Women's Rights in the United States: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Issues, Events, and People, 1st Edition

  • Tiffany K. Wayne
  • Published By:
  • ISBN-10: 1610692152
  • ISBN-13: 9781610692151
  • DDC: 323.3
  • Grade Level Range: 9th Grade - College Senior
  • 1361 Pages | eBook
  • Original Copyright 2013 | Published/Released June 2015
  • This publication's content originally published in print form: 2013

  • Price:  Sign in for price



This four-volume set includes over 800 entries on the people, organizations, events, legislation, and primary documents impacting gender relations in the United States from the American Revolution to the present day. This comprehensive reference not only traces the historical evolution of the movement, but also covers current issues affecting women, such as reproductive freedom, political participation, pay equity, violence against women, and gay civil rights.

Table of Contents

Front Cover._x000D_
Half Title Page._x000D_
Title Page._x000D_
Copyright Page._x000D_
List of Entries._x000D_
List of Primary Documents._x000D_
List of Entries by Topic._x000D_
Preface to Volumes 1–4._x000D_
Chronology: Women’s Rights in the United States, 1776–Present._x000D_
Introduction to Volume 1._x000D_
1: Abolitionism and the Antislavery Movement._x000D_
2: Abortion (17th and 18th Centuries)._x000D_
3: Adams, Abigail (1744–1818)._x000D_
4: Advocate and Family Guardian._x000D_
5: Alcott, Louisa May (1832–1888)._x000D_
6: The American Revolution._x000D_
7: Anneke, Mathilde Franziska (1817–1884)._x000D_
8: Bagley, Sarah (1806–1883?)._x000D_
9: Barton, Clara (1821–1912)._x000D_
10: Bathsheba Spooner Case (1778)._x000D_
11: Beecher, Catharine (1800–1878)._x000D_
12: Birth Control (17th and 18th Centuries)._x000D_
13: Blackwell, Elizabeth (1821–1910)._x000D_
14: Bloomer, Amelia Jenks (1818–1894)._x000D_
15: Boycotts._x000D_
16: Bread Riots._x000D_
17: Cary, Mary Ann Shadd (1823–1893)._x000D_
18: Child, Lydia Maria (1802–1880)._x000D_
19: The Constitution and Women._x000D_
20: Coverture._x000D_
21: Dall, Caroline Healey (1822–1912)._x000D_
22: Davis, Paulina Kellogg Wright (1813–1876)._x000D_
23: Divorce (before the Civil War)._x000D_
24: Dix, Dorothea (1802–1887)._x000D_
25: Douglass, Frederick (1818–1895)._x000D_
26: Dress Reform._x000D_
27: Edmonds, Sarah Emma (1841–1898)._x000D_
28: Education of Women (before the Civil War)._x000D_
29: Elizabeth Freeman Case (1781)._x000D_
30: Evans, Augusta Jane (1835–1909)._x000D_
31: Farnham, Eliza (1815–1864)._x000D_
32: Feme Sole and Feme Sole Trader Status._x000D_
33: Fern, Fanny [Sarah Payson Willis] (1811–1872)._x000D_
34: Fifteenth Amendment (1870)._x000D_
35: Foote, Julia A. J. (1823–1900)._x000D_
36: Foster, Abby Kelley (1810–1887)._x000D_
37: Fourteenth Amendment (1868)._x000D_
38: Freedmen’s Bureau._x000D_
39: Fuller, Margaret (1810–1850)._x000D_
40: Garrison, William Lloyd (1805–1879)._x000D_
41: The Genius of Liberty._x000D_
42: Gibbons, Abigail Hopper (1801–1893)._x000D_
43: Godey’s Lady’s Book._x000D_
44: Griffing, Josephine White (1814–1872)._x000D_
45: Grimké, Charlotte L. Forten (1837–1914)._x000D_
46: Grimké, Sarah Moore (1792–1873)._x000D_
47: Grimké Weld, Angelina (1805–1879)._x000D_
48: Hale, Sarah Josepha (1788–1879)._x000D_
49: Hasbrouck, Lydia Sayer (1827–1910)._x000D_
50: Higginson, Thomas Wentworth (1823–1911)._x000D_
51: Howe, Julia Ward (1819–1910)._x000D_
52: Infanticide._x000D_
53: Interracial Marriage and Sex (17th and 18th Centuries)._x000D_
54: Interracial Marriage and Sex (19th Century)._x000D_
55: Jacobs, Harriet (1813–1897)._x000D_
56: Kemble, Fanny (1809–1893)._x000D_
57: Labor Unions (19th Century)._x000D_
58: Lee, “Mother” Ann (1736–1784)._x000D_
59: Lee, Jarena (1783–?)._x000D_
60: Legal Status of Women (18th Century)._x000D_
61: Letters on the Equality of the Sexes (1838)._x000D_
62: The Liberator._x000D_
63: The Lily._x000D_
64: Livermore, Mary (1820–1905)._x000D_
65: The Lowell Offering._x000D_
66: Lowell Textile Mills._x000D_
67: Martineau, Harriet (1802–1876)._x000D_
68: May, Abigail Williams (1829–1888)._x000D_
69: May, Samuel Joseph (1797–1871)._x000D_
70: Meriwether, Elizabeth Avery (1824–1916)._x000D_
71: Missouri v. Celia, a Slave (1855)._x000D_
72: Mitchell, Maria (1818–1889)._x000D_
73: Molly Pitcher Legend._x000D_
74: Moral Reform._x000D_
75: Mott, Lucretia (1793–1880)._x000D_
76: Mullaney, Kate (1845–1906)._x000D_
77: Murray, Judith Sargent (1751–1820)._x000D_
78: National Women’s Loyal League._x000D_
79: New York Married Women’s Property Acts._x000D_
80: Nichols, Clarina Howard (1810–1885)._x000D_
81: Nichols, Mary Gove (1810–1884)._x000D_
82: Oberlin College._x000D_
83: Oneida Community._x000D_
84: Peabody, Elizabeth (1804–1894)._x000D_
85: Phillips, Wendell (1811–1884)._x000D_
86: Pillsbury, Parker (1809–1898)._x000D_
87: Pleasant, Mary Ellen (1814–1904)._x000D_
88: Quakers._x000D_
89: Reconstruction (1865–1877)._x000D_
90: Remond, Sarah Parker (1826–1894)._x000D_
91: Republican Motherhood._x000D_
92: Restell, Madame [Anna Trow Lohman] (1812–1878)._x000D_
93: Ropes, Hannah (1809–1863)._x000D_
94: Rose, Ernestine (1810–1892)._x000D_
95: Sampson, Deborah (1760–1827)._x000D_
96: Schuyler, Louisa Lee (1837–1926)._x000D_
97: Seneca Falls Convention (1848)._x000D_
98: Seton, Elizabeth (1774–1821)._x000D_
99: Shakers._x000D_
100: The Sibyl._x000D_
101: Slavery and the Civil War._x000D_
102: Smith, Gerrit (1797–1874)._x000D_
103: Southworth, E.D.E.N. (1819–1899)._x000D_
104: Stewart, Maria W. (1803–1879)._x000D_
105: Stone, Lucy (1818–1893)._x000D_
106: Stowe, Harriet Beecher (1811–1896)._x000D_
107: Suffrage in Early America._x000D_
108: Swisshelm, Jane Grey (1815–1884)._x000D_
109: Taylor, Susie Baker King (1848–1912)._x000D_
110: Temperance Movement._x000D_
111: Tilton, Theodore (1835–1907)._x000D_
112: Towne, Laura Matilda (1825–1901)._x000D_
113: Truth, Sojourner (1797–1883)._x000D_
114: Tubman, Harriet (1822–1913)._x000D_
115: The Una._x000D_
116: Underground Railroad._x000D_
117: United States Sanitary Commission._x000D_
118: Utopian Communities._x000D_
119: Van Lew, Elizabeth (1818–1900)._x000D_
120: Wakeman, Sarah Rosetta [Lyons Wakeman] (1843–1864)._x000D_
121: Walker, Mary Edwards (1832–1919)._x000D_
122: Ward, Nancy (ca. 1738–1822)._x000D_
123: Warren, Mercy Otis (1728–1814)._x000D_
124: Wheatley, Phillis (1753–1784)._x000D_
125: Widowhood._x000D_
126: Willard, Emma Hart (1787–1870)._x000D_
127: Wittenmyer, Annie Turner (1827–1900)._x000D_
128: Wollstonecraft, Mary (1759–1797)._x000D_
129: Woman in the Nineteenth Century (1845)._x000D_
130: “Woman Order” (General Order No. 28) (1862)._x000D_
131: Women’s Magazines (18th and Early 19th Centuries)._x000D_
132: Working Women’s Association._x000D_
133: Wormeley, Katharine Prescott (1830–1908)._x000D_
134: Wright, Frances (1795–1852)._x000D_
135: Young Ladies’ Academy of Philadelphia._x000D_
136: Zakrzewska, Marie (1829–1902)._x000D_
Primary Documents._x000D_
“An Occasional Letter on the Female Sex” (1774), Thomas Paine._x000D_
“The Sentiments of an American Woman” (1780), Anonymous [Esther DeBerdt Reed]._x000D_
Letters and Petitions on Cherokee Removal (1781–1821), Cherokee Women and Nancy Ward._x000D_
“Thoughts upon Female Education” (1787), Benjamin Rush._x000D_
“On the Equality of the Sexes” (1790), Judith Sargent Murray._x000D_
Paul Revere Defends Deborah Sampson Gannett, a Female Soldier (1804)._x000D_
The Risks of Marrying (1815), Emma Hart Willard._x000D_
“A Plan for Improving Female Education” (1819), Emma Hart Willard._x000D_
Ohio Women Petition against Indian Removal (1830)._x000D_
Letter to Catherine Beecher (1836), from Angelina Grimké._x000D_
Massachusetts Churches Respond to Grimké Sisters Speaking in Public (1837)._x000D_
Letters on the Equality of the Sexes (1838), Sarah Grimké._x000D_
The Right of the People, Men and Women, to Petition (1838), John Quincy Adams._x000D_
Mississippi Married Women’s Property Act (1839)._x000D_
A Treatise on Domestic Economy (1841), Catharine Beecher._x000D_
Shaw v. Shaw (1845)._x000D_
Testimony of Female Factory Workers before Massachusetts State Legislature (1845)._x000D_
Declaration of Sentiments (1848)._x000D_
New York Married Women’s Property Acts (1848–1849)._x000D_
“Aren’t I a Woman?” (1851), Sojourner Truth._x000D_
“Reflections on Woman’s Dress” (1851), Elizabeth Smith Miller._x000D_
Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852), Harriet Beecher Stowe._x000D_
Address to the Legislature of New York (1854), Elizabeth Cady Stanton._x000D_
Missouri v. Celia, a Slave (1855)._x000D_
Marriage Protest of Lucy Stone and Henry Blackwell (1855)._x000D_
Writings on Women’s Education (1856–1857), Sarah Josepha Hale._x000D_
Commonwealth v. Fogerty (1857)._x000D_
Hair v. Hair (1858)._x000D_
Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl (1861), Harriet Jacobs._x000D_
Address on Behalf of the New York Divorce Bill (1861), Elizabeth Cady Stanton._x000D_
Female Soldiers Discovered during the Civil War (1861)._x000D_
A Northern Newspaper Supports Butler’s Woman Order (1862)._x000D_
Women in Richmond Participate in Bread Riot (1863)._x000D_
National Women’s Loyal League Petitions to End Slavery (1863)._x000D_
Support for Female Physicians (1867), Ann Preston._x000D_
Half Title Page._x000D_
Title Page._x000D_
Copyright Page._x000D_
List of Entries._x000D_
List of Primary Documents._x000D_
List of Entries by Topic._x000D_
Introduction to Volume 2._x000D_
1: Abbott, Edith (1876–1957)._x000D_
2: Abbott, Grace (1878–1939)._x000D_
3: Addams, Jane (1860–1935)._x000D_
4: Adkins v. Children’s Hospital (1923)._x000D_
5: Aid to (Families with) Dependent Children (ADC/AFDC)._x000D_
6: American Birth Control League._x000D_
7: American Equal Rights Association._x000D_
8: American Woman Suffrage Association (AWSA)._x000D_
9: Ames, Jessie Daniel (1883–1972)._x000D_
10: Anthony, Susan B. (1820–1906)._x000D_
11: The Anti-Suffragist._x000D_
12: Baker, Sara Josephine (1873–1945)._x000D_
13: Balch, Emily Greene (1867–1961)._x000D_
14: Barry, Leonora (1849–1930)._x000D_
15: Beard, Mary Ritter (1876–1958)._x000D_
16: Belmont, Alva Vanderbilt (1853–1933)._x000D_
Bethune, Mary McLeod (1875–1955)._x000D_
17: Birth Control Movement (pre-World War II)._x000D_
18: The Birth Control Review._x000D_
19: Blackwell, Alice Stone (1857–1950)._x000D_
20: Blackwell, Antoinette Brown (1825–1921)._x000D_
21: Blackwell, Henry Brown (1825–1909)._x000D_
22: Blake, Lillie Devereux (1833–1913)._x000D_
23: Blatch, Harriot Stanton (1856–1940)._x000D_
24: Bloor, Ella Reeve “Mother” (1862–1951)._x000D_
25: Bonnin, Gertrude (Zitkala-Ša/Red Bird) (1876–1938)._x000D_
26: Bradwell v. State of Illinois (1873)._x000D_
27: Brown, Charlotte Hawkins (1883–1961)._x000D_
28: Brown, Olympia (1835–1926)._x000D_
29: Buck v. Bell (1927)._x000D_
30: Catt, Carrie Chapman (1859–1947)._x000D_
31: Centennial Exposition (1876)._x000D_
32: Chopin, Kate (1850–1904)._x000D_
33: Clay, Laura (1849–1941)._x000D_
34: Colby, Clara Bewick (1846–1916)._x000D_
35: The Comstock Act (1873)._x000D_
36: Conger-Kaneko, Josephine (1874–unknown)._x000D_
37: Cooper, Anna Julia (1858/1859–1964)._x000D_
38: Davis, Katharine Bement (1860–1935)._x000D_
39: Day, Dorothy (1897–1980)._x000D_
40: Dennett, Mary Ware (1872–1947)._x000D_
41: Dickinson, Anna Elizabeth (1842–1932)._x000D_
42: Divorce (Civil War to WWII)._x000D_
43: Dodge, Grace (1856–1914)._x000D_
44: Domestic Violence (pre-1970)._x000D_
45: Dreier, Mary Elisabeth (1875–1963)._x000D_
46: Dunbar-Nelson, Alice (1875–1935)._x000D_
47: Duniway, Abigail Scott (1834–1915)._x000D_
48: Eastman, Crystal (1881–1928)._x000D_
49: Education of Women (after the Civil War)._x000D_
50: Eighteenth Amendment (1919)._x000D_
51: Equal Rights._x000D_
52: Eugenics._x000D_
53: Family Wage._x000D_
54: Felton, Rebecca Ann Latimer (1835–1930)._x000D_
55: Flynn, Elizabeth Gurley (1890–1964)._x000D_
56: The Forerunner._x000D_
57: Four Lights._x000D_
58: Free Love Movement._x000D_
59: Free Speech and Headlight._x000D_
60: Gage, Matilda Joslyn (1826–1898)._x000D_
61: Gilman, Charlotte Perkins (1860–1935)._x000D_
62: Goldman, Emma (1869–1940)._x000D_
63: Hamilton, Alice (1869–1970)._x000D_
64: Harper, Frances Ellen Watkins (1825–1911)._x000D_
65: Harper, Ida Husted (1851–1931)._x000D_
66: History of Woman Suffrage._x000D_
67: Hull House._x000D_
68: Idar, Jovita (1885–1946)._x000D_
69: International Council of Women._x000D_
70: International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union (ILGWU)._x000D_
71: Jackson, Helen Hunt (1830–1885)._x000D_
72: Jacobi, Mary Putnam (1842–1906)._x000D_
73: Jones, Mary “Mother” (1837–1930)._x000D_
74: Kehew, Mary Morton (1859–1918)._x000D_
75: Keller, Helen (1880–1968)._x000D_
76: Kelley, Florence (1859–1932)._x000D_
77: Kirchwey, Freda (1893–1976)._x000D_
78: La Flesche, Susette (1854–1903)._x000D_
79: La Follette, Belle Case (1859–1931)._x000D_
80: Laidlaw, Harriet Burton (1873–1949)._x000D_
81: Lasker, Mary (1900–1994)._x000D_
82: Lathrop, Julia (1858–1932)._x000D_
83: Lawrence Textile Strike (Bread and Roses Strike)._x000D_
84: League of Women Voters._x000D_
85: Lease, Mary Clyens (1850–1933)._x000D_
86: Lockwood, Belva (1830–1917)._x000D_
87: Lowell, Josephine Shaw (1843–1905)._x000D_
88: Mann Act (1910)._x000D_
89: Maternalism._x000D_
90: McCormick, Katharine Dexter (1875–1967)._x000D_
91: McDowell, Mary (1854–1936)._x000D_
92: Milholland-Boissevain, Inez (1886–1916)._x000D_
93: Minor v. Happersett (1875)._x000D_
94: Mormons and Polygamy._x000D_
95: Muller v. State of Oregon (1908)._x000D_
96: Nation, Carry (1846–1911)._x000D_
97: National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA)._x000D_
98: National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)._x000D_
99: National Association of Colored Women (NACW)._x000D_
100: National Congress of Mothers._x000D_
101: National Consumers League._x000D_
102: National Council of Negro Women._x000D_
103: National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA)._x000D_
104: National Woman’s Party._x000D_
105: New Deal Women’s Network._x000D_
106: Nineteenth Amendment (1920)._x000D_
107: O’Brien, Charlotte Grace (1845–1909)._x000D_
108: O’Reilly, Leonora (1870–1927)._x000D_
109: Origin of the Family, Private Property, and the State._x000D_
110: O’Sullivan, Mary Kenney (1864–1943)._x000D_
111: Ovington, Mary White (1865–1951)._x000D_
112: Pace v. Alabama (1883)._x000D_
113: Parsons, Lucy (Lucía) González (1853–1942)._x000D_
114: Paul, Alice (1885–1977)._x000D_
115: Perkins, Frances (1880–1965)._x000D_
116: The Progressive Woman._x000D_
117: Protective Labor Legislation._x000D_
118: Rankin, Jeannette (1880–1973)._x000D_
119: The Revolution._x000D_
120: Robins, Margaret Dreier (1868–1945)._x000D_
121: Roosevelt, Eleanor (1884–1962)._x000D_
122: Rosie the Riveter._x000D_
123: Sanger, Margaret (1879–1966)._x000D_
124: Schneiderman, Rose (1882–1972)._x000D_
125: Scudder, Vida Dutton (1861–1954)._x000D_
126: Settlement House Movement._x000D_
127: Sewall, May Eliza Wright (1844–1920)._x000D_
128: Shaw, Anna Howard (1847–1919)._x000D_
129: Sheppard-Towner Maternity and Infancy Act (1921)._x000D_
130: Skinner v. Oklahoma (1942)._x000D_
131: Social Purity Campaigns._x000D_
132: Social Security Act (1935)._x000D_
133: Spencer, Anna Garlin (1851–1931)._x000D_
134: Stanton, Elizabeth Cady (1815–1902)._x000D_
135: Tarbell, Ida (1857–1944)._x000D_
136: Tenayuca, Emma (1917–1999)._x000D_
137: Terrell, Mary Church (1863–1954)._x000D_
138: Thomas, Martha Carey (1857–1935)._x000D_
139: Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire (1911)._x000D_
140: United States v. Susan B. Anthony (1873)._x000D_
141: U.S. Children’s Bureau._x000D_
142: Vorse, Mary Heaton (1874–1966)._x000D_
143: Wald, Lillian D. (1867–1940)._x000D_
144: Wells-Barnett, Ida B. (1862–1931)._x000D_
145: Willard, Frances (1839–1898)._x000D_
146: Winnemucca, Sarah (1844–1891)._x000D_
147: The Woman Citizen._x000D_
148: The Woman Rebel._x000D_
149: The Woman’s Bible (1895)._x000D_
150: Woman’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)._x000D_
151: The Woman’s Journal._x000D_
152: Woman’s Peace Party._x000D_
153: The Woman’s Tribune._x000D_
154: Women and World War I._x000D_
155: Women and World War II._x000D_
156: Women’s Armed Services Integration Act (1948)._x000D_
157: Women’s Army Corps (WAC)._x000D_
158: Women’s Club Movement._x000D_
159: Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF)._x000D_
160: Women’s National Indian Association._x000D_
161: Women’s Suffrage Movement—International._x000D_
162: Women’s Suffrage Movement—United States._x000D_
163: Women’s Trade Union League (WTUL)._x000D_
164: Woodhull, Victoria (1838–1927)._x000D_
165: Woodward, Ellen Sullivan (1887–1971)._x000D_
166: Young Women’s Christian Association (YWCA)._x000D_
Primary Documents._x000D_
“Why Women Should Not Seek the Vote” (1869), Catharine Beecher and Harriet Beecher Stowe._x000D_
“I Announce Myself as a Candidate for the Presidency” (1870), Victoria Woodhull._x000D_
Address before Congress on Women’s Constitutional Equality (1871), Victoria Woodhull._x000D_
Bradwell v. State of Illinois (1873)._x000D_
The Comstock Act (1873)._x000D_
United States v. Susan B. Anthony (1873)._x000D_
Minor v. Happersett (1875)._x000D_
Declaration of the Rights of the Women of the United States (1876)._x000D_
“Voluntary Motherhood” (1891), Harriot Stanton Blatch._x000D_
“Solitude of Self” (1892), Elizabeth Cady Stanton._x000D_
A Red Record (1895), Ida B. Wells-Barnett._x000D_
“Women as Breadwinners”–Women in the American Federation of Labor (1897)._x000D_
Women and Economics (1898), Charlotte Perkins Gilman._x000D_
The Woman’s Bible (1898), Elizabeth Cady Stanton (and Revising Committee)._x000D_
“Effeminate Men and Masculine Women” (1900), William Lee Howard, MD._x000D_
The School Days of an Indian Girl (1900), Zitkala-Ša (Gertrude Bonnin)._x000D_
Presidential Address to the International Council of Women (1904), May Wright Sewall._x000D_
Child Labor and Women’s Suffrage (1905), Florence Kelley._x000D_
“The Tragedy of Woman’s Emancipation” (1906), Emma Goldman._x000D_
“The Economic Dependence of Husbands” (1907), Josephine Conger-Kaneko._x000D_
Muller v. Oregon (1908)._x000D_
“The Housewife and the Eight-Hour Day” (1910), Theresa Malkiel._x000D_
Report on the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire and Response from Rose Schneiderman (1911)._x000D_
Progressive Party Platform Adopts Woman Suffrage (1912)._x000D_
Half Title Page._x000D_
Title Page._x000D_
Copyright Page._x000D_
List of Entries._x000D_
List of Primary Documents._x000D_
List of Entries by Topic._x000D_
Introduction to Volume 3._x000D_
1: Abortion._x000D_
2: Abzug, Bella (1920–1998)._x000D_
3: Affirmative Action._x000D_
4: Albright, Madeleine (b. 1937)._x000D_
5: Alda, Alan (b. 1936)._x000D_
6: Allen, Paula Gunn (1939–2008)._x000D_
7: American Civil Liberties Union—Women’s Rights Project (ACLU—WRP)._x000D_
8: Anguiano, Lupe (b. 1929)._x000D_
9: Anzaldúa, Gloria (1942–2004)._x000D_
10: Asian American Feminism._x000D_
11: Atkinson, Ti-Grace (b. 1939)._x000D_
12: Atlanta Lesbian Feminist Alliance (ALFA)._x000D_
13: Baker, Ella (1903–1986)._x000D_
14: Bambara, Toni Cade (1939–1995)._x000D_
15: Bannon, Ann (b. 1932)._x000D_
16: Bates, Daisy (1914–1999)._x000D_
17: Battered Woman Syndrome._x000D_
18: Birth Control (1945 to Present)._x000D_
19: Black Feminism._x000D_
20: Boggs, Grace Lee (b. 1915)._x000D_
21: Bowers v. Hardwick (1986)._x000D_
22: Boxer, Barbara Levy (b. 1940)._x000D_
23: Brave Bird, Mary (Crow Dog) (1953–2013)._x000D_
24: Brooks, Gwendolyn (1917–2000)._x000D_
25: Brown, Rita Mae (b. 1944)._x000D_
26: Brownmiller, Susan (b. 1935)._x000D_
27: Bunch, Charlotte (b. 1944)._x000D_
28: Califano v. Goldfarb and Califano v. Webster (1977)._x000D_
29: Carnes v. Tennessee Secondary School Athletic Association (1976)._x000D_
30: Carson, Rachel (1907–1964)._x000D_
31: Chesler, Phyllis (b. 1940)._x000D_
32: Chicago Women’s Liberation Union (CWLU)._x000D_
33: Chicana Rights Project (1974–1983)._x000D_
34: Chisholm, Shirley (1924–2005)._x000D_
35: Chrysalis._x000D_
36: Civil Rights Act (1964)._x000D_
37: Clarence Thomas/Anita Hill Hearings._x000D_
38: Clark, Septima (1898–1987)._x000D_
39: Collins, Patricia Hill (b. 1948)._x000D_
40: Combahee River Collective._x000D_
41: Comparable Worth._x000D_
42: Conferencia de Mujeres por La Raza._x000D_
43: Consciousness Raising._x000D_
44: Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)._x000D_
45: Cosmopolitan._x000D_
46: Craig v. Boren (1976)._x000D_
47: Daly, Mary (1928–2010)._x000D_
48: Date and Acquaintance Rape._x000D_
49: Daughters of Bilitis._x000D_
50: Davis, Angela (b. 1944)._x000D_
51: Diaz v. Pan American World Airways (1971)._x000D_
52: Domestic Violence: The 1970s._x000D_
53: Domestic Violence: The 1980s._x000D_
54: Dunbar-Ortiz, Roxanne (b. 1939)._x000D_
55: Dworkin, Andrea (1946–2005)._x000D_
56: Edelman, Marian Wright (b. 1939)._x000D_
57: Ehrenreich, Barbara (b. 1941)._x000D_
58: Eisenstadt v. Baird (1972)._x000D_
59: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)._x000D_
60: Equal Pay Act (1963)._x000D_
61: Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)._x000D_
62: Fat Activism._x000D_
63: Feinstein, Dianne (b. 1933)._x000D_
64: The Feminine Mystique (1963)._x000D_
65: Feminist Majority Foundation._x000D_
66: Feminization of Poverty._x000D_
67: Ferraro, Geraldine (1935–2011)._x000D_
68: Firestone, Shulamith (1945–2012)._x000D_
69: Ford, Betty (1918–2011)._x000D_
70: Franklin v. Gwinnett County Public Schools (1992)._x000D_
71: Freeman, Jo (b. 1945)._x000D_
72: French, Marilyn (1929–2009)._x000D_
73: Friedan, Betty (1921–2006)._x000D_
74: Frontiero v. Richardson (1973)._x000D_
75: Furies._x000D_
76: Gag Rules._x000D_
77: Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation (GLAAD)._x000D_
78: Gay Liberation Movement._x000D_
79: Geduldig v. Aiello (1974)._x000D_
80: General Electric Co. v. Gilbert (1976)._x000D_
81: Gilligan, Carol (b. 1936)._x000D_
82: Ginsburg, Ruth Bader (b. 1933)._x000D_
83: Gittings, Barbara (1932–2007)._x000D_
84: Glass Ceiling._x000D_
85: Graham, Katharine (1917–2001)._x000D_
86: Green, Edith Starrett (1910–1987)._x000D_
87: Greer, Germaine (b. 1939)._x000D_
88: Griffiths, Martha Wright (1912–2003)._x000D_
89: Griswold v. Connecticut (1965)._x000D_
90: Guy-Sheftall, Beverly (b. 1946)._x000D_
91: Hale, Clara (1905–1992)._x000D_
92: Hamer, Fannie Lou (1917–1977)._x000D_
93: Harris v. McRae (1980)._x000D_
94: Height, Dorothy (1912–2010)._x000D_
95: Hernández v. Cockrell (1976)._x000D_
96: Hewlett, Sylvia Ann (b. 1946)._x000D_
97: Hijas de Cuauhtémoc._x000D_
98: Hite, Shere (b. 1942)._x000D_
99: hooks, bell (b. 1952)._x000D_
100: Huerta, Dolores (b. 1930)._x000D_
101: Hyde Amendment (1976)._x000D_
102: In the Matter of Baby M (1988)._x000D_
103: Ireland, Patricia (b. 1945)._x000D_
104: Jane (Abortion Counseling Service)._x000D_
105: Jordan, Barbara (1936–1996)._x000D_
106: Jordan, June (1936–2002)._x000D_
107: Kansas v. Stewart (1988)._x000D_
108: Kennedy, Florynce Rae (1916–2000)._x000D_
109: King, Billie Jean (b. 1943)._x000D_
110: Kinsey Scale of Sexual Behavior._x000D_
111: Kramer vs. Kramer._x000D_
112: Kreps, Juanita (Morris) (1921–2010)._x000D_
113: The Ladder._x000D_
114: Lambda Legal Defense and Education Fund (LLDEF)._x000D_
115: Latina Feminism._x000D_
116: Le Guin, Ursula K. (b. 1929)._x000D_
117: Leacock, Eleanor (1922–1987)._x000D_
118: Lerner, Gerda (1920–2013)._x000D_
119: Lesbian Feminism._x000D_
120: Lesbian Herstory Archives._x000D_
121: Lilith._x000D_
122: Lorde, Audre (1934–1992)._x000D_
123: MacKinnon, Catharine (b. 1946)._x000D_
124: Madrigal v. Quilligan (1975)._x000D_
125: Mankiller, Wilma (1945–2010)._x000D_
126: Marital Rape._x000D_
127: Men’s Rights Movements._x000D_
128: Meritor Savings Bank v. Vinson (1986)._x000D_
129: Mexican American Women and Labor._x000D_
130: Michael M. v. Superior Court of Sonoma County (1981)._x000D_
131: Michelman, Kate (b. 1942)._x000D_
132: Michigan v. Lucas (1991)._x000D_
133: Millett, Kate (b. 1934)._x000D_
134: Mink, Patsy T. (1927–2002)._x000D_
135: Miss America Pageant._x000D_
136: Mississippi University for Women v. Hogan (1982)._x000D_
137: The Mommy Track._x000D_
138: Moody, Anne (b. 1940)._x000D_
139: Moraga, Cherríe (b. 1952)._x000D_
140: Moreno, Luisa (1907–1992)._x000D_
141: Morgan, Robin (b. 1941)._x000D_
142: Morrison, Toni (b. 1931)._x000D_
143: Ms. Magazine._x000D_
144: Murray, Pauli (1910–1985)._x000D_
145: National Abortion Rights Action League (NARAL)._x000D_
146: National Black Feminist Organization (NBFO)._x000D_
147: National Gay and Lesbian Task Force._x000D_
148: National Organization for Men against Sexism (NOMAS)._x000D_
149: National Organization for Women (NOW)._x000D_
150: National Right to Life Committee (NRLC)._x000D_
151: National Women’s Health Network (NWHN)._x000D_
152: National Women’s Political Caucus (NWPC)._x000D_
153: Native American Feminism._x000D_
154: Naylor, Gloria (b. 1950)._x000D_
155: New York v. Santorelli and Schloss (1992)._x000D_
156: 9to5: National Association of Working Women._x000D_
157: North Carolina v. Norman (1988)._x000D_
158: NOW Legal Defense and Education Fund._x000D_
159: O’Connor, Sandra Day (b. 1930)._x000D_
160: off our backs._x000D_
161: Our Bodies, Ourselves._x000D_
162: Paglia, Camille (b. 1947)._x000D_
163: Parents, Families, and Friends of Lesbians and Gays (PFLAG)._x000D_
164: Parks, Rosa (1913–2005)._x000D_
165: Pelosi, Nancy (b. 1940)._x000D_
166: Pennsylvania v. Pennsylvania Interscholastic Athletic Association (1975)._x000D_
167: Peterson, Esther Eggertsen (1906–1997)._x000D_
168: Phillips v. Martin Marietta Corporation (1971)._x000D_
169: Pink-Collar Work._x000D_
170: Planned Parenthood._x000D_
171: Pogrebin, Letty Cottin (b. 1939)._x000D_
172: Politics: Women on the Left._x000D_
173: Politics: Women on the Right._x000D_
174: Pornography._x000D_
175: Pregnancy Discrimination Act (1978)._x000D_
176: President’s Commission on the Status of Women (PCSW)._x000D_
177: Promise Keepers._x000D_
178: Radicalesbians._x000D_
179: Rape Shield Laws._x000D_
180: Rawalt, Marguerite (1895–1989)._x000D_
181: Rich, Adrienne (1929–2012)._x000D_
182: Ride, Sally (1951–2012)._x000D_
183: Robinson, Jo Ann (1912–1992)._x000D_
184: Roe v. Wade (1973)._x000D_
185: Schechter, Susan (1946–2004)._x000D_
186: Schlafly, Phyllis (b. 1924)._x000D_
187: Schroeder, Patricia (b. 1940)._x000D_
188: Seaman, Barbara (1935–2008)._x000D_
189: The Second Sex (1949)._x000D_
190: “Sex and Caste: A Kind of Memo” (1965)._x000D_
191: Sexual Harassment._x000D_
192: Shange, Ntozake (b. 1948)._x000D_
Half Title Page._x000D_
Title Page._x000D_
Copyright Page._x000D_
List of Entries._x000D_
List of Primary Documents._x000D_
List of Entries by Topic._x000D_
Introduction to Volume 4._x000D_
1: Amos, Tori (b. 1963)._x000D_
2: Antiwar Feminism._x000D_
3: Backlash (1991)._x000D_
4: Baehr v. Lewin (1993)._x000D_
5: Baker v. Vermont (1999)._x000D_
6: Barbie Dolls._x000D_
7: Bechdel, Alison (b. 1960)._x000D_
8: Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action._x000D_
9: Benjamin, Medea (b. 1952)._x000D_
10: Birth Control: Issues for the 21st Century._x000D_
11: Bottoms v. Bottoms (1995)._x000D_
12: Breast Cancer Awareness._x000D_
13: Breastfeeding._x000D_
14: Bright, Susie (b. 1958)._x000D_
15: Buffy the Vampire Slayer._x000D_
16: Burch v. Smarr (2005)._x000D_
17: BUST Magazine._x000D_
18: Butler, Judith (b. 1956)._x000D_
19: Cammermeyer, Margarethe (b. 1942)._x000D_
20: Castle Rock v. Gonzales (2011)._x000D_
21: Chick Lit._x000D_
22: Child Care._x000D_
23: Childbirth Practices._x000D_
24: Cho, Margaret (b. 1968)._x000D_
25: Cisneros, Sandra (b. 1954)._x000D_
26: Clinton, Hillary Rodham (b. 1947)._x000D_
27: CODEPINK._x000D_
28: Davis v. Davis (1992)._x000D_
29: De Alba, Alicia Gaspar (b. 1958)._x000D_
30: DeGeneres, Ellen (b. 1958)._x000D_
31: DiFranco, Ani (b. 1970)._x000D_
32: Domestic Violence: The 1990s._x000D_
33: Domestic Violence: The 2000s._x000D_
34: “Dykes to Watch Out For”._x000D_
35: Eating Disorders._x000D_
36: Ecofeminism._x000D_
37: Education and Gender._x000D_
38: EMILY’s List._x000D_
39: Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) (1993)._x000D_
40: Female Genital Mutilation._x000D_
41: Feminist Majority Foundation._x000D_
42: Feministing.com._x000D_
43: Ferguson v. City of Charleston (2001)._x000D_
44: Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act (FACE) (1994)._x000D_
45: Fuerza Unida._x000D_
46: Giovanni, Nikki (b. 1943)._x000D_
47: Girl Power._x000D_
48: Global Fund for Women._x000D_
49: Global Women’s Movement._x000D_
50: Goodridge v. Department of Public Health (Massachusetts) (2003)._x000D_
51: Guerilla Girls._x000D_
52: Harris v. Forklift Systems, Inc. (1993)._x000D_
53: Hijab._x000D_
54: Hip Mama._x000D_
55: Hip-Hop Culture._x000D_
56: HIV/AIDS._x000D_
57: Human Rights: International Laws and Policies._x000D_
58: Human Trafficking._x000D_
59: Indigo Girls._x000D_
60: Jezebel.com._x000D_
61: Katz, Jackson (b. 1960)._x000D_
62: Kimmel, Michael (b. 1951)._x000D_
63: Kristof, Nicholas (b. 1959)._x000D_
64: LaDuke, Winona (b. 1959)._x000D_
65: Lauper, Cyndi (b. 1953)._x000D_
66: Lawrence v. Texas (2003)._x000D_
67: Lesbian and Gay Parenting._x000D_
68: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Movements._x000D_
69: Levy, Ariel (b. 1975)._x000D_
70: Lilith Fair._x000D_
71: Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009._x000D_
72: Lisa Simpson._x000D_
73: Maddow, Rachel (b. 1973)._x000D_
74: Madonna (b. 1958)._x000D_
75: Media Images of Women: Advertising._x000D_
76: Media Images of Women: Music._x000D_
77: Media Images of Women: Television and Film._x000D_
78: Menstruation and Menopause._x000D_
79: Military Service: Gays and Lesbians._x000D_
80: Miller v. Albright (1998)._x000D_
81: Million Man March._x000D_
82: Million Mom March._x000D_
83: Million Woman March._x000D_
84: New Moon._x000D_
85: Oncale v. Sundowner Offshore Services (1998)._x000D_
86: Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act (2003)._x000D_
87: Pérez, Emma (b. 1954)._x000D_
88: Planned Parenthood v. Casey (1992)._x000D_
89: Pollitt, Katha (b. 1949)._x000D_
90: Polygamy._x000D_
91: Portillo, Lourdes (b. 1944)._x000D_
92: Postfeminism._x000D_
93: Reviving Ophelia._x000D_
94: Riot Grrrl._x000D_
95: Roiphe, Katie (b. 1968)._x000D_
96: RU-486 (Mifepristone)._x000D_
97: Same-Sex Marriage._x000D_
98: Sex and the City._x000D_
99: Sex Work._x000D_
100: Snowe, Olympia (b. 1947)._x000D_
101: Stay-at-Home Dads._x000D_
102: Stefani, Gwen (b. 1969)._x000D_
103: Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF)._x000D_
104: Transgender and Transsexual Identities._x000D_
105: United States v. Morrison (2000)._x000D_
106: United States v. Virginia (1996)._x000D_
107: The Vagina Monologues._x000D_
108: Vaid, Urvashi (b. 1958)._x000D_
109: Valenti, Jessica (b. 1978)._x000D_
110: Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act (VTVPA) (2000)._x000D_
111: Violence Against Women Act (VAWA)._x000D_
112: Vital Voices._x000D_
113: Walker, Rebecca (b. 1969)._x000D_
114: Welfare Reform._x000D_
115: Wolf, Naomi (b. 1962)._x000D_
116: Women in Combat._x000D_
117: Xena: Warrior Princess._x000D_
118: Year of the Woman (1992)._x000D_
119: Zines._x000D_
Primary Documents._x000D_
Riot Grrrl Manifesto (1991)._x000D_
“How Schools Shortchange Girls” (1992), American Association of University Women._x000D_
Why Feminism Is Necessary (1993), Gloria Steinem._x000D_
“Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell” Policy (1993)._x000D_
Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action (1995), Fourth World Conference on Women._x000D_
“Women’s Rights Are Human Rights” (1995), Hillary Rodham Clinton._x000D_
Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) (1996)._x000D_
BITCH Magazine Mission Statement (1996)._x000D_
The Vagina Monologues (1996)._x000D_
Presidential Proclamation Recognizing Gay and Lesbian Pride Month (1999)._x000D_
BUST Guide to the New Girl Order (1999)._x000D_
Manifesta (2000)._x000D_
“What Makes a Man” (2004), Rebecca Walker._x000D_
Statement on Human Rights of Intersex People (2005)._x000D_
Employment Non-Discrimination Act (ENDA) (2007)._x000D_
Congress Examines Discrimination against Transgendered People (2008)._x000D_
“Muslim Feminist Cowgirl” (2008), Asma Hasan._x000D_
Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr., Hate Crimes Prevention Act (2009)._x000D_
Sexual Violence in the World of Online Gaming (2012), Anita Sarkeesian._x000D_
“Same-Sex Marriage Does Threaten ‘Traditional’ Marriage” (2013), Tiffany K. Wayne._x000D_
General Bibliography._x000D_
About the Editors and Contributors._x000D_