Kojiki Records Shinto Practices (712). Arab and Chinese Empires Collide at the Battle of Talas (751). Manichaeism Becomes the Official Religion of the Uighur Khaganate (763). The Samanids Break with the Abbasid Caliphate (819). A Buddhist Monk Assassinates the Tibetan Emperor (842). The Volga Bulgars Adopt Islam (Tenth Century). Emperor Taejo Unites Korea (936). The Song Empire Gains Industrial Might (960-1127). Asian Printers Introduce Moveable Type (Eleventh Century). The Composite Bow Dominates the Battle Field (Eleventh Century). Mahmud of Ghazna Invades India (1000-1026). The Tea and Horse Trading Office Is Established (1074). Suryavanam II Builds Angkor Wat (1113-c. 1150). Yelu Dashi Founds the Kara-Khitai Khanate (1124). Asians Embrace Gunpowder (Thirteenth Century). Ögödei Khan Creates the Yam (c. 1200). Genghis Khan Founds the Mongol Empire (1206). The Pax Mongolica (1206-1368). Qutb al-Din Aybeg Becomes Sultan of Delhi (1206). Sübedei Takes Command of the Mongol Army (c. 1206). Karakorum Becomes the Center of Commerce (1220-1267). The Golden Horde Khanate Is Established (1240s). Alexander Nevsky Becomes Grand Prince of Vladimir (1252). The Battle of Ain Jalut (1260). Kublai Khan Builds Shangdu (Xanadu). (c. 1260). Marco Polo Travels the Silk Road (1271-1295). The Kamikaze Save Japan (1274 and 1281). The Great Wall Protects Beijing (Fourteenth Century). Togontemür Abandons Dadu (1368). Hong Wu Establishes the Ming Dynasty (1368). Timur Conquers Central Asia (1370-1405). Ivan III Gathers Russia (Fifteenth Century). Zheng He Sails the Seas (1405-1433). The Portuguese Set Out in Search of Pepper (Fifteenth Century).
4. Early Modern Period.
Overview. Chronology. Vasco Da Gama Arrives in India (1498). The Stroganovs Control the Fur Trade (Sixteenth Century). The Uzbeks Establish the Khanate of Bukhara (Sixteenth Century). Guru Nanak Founds the Sikh Religion (c. 1500). Babur Establishes the Mughal Empire (1526). Ivan the Terrible Builds St. Basil's Cathedral (1555-1561). Akbar Becomes Emperor of the Mughal Empire (1556). The Oprichniki Terrorize Russia (1565-1572). Altan Khan Meets the Dalai Lama (1578). The Cossacks Attack Siberia (1582). Admiral Yi Defends Korea from Japanese Invaders (1592-1598). The Time of Troubles (1598-1613). King Naresuan of Siam Fights an Elephant Duel with Mingyi Swa of Burma (1593). The Dutch East India Company Is Founded (1602). Tokugawa Ieyasu Founds the Tokugawa Shogunate (1603). Ligdan Khan Resists the Qing State (1604-1634). Nurhachi Leads the Manchus (1616-1626). Shah Jahan Builds the Taj Mahal (1632-1648). The Manchus Conquer China (1644). The Romanovs Reform Russian Orthodoxy (Mid-Seventeenth Century). Aurangzeb Conquers India (1680s). The Treaty of Nerchinsk Is Signed (1689). The Jebtsundamba Khutugtu Negotiates at Dolon Nor (1691). Dga'-ldan Is Defeated at the Battle of Jao Modo (1696). The Grand Embassy of Peter the Great (1697-1698). Crimean Tatars "Harvest" Slaves from the Steppes (Eighteenth Century). Ahmad Shah Durrāni Establishes an Empire in Afghanistan (1747). The Zunghars Are Massacred by the Qing Dynasty (1757). Catherine Seizes the Black Sea (1768-1792). Captain Cook Arrives in Australia (1770). Pugachev's Rebellion Begins in Russia (1773). Sydney Cove Becomes a Penal Colony (1788).
5. Imperialism and Industrialization.
Overview. Chronology. The British East India Company Rules India (1757-1858). Korea Becomes a Hermit Kingdom (Nineteenth Century). Ranjit Singh forms a Sikh Empire (1801). The Boyd Massacre (1809). The First Opium War Begins (1839). Afghan Warriors Massacre Retreating British Forces (1842). Hong Xiuquan Leads the Taiping Rebellion (1850-1864). Mongkut and Siam Evade Imperialism (1851-1868). Shogun Ieyoshi Signs the Convention of Kanagawa (1854). Russia Loses the Crimean War (1856). The Sepoy Rebellion (1857). The British Raj Begins (1858). Cochinchina Becomes a French Colony (1862). The Meiji Restoration (1868). Russia Builds the Trans-Siberian Railway (1891-1916). The Boxer Rebellion (1898-1901). The United States Advocates an Open Door Policy in China (1899). The Russo-Japanese War Begins (1904). Sun Yat-Sen Leads the Chinese Revolution (1911-1912). New Zealand Occupies German Samoa (1914). Vladimir Lenin Leads the Bolshevik Revolution (1917). Baron Von Ungern-Sternberg Battles for Mongolia (1920-1921). Mohandas Gandhi Leads the Salt March (1930).
6. The Cold War and Beyond.
Overview. Chronology. The Battle of Khalkin Gol (1939). Joseph Stalin Deports Three Million (1940s). The United States Drops the Atomic Bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki (1945). India Gains Independence from Great Britain (1947). The Korean War Begins (1950). Nikita Kruschev Launches the Virgin Lands Campaign (1953). The Battle of Dien Bien Phu (1954). The Dalai Lama Flees Tibet (1959). The Four Asian Tigers Rise to Economic Prominence (1960s-1990s). The Sino-Soviet Split (1960-1989). China's Cultural Revolution Begins (1966). Suharto Becomes President of Indonesia (1968). Richard Nixon Visits China (1972). Communists Win the Vietnam War (1975). Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge create the Killing Fields (1975-1979). Mikhail Gorbachev Introduces Perestroika and Glasnost (1980s). The Soviets Withdraw from Afghanistan (1988-1989). The Tiananmen Square Protests (1989). The Soviet Union Falls (1991). Boris Yeltsin Leads Russia (1991-1999). The United States Topples the Taliban (2001). Further Readings. Index.
3. Central and South America.
Overview. Chronology.
1. Pre-Columbian Civilizations Overview.
Chronology. The First Settlers Arrive in South America (c. 15,000 bce). The City of Caral Is Built (c. 2600 bce). The Olmec City of La Venta Becomes Prominent (c. 900 bce). The Nazca Lines Are Constructed (c. 600-75). Teotihuacán Falls (c. 700-800). The Temple of the Grand Jaguar Is Built in Tikal (c. 730). A Copy of the Popol Vuh Preserves Maya Religious Beliefs (c. 1550). Silver Is Discovered at Potosí, Boliva (c. 1545). Bartolomé de las Casas Publishes A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies (1552). Diego de Landa Burns Maya Codices (1562). The Spanish Inquisition Comes to the Americas (1569).
2. Colonial Period.
Overview. Chronology. Bandeirantes Explore the Brazilian Interior (c.1600-c. 1800). Lingua Geral Flourishes in Brazilian Interior (Seventeenth Century). The Quilombo of Palmares Is Established (c. 1600). Garcilaso de la Vega Writes about the Incas (1605-1616). The Jesuits Establish San Ignacio Guazu (1609). The Monastery of San Francisco Is Consecrated in Lima, Peru (1673). Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz Publishes a Letter to Her Detractors (1691). The First Maroon War Begins (1731). Charles III Reforms the Spanish-American Economy (1759-1788). Casta Paintings Are Commissioned in Spanish America (c. 1760s). The Jesuits Are Expelled from the Americas (1759-1767). Tupac Amarú II Leads a Revolt (1780-1781). The Haitian Revolution (1791-1804).
3. Independence and National Identity.
Overview. Chronology. Aleijadinho Sculpts the Twelve Prophets (1800-1805). Father Hidalgo Proclaims Grito de Dolores (1810). Dr. Francia Isolates Paraguay (1814-1840). Gran Colombia Is Established (1819). José de San Martín Meets with Simón Bolívar (1822). Pedro I Is Crowned as Emperor of Brazil (1822). The United Provinces of Central America Rises and Falls (1823-1840). The Monroe Doctrine Sets U.S. Foreign Policy in the Americas (1823). Simón Bolívar Becomes a Dictator (1828). Antonio López de Santa Anna Creates a New Mexican Constitution (1835). Pedro II Is Crowned Emperor of Brazil (1841). Mexican Forces Surrender Veracruz to the Americans (1847). Mexico and the United States Sign the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848). Manuel de Rosas Is Defeated at the Battle of Caseros (1852). William Walker Invades Nicaragua (1855). La Reforma Begins in Mexico (1855). Araucanía Is Pacified (1861-1883). Maximilian I Becomes Emperor of the Second Mexican Empire (1864). The War of the Triple Alliance Begins (1864). Suriname Abolishes Slavery (1873). The Battle of Huamachuco Ends the War of the Pacific (1883). Slavery Is Abolished in Brazil (1888). Rubén Darío Publishes Azul (1888).
4. Revolutions and Power Struggles.
Overview. Chronology. José Martí Is Killed at the Battle of Dos Rios (1895). The Spanish-American War (1898). Cuba Ratifies the Platt Amendment (1901). Panama Secedes from Colombia (1903). Theodore Roosevelt Adds a Corollary to Monroe Doctrine (1904). "La Adelita" Is Celebrated in Song (1910-1920). The Porfiriato Ends in Revolution (1911). Zapata Proclaims the Plan of Ayala (1911). U.S. Marines Capture Fort Riviere, Haiti (1915). The Week of Modern Art Is Held in São Paulo, Brazil (1922). The APRA Is Founded in Peru (1924). Amauta Is Launched in Peru (1926). The Cristero Rebellion Begins in Mexico (1927). Colombian Strikers Are Killed in the Banana Massacre (1928). Ecuador Grants Women the Right to Vote (1929). Gétuolio Vargas Becomes Provisional President of Brazil (1930). Franklin D. Roosevelt Establishes the Good Neighbor Policy (1933). The Second Battle of Nanawa (1933). Diego Rivera Begins Painting Man at the Crossroads (1932). Rafael Trujillo Orders the Parsley Massacre (1937). Mexico Nationalizes Its Oil Industry (1938). Frida Kahlo Becomes Associated with Surrealism (1940).
5. Neocolonialism and the Cold War.
Overview. Chronology. Evita Announces Juan Perón's Release from Prison (1945). Aimé Césaire Is Elected Mayor of Fort-de-France, Martinique (1945). The Partido Revolucionario Institucional (PRI). Is Founded in Mexico (1929). Pablo Neruda Delivers the "Yo Acuso" Speech (1948). La Violencia Begins in Colombia (1948). Fidel Castro Returns to Cuba (1956). The Somoza Family Becomes a Nicaraguan Political Dynasty (1956). José María Arguedas Publishes Los Rios Profundos (1958). Brasília Becomes the New Capital of Brazil (1960). Cinema Novo Develops in Brazil (1960s). The Bay of Pigs Invasion (1961). The Alliance for Progress Charter Is Signed in Uruguay (1961). Che Guevara Publishes Guerrilla Warfare (1961). The Cuban Missile Crisis (1962). Colombian Forces Attack Marquetalia (1964). The Tlatelolco Massacre (1968). Brazil Stifles Dissent with Institutional Act Number 5 (1968). Gabriel García Márquez Publishes One Hundred Years of Solitude (1967). Caetano Veloso and Gilberto Gil Are Arrested in Brazil (1968). The Chicago Boys Begin Reforming the Chilean Economy (1975). Construction Booms in the Brazilian Favelas (1970s). Argentina's Dirty War Begins (1976). Liberation Theology Takes Hold in Central America (1970s). Heberto Padilla Is Arrested in Cuba (1971). Salvador Allende Dies in Office During Coup (1973). Operation Condor Is Launched (1975). The Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo Demonstrate Argentina (1977). The Contras Form to Oppose the Sandinista Regime in Nicaragua (1981). Archbishop Óscar Romero Is Assassinated (1980). Pablo Escobar Dominates the International Cocaine Trade (1976-1993). The Shining Path Starts a Civil War in Peru (1980). The Aztecs Launch Guerras Floridas (c. 1300-1520). Tenochtitlán Is Founded (1325). Machu Picchu Is Built (1400-1450). Montezuma II Meets Hernan Cortes (1519). The Arawak Welcome Columbus (1492). Spain and Portugal Sign the Treaty of Tordesillas (1494). Rise of the Brazilian Sugar Monopoly (1540-1680). La Malinche Betrays the Aztecs (1519-1524). Spaniards Are Defeated in La Noche Triste (Night of Sorrows). (1520). New Spain Is Established (1521). The Inca Civil War (c. 1525-1532). The Virgin of Guadalupe Appears to Juan Diego (1531). Francisco Pizarro Captures the Inca Ruler (1532). The Encomenados of Peru Revolt and Overthrow Viceroy Vela (1544). The Falklands War Begins (1982). The Lost Decade Begins in Latin America (1982). The School of the Americas Comes Under Control of U.S. Army (1984).
6. Post-Cold War Culture and International Relations.
Overview. Chronology. The MST (Movement of Rural Landless Workers). Is Founded in Brazil (1984). The Washington Consensus Is Formed (1989). Mercosur Is Established (1991). Rigoberta Mench&uactue; Wins the Nobel Peace Prize (1992). Mexico Signs the North American Free Trade Agreement (1992). The Special Period Begins in Cuba (1992). The Zapatista Uprising Begins in Chiapas, Mexico (1994). The Asociación Mutual Israelita Argentina (AMIA). Headquarters Is Bombed (1994). The Pink Tide Begins in Latin America (1998). Plan Colombia Is Drafted (1998). Hugo Chávez Launches the Bolivarian Revolution (1999). Vicente Fox Is Elected President of Mexico (2000). ALBA Is Established (2004). Evo Morales Is Elected President of Bolivia (2005). Felipe Calderón Launches the Mexican Drug War (2006). The Mérida Initiative Is Announced (2007). An Earthquake Devastates Haiti (2010). Brazil Approves the Belo Monte Dam Project (2011). Further Readings. Index.
Overview. Chronology.
1. Ancient Europe.
Overview. Chronology. Cro Magnons Create Cave Art in Europe (30,000-10,000 bce). The Trojan War (c. 1200 bce). The First Olympic Games (776 bce). The Age of Pericles Begins (461 bce). The Battle of Thermopylae (480 bce). The Parthenon Is Built (447-432 bce). Sophocles' Tragedy, Antigone, Wins the Festival of Dionysus (442 bce). The Trial and Execution of Socrates (399 bce). Alexander the Great Invades Persia (334 bce). Hannibal Invades Italy (218 bce). Spartacus Leads Slave Uprising (73-71 bce). The Assassination of Julius Caesar (44 bce). Augustus Becomes the First Roman Emperor (31 bce). Caligula Proclaims His Divinity (40). Fire Destroys Rome (64). The Colosseum Is Built in Rome (75-80). Constantine Legalizes Christianity (313). The Visigoths Sack Rome (410). Justinian Becomes Emperor of Byzantium (527).
2. The Middle Ages.
Overview. Chronology. Saint Benedict Founds Monasteries (529). Muslims Invade the Iberian Peninsula (711). Charlemagne Is Crowned Holy Roman Emperor (800). The Vikings Raid France and England (800-1000). The Caliphate of Córdoba Is Founded (929). The Jewish Expulsions (1000-1492). The Great Schism (1054). The Battle of Hastings (1066). The Domesday Book Is Completed (1086). The First European University Is Founded in Bologna (1088). Pope Urban II Calls for the Crusades (1095). The Rise of Italian City-States (1100s-1200s). Eleanor of Aquitaine Marries Henry II (1152). The Notre Dame Cathedral Is Constructed (1163-1340s). Saladin Recaptures Jerusalem (1187). The Magna Carta Is Signed (1215). The Mongols Invade Eastern Europe (1223-1241). Marco Polo Travels in Asia (1271-1295). Thomas Aquinas Publishes Summa Theologicae (1274). Peasant Uprisings in Europe ((Fourteenth Century). Gunpowder Comes to Europe (Fourteenth Century). Philip of France Arrests the Knights Templar (1307). Petrarch Becomes the First Poet Laureate (1341). The Black Death Arrives in Europe (1347). The Battle of Kosovo (1389). The Battle of Agincourt (1415). The Rise of the Medici Family (1430s). Joan of Arc Is Burned at the Stake (1431). Constantinople Falls to the Ottoman Turks (1453).
3. Early Modern Europe.
Overview. Chronology. The Gutenberg Bible Is Printed (1455). The Spanish Inquisition Is Founded (1478). The Voyage of Christopher Columbus (1492). Vasco da Gama Sails to India (1497). Leonardo da Vinci Completes the Mona Lisa (1519). Machiavelli Writes The Prince (1513). Martin Luther Posts The Ninety-Five Theses (1517). Spanish Conquistadors Defeat the Aztecs and Incas (1519-1537). The Siege of Vienna (1529). Henry VIII Divorces Catherine of Aragon (1533). The Council of Trent (1545-1563). Ivan the Terrible Becomes Tsar of Russia (1547). Pope Gregory XIII Reforms the Calendar (1582). Elizabeth I Executes Mary, Queen of Scots (1587). The Defeat of the Spanish Armada (1588). The King James Bible Is Published (1611). The Globe Theatre Is Constructed (1599). Pilgrims Board the Mayflower (1620). St. Peter's Basilica Is Consecrated (1626). The Trial of Galileo (1633). René Descartes Publishes Principles of Philosophy (1644). The Peace of Westphalia Ends the Thirty Years' War (1648). Charles I of England Is Executed (1649). Thomas Hobbes Publishes Leviathan (1651). The Great Fire of London (1666). Louis XIV Moves His Court to Versailles (1682). Isaac Newton Proposes the Theory of Gravity (1687). William of Orange Invades England (1688). The Treaty of Utrecht (1713). Catherine II Is Crowned Empress of Russia (1762). Olaudah Equiano Publishes His Autobiography (1789).
4. The Age of Revolutions Overview.
Chronology. Voltaire Is Exiled to England (1726). The Lisbon Earthquake (1755). James Watt Patents Improvements to the Steam Engine (1764). France Enters the American Revolution (1783). Adam Smith Publishes The Wealth of Nations (1776). The French Revolution (1789-1799). Ludwig van Beethoven Composes His First Symphonies (1800-1802). Napoléon Is Defeated at Waterloo (1815). Europe's Latin American Colonies Declare Independence (1810-1822). Railroads Open in Great Britain (1825-1830). Great Britain Abolishes Slavery (1833). Great Britain Signs the Treaty of Nanjing (1842). Friedrich Engels Publishes The Condition of the Working Class in England (1844). The Irish Potato Famine (1845-1852). The Revolutions of 1848 (1848). Charles Darwin Develops His Theory of Evolution (1837-1859). Alexander II of Russia Emancipates the Serfs (1861). Louis Pasteur Discovers Germs (1862). The Unification of Germany (1871). Claude Monet Paints Impression, Sunrise (1872). The Berlin Conference (1884-1885). German Engineers Develop the Automobile (1885-1888). First Zionist Congress (1897). The Death of Queen Victoria (1901).
5. Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries.
Overview. Chronology. Finland Gives Women the Right to Vote (1906). Pablo Picasso Paints The Young Ladies of Avignon (1907). The Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand (1914). The Battle of Verdun (1916). The Russian Revolution (1917). The Paris Peace Conference (1919). Benito Mussolini Marches on Rome (1922). Joseph Stalin Collectivizes the Soviet Union (1928). Adolf Hitler Becomes Chancellor of Germany (1933). John Maynard Keynes Publishes The General Theory of Employment (1936). Kristallnacht (1938). Germany Invades Poland (1939). Winston Churchill Becomes Prime Minister of Great Britain (1940). The Battle of Stalingrad (1942-1943). D-Day (1944). Adolf Hitler Commits Suicide (1945). The Marshall Plan Rebuilds Europe (1947-1955). The United Nations Votes to Partition Palestine (1947). The Soviet Union Acquires the Atomic Bomb (1949). Ireland Becomes an Independent Republic (1949). Soviet Troops Suppress the Hungarian Revolution (1956). The Soviets Launch Sputnik (1957). The Beatles Record "Love Me Do' (1962). The Second Vatican Council (1962-1965). Terrorists Attack the Munich Olympics (1972). The Death of Francisco Franco (1975). The Lancaster House Agreement Is Signed (1979). Martial Law Is Imposed in Poland (1981). Mikhail Gorbachev Becomes Leader of the Soviet Union (1985). The Fall of the Berlin Wall (1989). Yugoslavia Breaks Apart (1991-1995). The European Union is Established (1993). The Belfast Agreement Is Signed (1998). Bombings in Madrid and London (2004-2005). The European Financial Crisis Begins (2009). Further Readings. Index.
Overview. Chronology.
1. Prehistory and Ancient Times.
Overview. Chronology. Agriculture Develops in the Fertile Crescent (9000 bce). The City of Çatalhöyük Is Founded (7500 bce). Tell al-Ubaid Rises as First Egalitarian Society (6500-3800 bce). Inanna Emerges as a Major Sumerian Deity (3500 bce). Etana of Kish Rules Mesopotamia (3500 bce). The Sumerians Develop Cuneiform (c. 3100 bce). The Sumerians Develop the Earliest Known Creation Myth (3000-2340 bce). Sargon the Great Founds the Akkadian Empire (2334 bce). The Ziggurat at Nippur Is Constructed (2100-1700 bce). Contrasting Views of the Afterlife Emerge (2000-1600 bce). The Epic of Gilgamesh Is Written (2000 bce). Abraham Fathers Three Religions (1800 bce). Hammurabi Establishes a Legal Code (1700 bce). The Hittites Invade Babylon (1595 bce). Esagil-kin-apli Creates the Diagnostic Handbook (c. 1069-1046 bce). David Becomes King of a United Judah and Israel (c. 1000 bce). The Phoenicians Establish Trade in the Mediterranean (1000-500 bce). The City of Suru of Bit-Halupe Revolts against Assyrian Rule (9th century bce). Ashurbanipal Creates the World's First Library (600 bce). Zoroastrianism Is Founded in Persia (600 bce).
2. Classical Period and Late Antiquity.
Overview. Chronology. Nebuchadnezzar Conquers Judah (600-562 bce). The Apadana at Persepolis Is Built (c. 515-c. 480 bce). Nehemiah Rebuilds Jerusalem's Walls in Fifty-Two Days (445 bce). Alexander the Great Defeats Darius III at the Battle of Gaugamela (331 bce). Ptolemy I Soter Becomes Ruler of Egypt (323 bce). Herod the Great Builds the City of Caesarea Maritima (25-15 bce). Paul Converts to Christianity (c. 33). The Romans Destroy the Second Temple in Jerusalem (70). Mani Founds the Religion of Manichaeism (c. 240). Saint Pachomius Founds Christian Cenobitic Monasticism (c. 318). The First Council of Nicaea Codifies Christianity (325). Saint Helena Makes a Pilgrimage to the Holy Land (327-328). Khosrow I Founds the Academy of Gondishapur (Sixth Century). Justinian I Creates the Codex Justinianus (534). The Plague of Justinian Strikes Constantinople (541-542).
3. Early Middle Ages.
Overview. Chronology. The Qur'an Is Revealed to Muhammad (610-632). Muslims Make the First Hijrah (622). The Battle of Badr (624). The Battle of the Ditch (627). Umar Becomes Caliph (634). The Battle of Nahavand (642). The Battle of the Camel (656). Husayn ibn Ali Is Killed at the Battle of Karbala (680). The Dome of the Rock Is Constructed (688-691). Abd al-Malik Reforms Coinage (685-705). Tariq ibn Ziyad Invades Spain (711). Leo III Defends Constantinople With Greek Fire (717). The Battle of the Zab (750). Harun al-Rashid Establishes the House of Wisdom (c. 786-809). Rabiah al-Adawiyyah Introduces the Doctrine of Divine Love (c. 800). Al-Ma'mun Imposes Mu'tazilite Islamic Law (833). The Banu Musa Brothers Publish the Book of Ingenious Devices (850). The "Divinely Guided One" Founds the Fatimid Caliphate (909). Arab Ambassador Ibn Fadlan Returns to Baghdad with Tales of the Viking Rus' (921).
4. High Middle Ages.
Overview. Chronology. The One Thousand and One Nights Is Translated into Arabic (c. Tenth Century). The Buwayhids Overthrow the Abbasids in Baghdad (945). Ibn Sina Publishes the Canon of Medicine (1025). Toghril Beg Conquers Baghdad (1055). Al-Ghazali Attempts to Reconcile Greek Philosophy with Islam (1091-1095). Alp-Arslan Defeats the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert (1071). The Assassins Murder Vizier Nizam al-Mulk (1092). Crusaders Arrive at Constantinople (1096). Crusaders Besiege Jerusalem (1099). Omar Khayyám Writes the Poems of the Rubaiyat (c. 1100 ). The Nizamiya Madrasas Are Founded (Eleventh Century). Baldwin I is Crowned King of Jerusalem (1100). Maimonides Arrives in Egypt (c. 1168). Usamah ibn-Munqidh Describes the "Curious Medicine" of the Franks (c. 1175). Richard the Lionheart Signs a Truce With Saladin (1192). The Delhi Sultanate Brings Islam to India (1206). Jalal ad-Din ar-Rumi Writes the Mystical Treatise Masnavi (c. 1258-1273). The Mongols Conquer the Khwarezmid Empire (1219-1221).
5. Late Middle Ages.
Overview. Chronology. Ata-Malik Juvaini and Rashid al-Din Write Epic Historial Works (c. 1252-c. 1311). Hülegü and the Mongols Execute the Caliph of Baghdad (1258). Marco Polo Travels to Asia (1271). Osman I Secedes from the Saljuqs (1299). Kamal al-Din al-Farisi Advances the Study of Optics (c. 1309). Mansa Musa Makes the Pilgrimage to Mecca (1324). The Black Death Arrives in Baghdad (1345). Ibn Battuta Explores the Sahara Desert (1352). Ibn Khaldun Evaluates the Rise and Decline of Civilization (1377). Timur Conquers Isfahan (1387). Bayezid I Marries Princess Olivera Despina (1390).
6. Early Modern Period.
Overview. Chronology. Mehmed II Takes Constantinople (1453). Gentile Bellini Paints for Mehmed II (1479). Isma'il I Establishes the Safavid Empire (1501). The Portuguese Capture Ormuz (1515). Joseph Nasi Is Granted Permission to Settle Jews in Palestine (1561). The Ottomans Conquer the Mediterranean and North Africa (1522-1574). The Battle of Lepanto (1571). Isfahan Becomes the Capital of Persia (1598). The British East India Company Establishes a Trade Agreement with Persia (1616). Marad IV Restores Sunni Islam to Baghdad (1638). The Ottoman Siege of Vienna Fails (1683).
7. Late Modern Period.
Overview. Chronology. Muhammad ibn 'Abd Al-Wahhab Founds Wahhabism (c. 1740s). Swedish King Charles XII Allies with Sultan Ahmed III (1710). Muhammad 'Ali Attempts to Limit Wahhabi Power in Arabia (1811-1841). Selim III Signs the Treaties of Sistova and Jassy (1791-1792). The Rosetta Stone Is Discovered (1799). France Invades Algeria (1830). Muhammad 'Ali Reforms Egypt (1805-1848). Abdülmecid I Implements the Tanzimat Reform Movement (1839-1876). The Suez Canal Opens (1869). The Mahdist War Begins in Sudan (1881). The British Occupy Egypt (1882-1922). The Young Turks Form the Committee for Union and Progress (1889). The Iranian Tobacco Protest (1891-1892).
8. Twentieth and Early Twenty-First Centuries.
Overview. Chronology. Oil Is Discovered at Masjed Soleyman, Iran (1908). Italy Colonizes Libya (1911). The Ottomans Lose the Balkans (1912-1913). The Ottomans Ally with Germany in World War I (1914). The Armenian Genocide Begins (1915). The Battle of Gallipoli (1915 ). The Sykes-Picot Agreement Is Signed (1916). Husayn ibn 'Ali Leads the Arab Revolt (1916-1918). Large-Scale Jewish Immigration to Palestine Begins (1917). Lebanon and Syria Gain Independence from France (1943 and 1946). Faisal I Becomes King of Iraq (1921). Mustafa Kemal Atat¨rk Becomes President of Republic of Turkey (1923). The Druze Revolt Begins in Syria and Lebanon (1925). The Treaty of Jiddah Recognizes Saudi Sovereignty (1927). Turkey and Iran Attempt Neutrality During World War II (1941-1945). Israel Becomes a Nation (1948). Operation Ajax Undermines a Democratic Iran (1953). The Suez Crisis Begins (1956). The Battle of Algiers (1956-1957). OPEC Is Founded (1960). The 1967 Arab-Israeli War (1967). Syria Intervenes in the Lebanese Civil War (1976). The Iranian Revolution (1978-1979). The Camp David Accords Are Signed (1978). Iraq Invades Iran (1980). The Persian Gulf War Begins (1991). The Palestinian Authority Is Formed (1994). The Iraq War Begins (2003). Israel Blockades the Gaza Strip (2007). The Arab Spring Begins (2010). Palestine Seeks UN Recognition (2011). Further Readings. Index.
Overview. Chronology.
1. First Nations and Colonial Era.
Overview. Chronology. Bering Strait Migration Begins (c. 18000-10000 bce). Second Wave of Bering Strait Migration Begins (c. 9000-7500 bce). Cahokia Is Settled (c. 700). Leif Eriksson Explores Canada (1000). The Mesa Verde Cliff Dwellings Are Built (c. 1100-1300). Pedro Menéndez de Avilés Founds St. Augustine, Florida (1565). The Iroquois Form a Confederacy (c. 1600). Pocahontas Saves John Smith (1607). Samuel de Champlain Founds the City of Quebec (1608). The Hudson's Bay Company Is Established (1670). Bacon's Rebellion (1676). The Pueblo Revolt Drives the Spanish Out of Santa Fe (1680). The Salem Witch Trials (1692-1693). Junípero Serra Founds Mission San Diego (1769).
2. Revolution and Expansion.
Overview. Chronology. The Battle of Quebec (1759). The Boston Massacre (1770). The Boston Tea Party (1773). The British Parliament Passes the Quebec Act (1774). Paul Revere's Ride (1775). The Continental Congress Adopts the Declaration of Independence (1776). The Continental Congress Approves the Articles of Confederation (1777). The Continental Army Winters at Valley Forge (1777-1778). Shays' Rebellion (1786-1787). The Constitutional Convention Convenes (1787). The Continental Congress Enacts the Northwest Ordinance (1787). George Washington Takes the Oath of Office as President of the United States (1789). The Bill of Rights Amends the Constitution (1791). Eli Whitney Receives a Patent for the Cotton Gin (1794). John Adams Signs the Alien and Sedition Acts (1798). Thomas Jefferson Buys the Louisiana Territory (1803). Lewis and Clark Explore the American West (1804-1806). The United States Declares War on the British (1812). Governor Dewitt Clinton Sails from Buffalo to New York on the Erie Canal (1825). Andrew Jackson Is Inaugurated (1829). Andrew Jackson Signs the Indian Removal Act (1830). Rebellions of 1837 Break Out in Canada (1837).
3. Antebellum and Civil War.
Overview. Chronology. Henry Clay Brokers the Missouri Compromise (1820). Nat Turner Leads a Slave Rebellion (1831). The Nullification Crisis Begins (1832). The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Is Signed (1848). Elizabeth Cady Stanton Opens the Seneca Falls Convention (1848). Gold Is Discovered in California (1848). Congress Reaches the Compromise of 1850 (1850). Harriet Beecher Stowe Publishes Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852). The Bleeding Kansas Crisis Begins (1854). John Brown Leads the Raid on Harpers Ferry (1859). The U.S. Supreme Court Reaches Dred Scott Decision (1857). The Battle of Fort Sumter (1861). Abraham Lincoln Signs the Homestead Act into Law (1862). Abraham Lincoln Issues the Emancipation Proclamation (1863). The Battle of Gettysburg (1863). Abraham Lincoln Delivers the Gettysburg Address (1863). General Sherman Burns Atlanta (1864). The Thirteenth Amendment Ends Slavery (1865). The Freedmen's Bureau Is Established (1865). The Ku Klux Klan Is Founded (1865). Fenian Raiders Invade Canada (1866-1871). Canada Unites as a Confederation (1867). Louis Riel Leads the Red River Rebellion (1869). Reconstruction Ends with the Compromise of 1877 (1877).
4. Industry and Modern Life.
Overview. Chronology. The Central and Union Pacific Railroads Meet at Promontory Point (1869). John D. Rockefeller Forms the Standard Oil Trust (1882). Andrew Carnegie Forms the Carnegie Steel Company (1889). The Wounded Knee Massacre (1890). The Ellis Island Immigration Station Opens (1892). The Pullman Strike (1894). Plessy v. Ferguson Upholds Legal Segregation (1896). Wilfrid Laurier Becomes the First French Canadian Prime Minister of Canada (1896). The Klondike Gold Rush Begins (1897). The USS Maine Sinks (1898). The First Model T Rolls Off the Assembly Line (1908). Henri Bourassa Founds the Newspaper Le Devoir (1910).
5. World Wars and the Interwar Period.
Overview. Chronology. A German U-Boat Sinks the Lusitania (1915). The Canadian Government Initiates Conscription (1917). The Spanish Flu Epidemic Begins (1918). The Palmer Raids Begin (1919). The League of Nations Is Founded (1919). The Eighteenth Amendment Ushers In the Prohibition Era (1919). The Nineteenth Amendment Grants Women Full Suffrage (1920). The Cotton Club Opens (1922). Babe Ruth Hits His Record Sixtieth Home Run (1927). The Jazz Singer Premieres (1927). The Stock Market Crashes (1929). The Communist Party Forms the Workers' Unity League (1929). The Jack Benny Program Debuts (1932). The San Francisco General Strike Paralyzes the West Coast (1934). The Black Sunday Dust Storm (1935). Franklin D. Roosevelt Creates Social Security (1935). The Works Progress Administration Produces the American Guide Series (1935-1943). Canada Enters World War II (1939). Japan Launches A Surprise Attack on Pearl Harbor (1941). World War II Rationing Begins (1942). Franklin D. Roosevelt Authorizes Japanese Internment (1942). The United States and Mexico Establish the Bracero Program (1942). Norman Rockwell's "Rosie the Riveter" Appears on the Cover of the Saturday Evening Post (1943). Manhattan Project Scientists Detonate the First Atomic Bomb (1945).
6. Social Revolutions and Cold War Conflict.
Overview. Chronology. Winston Churchill Delivers the "Iron Curtain" Speech (1946). The Baby Boom Begins (1946). The Levittown Suburb Is Founded (1947). The United States Enters the Korean War (1950). Joseph McCarthy Begins His Crusade Against Communism (1950). Arthur Miller Publishes The Crucible (1952). Brown v. Board of Education Ends Legal School Segregation (1954). Elvis Presley Performs on The Ed Sullivan Show (1956). Lester Pearson Wins the Nobel Peace Prize (1957). Jean Lesage Leads the Quiet Revolution in Quebec (1960-1966). President John F. Kennedy is Assassinated (1963). Martin Luther King Jr. Delivers the "I Have a Dream" Speech (1963). Betty Friedan publishes The Feminine Mystique (1963). Lyndon B. Johnson Signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (1964). Medicare Is Established (1965). The Delano Grape Strike Begins (1965). Canada Passes the Medical Care Act (1966). Hippies Organize the Human Be-In in San Francisco (1967). The Black Panthers Engage in a Shoot-out with Oakland Police (1968). Neil Armstrong Walks on the Moon (1969). Seymour Hersh Breaks the Story of the My Lai Massacre (1969). The Stonewall Riots (1969). Native American Activists Occupy Alcatraz (1969-1971). The Kent State Shootings (1970). The New York Times Publishes the Pentagon Papers (1971). Congress Approves the Equal Rights Amendment (1972). Roe v. Wade Legalizes Abortion (1973). President Nixon Resigns After the Watergate Scandal (1974). California Voters Approve Proposition 13 (1978).
7. Late Twentieth and Early Twenty-First Centuries.
Overview. Chronology. The Canada Act Is Passed (1982). Ronald Reagan Proclaims "It's Morning Again in America" (1984). George H. W. Bush Signals an End to the Cold War (1989). George H. W. Bush Signs the Americans with Disabilities Act (1990). The North American Free Trade Agreement Is Signed (1992). Sells Its First Book (1995). The Oklahoma City Bombing Claims 168 Lives (1995). Canada Creates the Territory of Nunavut (1999). The U.S. Supreme Court Determines the Outcome of the Presidential Election in Bush v. Gore (2000). The World Trade Center Is Destroyed in the 9/11 Terrorist Attacks (2001). The United States Launches the War on Terror (2001). Canada Recognizes Same-Sex Marriage (2005).