Sulfuric Acid Manufacture, 2nd Edition

  • Published By:
  • ISBN-10: 0080982263
  • ISBN-13: 9780080982267
  • DDC: 661.22
  • Grade Level Range: College Freshman - College Senior
  • 608 Pages | eBook
  • Original Copyright 2013 | Published/Released June 2014
  • This publication's content originally published in print form: 2013

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By some measure the most widely produced chemical in the world today, sulfuric acid, has an extraordinary range of uses including phosphate fertilizer production, explosives, glue, wood preservative, and lead-acid batteries. A corrosive and dangerous acid, producing sulfuric acid requires stringent adherence to environmental regulatory guidance within cost efficient standards of production. This work is an experience-based review of how sulfuric acid plants work, how they should be designed, and how they should be operated to maximize sulfur capture and minimize environmental impact. Using practical experience and physical analysis, Davenport and King review sulfur manufacturing, where regulatory guidance is becoming tighter (and where new processes are being required to meet them), and where water consumption and energy considerations are being brought to bear. This second edition examines (i) newly developed acid-making processes and (ii) new methods of minimizing unwanted sulfur emissions. Readers are recent science and engineering graduates entering the chemical industry, and experienced professionals in chemical plant design companies, chemical plant production companies, sulfuric acid recycling companies, and sulfuric acid users. Unique mathematical analysis of sulfuric acid manufacturing processes to optimize sulfuric acid manufacturing processes. Analysis of recently developed sulfuric acid manufacturing techniques suggests advantages and disadvantages of new processes from the energy and environmental perspectives. Analysis of tail gas sulfur capture processes indicates the best way to combine sulfuric acid making and tailgas sulfur-capture processes from the energy and environmental perspectives. Draws on the authors' industrial connections from years of hands-on experience in sulfuric acid manufacture.

Table of Contents

Front Cover.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
1: Overview.
2: Production and Consumption.
3: Sulfur Burning.
4: Metallurgical Offgas Cooling and Cleaning.
5: Regeneration of Spent Sulfuric Acid.
6: Dehydrating Air and Gases with Strong Sulfuric Acid.
7: Catalytic Oxidation of SO2 to SO3*.
8: SO2 Oxidation Catalyst and Catalyst Beds.
9: Production of H2SO4(ℓ) from SO3(G).
10: Break.
11: Oxidation of SO2 to SO3—Equilibrium Curves.
12: SO2 Oxidation Heatup Paths.
13: Maximum SO2 Oxidation.
14: Cooling First Catalyst Bed Exit Gas.
15: Second Catalyst Bed Heatup Path.
16: Maximum SO2 Oxidation in a Second Catalyst Bed.
17: Third Catalyst Bed SO2 Oxidation.
18: SO3 and CO2 in Feed Gas.
19: Three Catalyst Bed Acid Plant.
20: After-H2SO4-Making SO2 Oxidation.
21: Optimum Double Contact Acidmaking.
22: Enthalpies and Enthalpy Transfers.
23: Control of Gas Temperature by Bypassing.
24: H2SO4 Making.
25: Acid Temperature Control and Heat Recovery.
26: Making Sulfuric Acid from Wet Feed Gas.
27: Wet Sulfuric Acid Process Fundamentals.
28: SO3 Gas Recycle for High SO2 Concentration Gas Treatment.
29: Sulfur from Tail Gas Removal Processes.
30: Minimizing Sulfur Emissions.
31: Materials of Construction.
32: Costs of Sulfuric Acid Production.
Sulfuric Acid Properties.
Derivation of Equilibrium Equation (10.12).
Free Energy Equations for Equilibrium Curve Calculations.
Preparation of Fig. 10.27s Equilibrium Curve.
Proof that Volume% = mol% (for Ideal Gases).
Effect of Co2 and Ar on Equilibrium Equations (None).
Enthalpy Equations for Heatup Path Calculations.
Matrix Solving Using Tables 11.2 and 14.2 as Examples.
Enthalpy Equations in Heatup Path Matrix Cells.
Heatup Path-Equilibrium Curve: Intercept Calculations.
Second Catalyst Bed Heatup Path Calculations.
Equilibrium Equation for Multicatalyst Bed SO2 Oxidation.
Second Catalyst Bed Intercept Calculations.
Third Catalyst Bed Heatup Path Worksheet.
Third Catalyst Bed Intercept Worksheet.
Effect of SO3 in Fig. 10.1's Feed Gas on Equilibrium Equations.
SO3-in-Feed-Gas Intercept Worksheet.
CO- and SO3-in-Feed-Gas Intercept Worksheet.
Three-Catalyst-Bed “Converter” Calculations1.
Worksheet for Calculating After-Intermediate-H2SO4-Making Heatup Path-Equilibrium Curve Intercepts.
After-H2SO4-Making SO2 Oxidation with SO3 and CO2 in Input Gas.
Moist Air in H2SO4 Making Calculations.
Calculation of H2SO4 Making Tower Mass Flows.
Equilibrium Equations for SO2, O2, H2O(g), N2 Feed Gas.
Cooled First Catalyst Bed Exit Gas Recycle Calculations.
Answers to Numerical Problems.