The complexity of cancer demands an integrated approach from both a cancer biology standpoint and a pharmaceutical basis to understand the different anticancer modalities. Current research has been focused on conventional and newer anticancer modalities, recent discoveries in cancer research, and also the advancements in cancer treatment. There is a current need for more research on the advances in cancer therapeutics that bridge the gap between basic research (pharmaceutical drug development processes, regulatory issues, and translational experimentation) and clinical application. Recent promising discoveries such as immunotherapies, promising therapies undergoing clinical trials, synthetic lethality, carbon beam radiation, and other exciting targeted therapies are being studied to improve and advance the studies of modern cancer treatment. This book serves as a comprehensive guide in modern cancer treatment by combining and merging the knowledge from both cancer biology and the pharmacology of anticancer modalities. The chapters come from multi-disciplinary backgrounds, including scientists and clinicians from both academia and various industries, to discuss nascent personalized therapies and big data-driven cancer treatment. While highlighting topic areas that include cancer prevention, cancer therapeutics, and cancer treatments through the lenses of technology, medicine/drugs, and alternate therapies, this book is ideally intended for oncologists, radiation oncologists, surgical oncologists, and cancer biologists, along with practitioners, stakeholders, researchers, academicians, and students who are interested in understanding the most fundamental aspects of cancer and the available therapeutic opportunities.