File Extensions / Numbers / A / B / C / D / E / F / G / H / I / J / K / L / M / N / O / P / Q / R / S / T / U / V / W / X
/ Y / Z
File Extensions Section - Back to the Menu
.com: The ending of a URL for a
commercial or business Web site.
.doc: The extension Microsoft Word places
at the end of its document names.
.edu: The ending of a URL for an
educational institutions Web site.
.gif: An extension placed at the end of a
graphic filename on the Web (a file format for a Web graphic).
.gov: The ending of a URL for a
government Web site.
.htm: A file extension used to identify
HTML documents to Web browsers.
.html: A file extension used by Windows
95 or higher, Macintosh, and UNIX computers to identify HTML documents to Web browsers.
.jpg (.jpeg): An extension placed at the
end of a graphic filename on the Web (a file format for a Web graphic). Short for Joint
Photographic Expert Group format.
.mil: The ending of a URL for a military
.net: The ending of a URL for a network
gateway or host Web site.
.org: The ending of a URL for a private
organizations Web site.
.txt: An extension placed at the end of a
document saved in text format.
.wpd: The extension WordPerfect places at
the end of its document names.
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24/7: Twenty-four hours a day,
seven days a week.
360-Degree Evaluation: A model of assessing employee performance
that takes into account the input provided by multiple reviewers
having various relationships with the employee such as manager,
coworker, subordinate, and client.
401(k) Plan: A pension plan that allows employees to contribute
to a tax deferred retirement account. The employer can choose
to contribute or match a percentage of the employee's contribution.
A Section Back to the Menu
Acceptable Use Policy (AUP): Policies
first published by universities that hosted the early Internet. They state the appropriate
and inappropriate uses for the Internet and how it should be managed.
Accessibility: In technical communications, to place or highlight the most
important information in a way that makes it easy to find. This may be accomplished
through the use of headings, hyperlinks, or other methods that focus the readers
attention toward the most important topics.
Account Manager: The person in direct
contact with a client who passes the clients ideas or requests to others in the
company and presents the companys work or products to the client.
Account Teams: Sales and support workgroups organized around a specific customer
or a group of related clients or customers.
Accounts Payable: The department
responsible for paying a companys bills, including payments to outside contractors,
and tracking amounts owed by the company.
Accounts Receivable: The department that
handles incoming payments and tracks the amounts owed to a company.
Acronym: An abbreviation or series of
capital letters that represent a phrase.
Active Server: Active servers can deliver
dynamic Web pages. These servers can constantly update information to Web browser clients
and can provide a number of active windows or screens for Web site visitors. Active
servers don't wait for requests, but generate new, interactive browser windows.
ActiveX: A Microsoft standard that allows traditional applications to work with
each other online and over the Internet and World Wide Web.
Actuary: An employee who analyzes data to
calculate the financial costs to companies of occurrences like death, injury, retirement,
and property loss due to accidents or crimes. This information can help corporations
determine how much insurance they need and make other business decisions. Actuaries need a
strong mathematics background.
Ad Agencies: Businesses that specialize in advertising and in creating
Addressable Advertising: Advertising in
which different commercials or ads can be shown to different demographic groups who are
watching the same television programs or visiting the same Web pages.
Adjuster: An person in the insurance
industry who analyzes claims and solves problems for clients. If a corporation makes a
claim on an insurance policy, the adjuster will examine the claim and see whether it meets
with the specifics of the policy.
Administrative Assistant: An employee who
manages the continuous flow of information, monitors deadlines, and facilitates the
completion of projects.
Advertising Mix: Set of advertisements or promotions. The mix
can include any combination of print, television, radio, billboard,
or online advertisements.
Advocate: A person who speaks, writes, or acts in support
of another person, a group, an organization, or a cause.
Affiliate: An organization associated
with another organization, typically in a subordinate position.
Affiliate Sites: Web
sites providing links to other ecommerce sites in exchange for
Affirmative Action: A set of positive steps employers
use to promote equal employment opportunity and to eliminate discrimination.
After Market Sales: Sales of additional,
related products after the initial product is sold.
Aggregating: The bringing together of resources. For example, Internet portal
sites aggregate or collect and bring together information from all over the Web.
Air: White space around text and graphics in documents and
on Web pages.
Airtime: Originally associated with radio, the amount of
broadcast time allocated to a specific program or promotion. The term
has been applied to television and broadband Internet programs as well.
For example, television airtime can be purchased by candidates running
for office and used to share their political message. Corporations
purchase airtime for their branding campaigns.
Analog: A communications device, channel, or method using
continuous frequencies and amplitudes to carry sounds, visual
representations, or other information. Analog signals are representations
of the original message.
Analogy: A comparison of something new to something familiar.
Analyst: Person who examines the
financial transactions and use of assets in a company.
Artificial moving images such as those used in cartoons.
Annual Report: A yearly report showing
the financial status of the corporation prepared primarily for stockholders.
or lawsuits forwarded by the government that attempt to break
up monopolies that dominate in their respective industries. Designed
to increase competition in business.
Applicant: Person applying for a job or other position.
Archive: The process of storing files for
later retrieval (verb) or a storage facility or device (noun).
Ascending Order: Alphabetically,
ascending order starts with A and proceeds through the alphabet to the
letter Z. Numerically, the number 1 would be first in the order followed
by 2, 3, etc. Ascending order is the opposite of descending order.
Assets: A company's money and other
resources that have a monetary value.
Audience: In technical communications, the person the
message is directed toward; the intended receiver of the message.
Audience Analysis: A study of the person(s) the message
or training is directed toward.
Attrition: Loss of personnel in an organization in the
course of normal business operations.
Audience Flow:Customer traffic. For example, audience
flow at a trade show event would have customers entering and participating
in a trade show booth. Audience flow in new media might inform
customers through television and radio advertisements of additional
information and resources available on the Web.
Auditor: Person who checks the company
records for accuracy, completeness, and reliability.
computer technologies and computer software to solve problems or to
perform routine operations.
B Section Back to the Menu
Baby Boomers: Members of the Baby Boom Generation, a large
generation of Americans born between 1946 and 1965.
Background Color: The
overall color of a slide, over which other images or colors are layered.
A backdrop color.
Balance Sheet: A statement that
summarizes a company's financial position at a particular time, showing the companys
assets, liabilities, and owners equity.
Bandwidth: The amount of digital information that can
be transmitted in a specific amount of time. The rate at which
information can be transmitted along an electronic communications
Banner Advertisement: Text
and/or images that promote products or services and appear on a World
Wide Web page. The ads derive their name from early banner ads which
were shaped like long rectangles that resembled banners. If you click on
a banner ad, you will probably be taken to a larger, more comprehensive
Banner Blindness: Tendency
of Web users to ignore or be unaware of banner advertisements on Web
Base Salary: An employee's salary,
excluding benefits or bonuses.
Benchmark: To discover
a competitive salary for a given position by seeing what other
companies are paying for a comparable position.
Benefit: Any form of compensation other than the employee's
Benefits Package: Anything a business
provides employees beyond the base salary, such as health care insurance, family leave,
child care, or retirement plans.
Beta Testing: Testing a product outside
the lab with real customers. Usually performed prior to general release to remove any bugs
that were not caught in development with other types of product testing.
Biannual: Coming twice
a year; semiannual.
Biography (Bio): A short summary or history of a person's
professional background, outside interests, accomplishments, and
Bits per Second (Bps): Standard measurement of digital data
Boilerplate: Standard text that provides stock answers
to important questions or comments regarding certain issues. A
writing device that saves time because answers and descriptions
are prepared in advance of their actual use.
Bona Fide Occupational Qualification (BFOQ): Any requirement
that can be proved essential to the performance of a certain job.
Bonus: An extra payment made to employees
above the normal wage or salary.
Bookkeeper: Person who keeps the
financial records of a company.
Brand: A recognizable name or symbol that distinguishes one
company's products or services from the competition.
Brand Association: Linking of a strong brand with another brand,
sponsor, event, or promotion to increase sales. Establishing a brand name and
its images, graphics, symbols, or logos in the mind of the consumer.
Brand Loyalty: Attachment felt by a customer for a particular product
or company brand.
Brand Name Labels: Information appearing on products identifying the company
marketing and selling that merchandise. For example, clothes sold by the Gap will carry
the Gap label.
Brand Retention: Remembering of a brand name by a customer following
exposure to advertising for that brand. Brand retention increases based on the
frequency with which customers hear of the brand.
Branding: Creating associations in the
mind of the customer that link products to product and brand names. This increases the
recognition factor and contributes to more effective advertising. Putting logos and brand
names on products to increase company recognition.
Breakout Session: Conference
session for a subset of conference attendees. (A general session, in
contrast, would involve all conference attendees.) For example, a sales
training conference could have a breakout session about ecommerce.
Brick-and-Mortar Store: Traditional, physical store or other
business establishment (as opposed to a virtual, online store).
Broadband: High-speed network
or Internet connection transporting voice, data, and full-motion
video at a minimum of 1.5 million bits of information per second.
Broadbanding: In compensation structures, use of a wide
or comprehensive salary range.
distribute or disseminate information over a large geographical area, as
with television and radio. Broadcast channels are usually
point-to-multipoint methods of delivery.
Broadcast Networks: Radio
or television companies broadcasting programs to a wide audience. Famous
broadcast networks include NBC, BBC, CBC, ABC, CBS, and Fox.
Browser: A program that allows users to
view Web pages and online information.
Buildings and Grounds: Department that
maintains the grounds, plumbing, heating and air conditioning, electricity, and other
Bulk Mail: Special
mailing rate provided to business customers, including direct mail and catalog
businesses, that is a fraction of the rate charged to first-class and
priority-mail customers. Visit the business resources section on the United
States Postal Service Web site at www.usps.com
for current rates.
Bundle: Several products grouped together
to improve the sales potential of the bundled package.
Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS): The
research arm of the Department of Labor. It publishes the Occupational Outlook Handbook,
catalogs jobs, and tracks economic trends.
Buyers: Employees responsible for purchasing products or product lines to be
sold through retail outlets. For example, a buyer might purchase a line of winter coats to
be sold through a retail chain like Wal-Mart or Sears.
C Section Back to the Menu
CAD (Computer-Aided Design Software):
Computer software used for architectural and mechanical drafting.
Cafeteria Plan: A plan that allows employees to select
the benefits they want from a group of benefits offered by the
employer; also called a flexible benefit plan.
Capital: Assets, such as money,
equipment, or machinery, used to produce goods and services.
Intensive analysis of a specific problem or situation. For example, an
aspect or problem of a business can be analyzed and studied in detail.
All relevant information is presented in a case study.
Cash Cows: Highly profitable business units, products, or product lines.
Cash Flow: The companys cash
position (funds available for operations and expansion), which is normally in a constant
state of change.
Casual Audience: Readers for interest and background knowledge, not for any
serious or pressing need. These readers usually do not demand detail and their expertise
Catch Phrases: Easy-to-remember
words or slogans drawing attention to something important. Often used in
Channel: A product sales distribution
Bars: Series of buttons on
a computer interface allowing one-click or voice access to Internet or
Businesses working with other businesses to create sales and product
distribution systems for the mutual benefit of all partners.
Charter: A grant of rights
or permissions given under the laws of a state, nation, or other
Checklist Performance Evaluation Method: A procedure used
in employee performance evaluations during which characteristics
of good job performance are listed and points are awarded for
characteristics that are observed.
Civil Laws: Laws that
deal with commercial disputes or torts between people, corporations,
and other entities.
Classified Ad: An advertisement for a job or position,
also known as a "want ad."
Clerk: Employee responsible for keeping
records in a company.
Click-Through Rates: Rates
at which customers click on banner ads or other links.
When a customer clicks on an advertisement or link and visits the linked
Web site, with at least one page of the site completely displayed on the
Clients: A term applied to any computer that has the necessary software to
connect to the Internet and receive data from servers that have compatible server
Clutter: Market confusion created by too many products and their
associated advertising and promotions.
COBRA (Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act): A
law that provides an option for the employee to continue company-sponsored
health insurance coverage at the employee's expense for at least
18 months after the employee leaves the company.
Code: Written form of a body of law.
Code of Federal Regulations (CFR): A set
of administrative and procedural regulations for carrying out the laws in the United
States Code. The CFR is published by administrative agencies or executive departments
under the authority granted by Congress in the United States Code.
of programming code or instructions that computers and computerized
devices can understand.
Colleagues: Peers or fellow workers, usually in the same
page showing exactly how the page in a book will appear. Color proofs
are provided to editors as part of a final review and editing process.
The purpose of color proofs is to catch any and all mistakes before a
publication is printed.
Color Scheme: A
set of colors used for a project.
COMDEX: A trade show where companies can
exhibit and publicize their products.
Commission: Fee paid to a salesperson or agent for closing a
sale, expressed as a percentage of the selling price.
Communications Channels:The means by which messages are
sent and received. For example, television, radio, email, Web
pages, magazines, and newspapers are considered channels.
Company Fact Sheet:
A document listing the vital statistics of a corporation.
Compensation: Monetary payment or benefits received for
services; for example, wages received by the employee from the
Competitive Advantage: A favorable
position over competing companies because of conditions such as paying higher employee
salaries or producing superior products.
Complementary Colors: Colors
that appear directly opposite each other on a color wheel.
Composite Score: One score derived by
averaging or adding several scores together.
Compression: Process that reduces file size, allowing data to be stored in less storage space than
usual. Compression allows information to be transmitted over the
Internet more easily because fewer bits of information need to be
A comparison between the original file size or space requirements
and the space required to store compressed data, represented as a ratio.
Printing process that bypasses many of the traditional steps
in professional printing (such as the transfer of printed page
information to film before making plates) by sending digital data
directly from a computer to the printing press.
Concierge: Hotel employee
who assists guests with finding and accessing local resources
such as restaurants, tours, or local transportation.
Confidential: Private or secret, to be shared only with
appropriate individuals. Information such as client files, business
plans, and employee records are considered confidential.
Consumer Product: Product commonly used by a large number of
consumers where price is a very strong value-positioning variable.
Consumer Reports: A magazine
published by the Consumers Union, a product testing organization that compares products
objectively for quality, price, and customer satisfaction. There is also a Consumer
Reports Web site.
Interested potential customers who leave contact information
(name, address, phone, email) with a sales representative.
Content Channels: Connections to an information provider.
Common content categories include travel, investing, hobbies,
technology, and news. Content channels are also provided by television
Contrasting Colors: Colors
that are easily differentiated from each other.
Controller: The chief accountant in an
organization responsible for operation of the accounting system and other duties such as
overseeing tax filings, budgets, and financial reporting. The controller often supervisors
other Accounting employees.
Convergence: A coming together. New media convergence
is created when traditional print and broadcast media merge with
Web- and Internet-based technologies. In the future, customers
will see very little separation between their Internet connections
and their television and radio connections. Convergence will merge
these media into a single multipoint-to-multipoint service.
Conversion Rates: The rates at which Web site visitors actually
convert into paying customers.
Cookies: Files that store information about a user's choices and
preferences when accessing or navigating the World Wide Web. These files are
used to identify users and possibly prepare customized Web pages for them. For
seen so that a different ad will be placed on the next Web page viewed.
Editing of written material for grammar, spelling,
punctuation, and consistency.
Copyright: A form of legal protection for
original written or performance works.
Corporate Communications: Department that
writes and edits technical communications such as letters, memos, FAXes, Intranet pages,
Extranet pages, Web pages, advertising copy, magazine articles, press releases, job
descriptions, usability reports, white papers, and quarterly and annual reports.
Corporation: Business incorporated under
state laws with multiple owners.
Cost Effective: Something that makes or saves money in
comparison with its cost.
Credit Lines: Advance of credit, or amount of money that can be
borrowed against, as offered by a bank, credit union, or some other source.
Criminal Law: Law dealing with crimes
against the public that are punishable by imprisonment and/or fines.
Critical Path: The shortest time between
the beginning of a project and its completion.
Preprinted copy resembling a photographic printed original used
to evaluate what a final printed product will look like. Cromalins are
composed of thin sheets of plastic, each having a colored dye layer.
Cross-Selling: Using the popularity or brand recognition of
one product to promote another product. For example, a company that
sells a popular mountain bike may promote a matching helmet or a T-shirt
that carries the emblem or logo of the bike on it.
Customer Information Database (CID): Database containing
information on customers and the products they buy.
Customer Support: Department responsible
for helping customers get the most out of the company's products and services. Customer
Support helps troubleshoot products for customers over the phone, through email, FAX
inquiries, letters, and the corporate Web site. Increasingly, Customer Support personnel
are being brought into the marketing and sales effort by informing customers of new
products, product enhancements, value-added products, and upgrades. CS operators also
provide customer feedback to R&D, Marketing, and Sales.
D Section Back to the Menu
Database: Type of electronic file organized into fields, records, and
tables optimized for storing and retrieving data. A collection of information
and a management system that allows rapid queries (requests for information) and
retrieval of data.
Decision-Making Audience: Readers that look for relevant
information upon which decisions can be made. Decision makers
are profit, development, or implementation oriented. They may
not know any more about a subject than a casual reader, but they
will make decisions based upon the information presented.
Defaults: The settings
the computer or computer software automatically implements.
Defined Benefit Pension Plan: A retirement plan with clearly
stated benefits that is funded by the employee and the employer
or solely by the employer.
Demographics: Characteristics, habits,
interests, and behaviors of a segment of the population.
Descending Order: Alphabetically,
descending order starts with the letter Z and proceeds through the
alphabet to the letter A. Numerically, the number 3 precedes the numbers
2 and 1. Descending order is the opposite of ascending order.
Desktop Applications: Programs designed
to help users accomplish a task, such as word processing or desktop publishing.
DHTML: Microsofts extension to HTML that allows users to move and
manipulate objects around Web pages as easily as they manipulate icons and windows in
their Windows operating system.
Digital: A communications device, channel, or method using
discrete valuesas in the zeros and ones generated by a computer.
Digital communications technology permits higher transfer rates
than similar analog technology.
Digital Signatures: A programming method or algorithm
used to assign authentication, like a personal signature for electronic,
Digital Versatile Discs/Digital Video Discs (DVD): A high-capacity
digital storage medium similar to CD-ROM and able to store huge
amounts of data.
Direct Marketing: Marketing approach that may use a variety of
promotional media to reach customers directly. For example, a direct mail
campaign might send promotional materials and coupons through the traditional
mail to customers. Online direct email campaigns could give customers a chance
to purchase a product directly from a manufacturer.
Disclaimer: Legal notice that limits corporate liabilities and defines
the responsibilities of the corporation and its customers.
Discrimination: Partiality or bias in the treatment of
people, which is unfair or illegal.
Disparate Treatment: Treating certain individuals differently
from other individuals.
Disposable Income: Extra income after all essential living expenses
(including food, shelter, and medical needs) have been paid.
Diversify: When a company offers a wider variety of products
and product lines.
Dividends: Payments made to shareholders
based on the number of shares they hold and their share of corporate profits.
Division: A part of a company that
performs a specific function or focuses on a unique aspect of the company's business.
TeleView is a division of the Corporate View corporation.
A high-speed digital printing system providing high-quality
printing at a fraction of traditional printing costs.
Dogs: Products, product lines, or business units that habitually
Domain Name Service (DNS):
System where domain names, such as www.oracle.com, are converted to a set of IP
numbers, such as 22.214.171.124.
Domain Names: Names used on the Web to
identify Web sites.
Referring to one's own country. As opposed to international, meaning
outside one's country.
Internet companies having Web site addresses that end in .com.
of a company; euphemism for "laying off" or "firing"
Due Process: In employment settings, a procedure that
provides employees the opportunity to defend and explain their
actions, especially against charges of misconduct.
E Section Back to the
Earnings Statement: A document that
summarizes company revenues and expenses for a particular period of time and shows a net
profit or loss. Also called an income statement.
Ebooks: Electronic books, including those that can be
downloaded from the Internet and read on a computer screen or
with an electronic book reader of some kind.
Ebrands: Recognizable names or symbols used to market products or
services on the Internet and distinguish the products or services from the
Ecommerce: Business conducted electronically, as in making
purchases or selling products via the World Wide Web.
Ecommerce Session: Any continuous online selling or buying experience.
Economy of Scale: An economic principle where the per-unit
price of a manufactured product declines as more units are produced.
Because of the high cost of establishing a manufacturing process,
the first unit costs more to produce than the five-hundredth,
and the five-hundredth unit costs more than the five-thousandth.
This economy of scale impacts price. The lower the production
cost per unit, the lower the unit price can be. When applied to
the Internet, the greater the number of connected users, the lower
the overall cost for individual users. Or, in another example,
the greater number of email messages sent, the lower the cost
per individual email message.
Efficiency of Scale: A concept derived from the economy-of-scale
principle, which means the more units existing on a system, the
more efficient the system becomes. For example, an email system
with 320 million users is a more efficient communications system
than one with only 100 million users. On a technical level, a
system with greater bandwidth (transmission capability) is more
efficient in moving data than a system with a lesser bandwidth.
Electronic Mail (Email): Messages sent electronically
from one computer to another.
Electronic Traps: Decision-making loops. Common in automated telephone
systems and on Web pages, where customers are asked to make selections, which
fail to lead them to needed and desired information.
Emblems: Graphics, pictures, or icons often used as logos.
The right of a local, state, or federal government to acquire
the property of corporations or individuals for the public's benefit.
Employee Assistance Program: A program provided by the
employer to help employees with mental health, substance abuse,
or personal problems and to provide them with counseling.
Employee Handbook: A reference book or document that contains
specified information; for example, the policies and procedures
related to employment at a particular company.
Employment-at-Will: An employment relationship in which
both the employer and an employee have the right to end the employment
relationship at any time, without notice, for any reason or no
reason (excepting reasons that are unlawful, such as discrimination).
Encrypted: When a message is encrypted, it is encoded
or scrambled to make its contents unreadable by unauthorized people.
Entrepreneur: A person who organizes and
manages an independent business or industrial undertaking.
EPS (Earnings Per Share):
The earnings (net profit or loss) of a company for a particular
period divided by the number of shares of stock.
Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO): A situation that exists
when employers do not discriminate in employment procedures or
practices on the basis of race, national origin, color, age, religion,
disability, gender, or other factors.
Ergonomics: The science of designing workplace environments
and equipment to promote the physical health of employees.
merchants selling products on the Internet.
Ethnicity: Classification in or affiliation with a population
subgroup having a common cultural heritage or nationality as distinguished
by customs, language, characteristics, or common history.
Evaluation Survey: A series of questions given to employees
to determine their views about the content and delivery of training
they have received.
Expert Audience: Readers that know a great deal about
the subject being presented. They have a high level of background
knowledge. They demand details and want to know every possible
bit of information.
Extranet: An information-sharing
electronic network between two or more companies.
magazines such as one found on the World Wide Web.
F Section Back to the Menu
FAX: Short for facsimile. Technology transmitting "pictures" of
documents. The original documents are scanned and transformed into signals that can be
transmitted, received by another FAX or computer, reproduced, and printed.
FCC (Federal Communications Commission):
A government agency regulating communications.
FDA (Food and Drug Administration):
A federal agency regulating food and drugs that protects
the nation's food supply and the safety of over-the-counter and
Fair Employment Practice Laws (FEP): Regulations that
cover small businesses and other employers with fewer than 15
employees, which are not covered by some federal laws.
Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA): A law that allows
eligible employees to take up to 12 weeks of unpaid, job-protected
leave for childcare after the birth or adoption placement of a
child; care for a spouse, child, or parent with a serious health
condition; or serious health conditions that make the employee
unable to perform job duties.
Feedback: Information regarding a message or as a result of a message that flows
from receivers to senders is called feedback. Feedback includes two-way interactivity
between sender and receiver.
Field: Database element containing one specific type of information in
a record. For example, in an address database, one record might contain the
name, address, and phone number for one particular person. One field might
contain the person's name or the city in which she or he lives.
Fieldwork: Observing how products are
used in real-life situations.
File Extensions: Letters added after a
filename to indicate a type or format. See the File Extensions section.
Prepress printing process where film negatives are assembled into
flats, which are used to create printing plates in a
process known as stripping.
Once the film is stripped, it is either proofed or plated.
Finance and Accounting: Department that
keeps track of the numbers, the dollars and numerical values that flow in and out of a
corporation. These numerical values or numbers track the resources, assets, and value of
the company's stock and investment portfolio. Finance and Accounting tracks profit and
loss. This tracking provides data that are turned into reports to help the decision makers
in the corporation make informed judgments and decisions about the future of the company.
Firewall: Electronic barrier preventing unauthorized access to
a computer or computer network. A digital fence or virtual boundary
maintained by computers and software that stops unauthorized visitors to
Fiscal Year: A twelve-month period
designated by a business for accounting and reporting purposes.
Flash: A popular product developed by Macromedia Inc. that allows Web designers
to create resizable and compact navigation interfaces, illustrations, animations, and
other special effects for Web sites.
Flat-File Database: Database formed with a database table consisting
of records, fields and the corresponding data. The database software
can only query one table of data at a time. Records from two or
more database tables cannot be cross-referenced to generate a
third table of data.
Flexible Benefit Plan: A plan that allows employees to
select the benefits they want from a group of benefits offered
by the employer; also called a cafeteria plan.
Flexible Spending Plan: A plan that allows employees to
set up a tax-deferred account that can be used to reimburse certain
expenses such as health care, life insurance, vision care, disability
insurance, and childcare. The employee will forfeit any dollars
placed in a flexible spending plan that are not used by the end
of the year.
Floor Space: The area
of a convention center designated for vendor booths or displays.
Flowchart: A diagram that shows the steps
of a procedure and the amount of time each step requires.
Focus Group: A group of people assembled
and surveyed by a marketing research team to help gather data about products and market
Footers: Information attached to the bottom of a document
or the bottom of each page of a document. In a printed document,
footer information may include the date, page number, and other
document information. In email, footers often provide a return
email address, mailing address information, and anecdotal information
about the author. On Web pages, footers provide navigation assistance
and copyright notices.
Forced Distribution Method: A procedure for ranking employees
wherein employee evaluation scores are distributed along a bell
curve regardless of the employees' overall contributions to the
slides, colors used for text or objects that appear layered over other
objects. For example, blue can be used as a foreground color for text
that is layered on top of a textured slide background.
Form View: A way to look
at database records displaying the records and fields in a way that is
convenient for users (as opposed to in a table).
Fortune 500: Fortune
magazine's list of the 500 most profitable companies in the world.
Free Agents: Independent contractors who work for others,
usually on a project-by-project basis. Also called freelancers.
Independent contractors who work for others, usually
on a project-by-project basis.
Freeware: Any free software that may be
downloaded from the Net or obtained from other sources.
Frequency: Important marketing variable specifying how often a
customer is exposed to advertising for a product. A marketing principle
proposing that the more times a customer hears and sees a branded
product, the greater the likelihood of the customer making a purchasing
decision and developing brand awareness, brand association, and brand
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs):
A list of questions often asked by users of a system and the corresponding
Fringe Benefits: Benefits that are optionally provided
at the employer's discretion, such as health care insurance, vacation,
holidays, sick time, retirement plans, and stock options.
FTP (File Transfer Protocol): A
communications system used to transfer data over networks. FTP allows files to be
transferred from your computer to an Internet, Intranet, or Web server.
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Gantt Chart: A chart
that shows how long it takes to complete each step in a sequence
and the time needed to complete the entire project.
Gender: The condition of being a male or female human
General Ledger: An account book or system
that includes all the accounts needed to prepare a balance sheet.
General to Specific: A technical communications principle whereby important,
general information appears at the top of the document and specific details follow.
Considered essential to the successful execution of most short business documents.
Gopher: An Internet navigation system using a hierarchy of descriptive menus
that allows users with Gopher client software to identify and access information on Gopher
Greeking: Use of random characters, foreign words, or lines instead of
text on thumbnails or rough sketches. This allows the user to concentrate on the
overall appearance of a page. The actual text that will be used is inserted
Gross Margin: Gross profit expressed as a percentage of sales. See Gross
Gross Profit: Money received from sales minus the cost of goods sold;
other expenses such as advertising or rent have not been deducted.
Groupware: Personal information
management software designed to be used by groups.
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Hard Copy: A paper copy of a document.
to the near-left or near-right of a selected color on the color wheel.
Headers: Information attached to the top of
the document or to the top of each page of a document. In a printed
document, header information may include the date, page number,
and other document information. In email, headers may include
the routing information of how the email message was delivered
through the Internet. On a Web page, the header information is
hidden from the viewer and can be seen by revealing the HTML tags.
Headhunter: A person whose job it is to find qualified
job applicants for companies.
Headhunter Firm: A company
that finds qualified people for specific jobs.
Health Maintenance Organization (HMO): A managed care
plan that provides employees with a small network of doctors and
facilities that provide a wide range of services for a fixed fee
Hits: The number of times a Web page has been accessed or the number of items
found in response to a search query.
Home Page: The main, opening, or welcome
page on a Web site. See Web Page.
Hook: Something that will interest a reader, viewer, or listener. Some kind of
information that attracts instant attention.
HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol):
A communications system used by Web and Intranet servers to communicate
with Web and Intranet clients.
Human Resources Management: The formal processes that
support the needs, talents, and performance of employees to accomplish
a company's strategic mission.
Human Resources: Department responsible
for assisting each business unit in hiring and training the finest possible workforce. As
part of this mandate, HR manages employee services and benefits. These services and
benefits can help attract, motivate, and retain a highly talented, committed workforce. HR
promotes the fair and equitable treatment of all employees. It also provides training
opportunities that will allow employees to improve job skills.
Hypermedia: Technologies allowing text, graphics, and multimedia to
be hyperlinked to additional information.
Hypertext Markup Language ( HTML):
Authoring language used for Web and Intranet documents.
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Pictures, graphics, or artistic representations. Often used in
printed or new-media documents to signal readers about content or
instructions. For example, an icon of a printer might be used to
indicate that users should print a document.
Impression: A Web site
visitor being exposed one time to an advertisement. To constitute an
impression, an ad must be allowed to fully display in the customer's
Impulse Items: Products that are purchased without much
forethought, often as a result of cross selling or strategic placement
of items in a store or on a Web site.
Incident: Any separate service-related interaction with a
Incident Report Database (IRD): Database in which customer
support incidents are recorded.
Incorporation: The process of creating a
Professionals with specialized backgrounds who evaluate products for
consumers or other businesses. Analysts often compare the performance of
products in a product category against each other to show the strengths
and weaknesses of each.
That portion of the press dedicated to reporting events in a
specific industry. For example, the entertainment sector, the travel
sector, or the computer and technology sector.
Industry Sector(s): A specific area of business focus that
produces similar products or services for customers having similar
economic interests. Examples include the medical sector, the technology
sector, the transportation sector, and the legal sector.
Information Technology: Department
responsible for maintaining the corporate network and communications infrastructure;
installing software and hardware upgrades; and maintaining and repairing computers,
printers, and other information appliances that contribute to the functioning of each
corporate workgroup, function, division, and business unit. IT manages all the technical
aspects of the corporate Web site, the Intranet, and any Extranets that have been set up
with corporate partners.
of all physical elements required to make a system work. For example, on
the Internet, the infrastructure includes all hardware and connections
(including cables, wireless transceivers, and receivers) making the
system work. Roads are considered part of the infrastructure in a
transportation system, and plumbing is likewise considered part of the
infrastructure in a water management system.
Advertisements on a corporation's own Web site.
High-resolution, photo-quality printing technique using four
colors (often known by the acronym CMYK). The colors include cyan
(green-blue), magenta (bright purple), yellow, and black which are
dispensed from ink jet printing heads. Often used in making originals
and color proofs.
Inline Links: Links appearing in lines of text, such as a hyperlinked
word in the middle of a sentence.
Intellectual Property Rights: Certain
legal rights and privileges granted to individuals and corporations that create something
new, different, useful, and potentially profitable.
Interactivity: An exchange of information between senders and receivers of
information. Interactivity will often alter the information sent and received by senders
Things that connect separate entities. For example, a user
interface connects people to software programs, making computers user-friendly
or easy to use and understand.
Internet: A public, worldwide computer
network made up of smaller, interconnected networks.
Digital device not classified as a personal computer connecting to the
Internet. For example, a wireless digital phone that reads email is an
Internet Service Provider (ISP): An Internet company or organization
that provides customer connections to the Internet and related
Interview: A meeting, usually face-to-face, used to assess
an applicant's qualifications or suitability for a job.
Intranet: A computer
network within a corporation or organization that is meant for
the use of its employees or members.
IP (Internet Protocol) Number: Every
computer on the World Wide Web, the Internet, and a corporate Intranet has its own
distinct IP number. These numbers allow information to travel from specific computer to
specific computer over the Net.
IRS (Internal Revenue Service): The U.S.
government agency responsible for the taxation of individuals and corporations.
A repetitive system whereby work flows back and forth between
individuals. In publishing, revisions are made and checked repeatedly to
ensure quality and accuracy.
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Java: A programming language that creates programs called applets.
Applets can be added to Web page documents.
features to a Web document without having to use expensive compilers
normally associated with programming languages like C++ and Java.
Job Board: An online service that lists career and job
Job Description: A listing of the duties
and responsibilities an employee is hired to fulfill. May also include information about
the work environment and the skills, experience, and education required for the job.
Job Environment: The unique setting and
working conditions of a job.
Business partnership between two or more companies.
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Know-how Analysis: A study of the specific tasks and duties
that someone must "know how to do" to be successful
on the job.
Know-How Skills Deficit: A condition that exists when
employees do not have the skills they need to be effective on
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of the printed page where the longer side of a rectangular page is
positioned at the top. For example, a standard sheet of letter paper is
11 by 8.5 inches in landscape orientation.
potentially leading to new customers and increased sales.
Learning Style: The way a person acquires new skills,
knowledge, or information. Examples of learning styles are visual,
auditory, tactile, and interactive learning styles.
Legal Notices: Documents
posted at Web sites to protect the rights of the sponsoring company or
organization or to detail the responsibilities of the company or site
notices, and privacy policies.
Legal Services: Department that manages
corporate contracts, protects product patents and trademarks from infringement, protects
intellectual property, and represents the corporate interest in court and in product
liability, employment, equity, and fairness litigation. Legal Services advises employees
from other departments regarding legal matters.
Length: In technical communications, the size of the message often defined in
terms of word count, page count, or in the duration of a presentation. Length is an
essential parameter that must be defined before development of a project begins.
Leverage: To use knowledge, skills, or other resources to one's
Liabilities: What a company owes to
in a line or occurring in a sequential manner.
Liquid Assets: Cash or other assets that
can be converted readily into cash.
Listservs: Devices used to send
electronic information automatically to a predetermined list of clients.
Litigation: A lawsuit or court
Localize: To adjust promotional materials
and products to interest consumers in different cultures and countries.
Logo: A design or graphic representing a
Occurring over a relatively long period of time. In business, this
usually means over three years.
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Machinist: A person skilled in making,
operating, or repairing machine tools or equipment.
Mailing List: A technique used to send
email messages to a large list of subscribers all at once.
Management: Function responsible for
managing the success of all the products, projects, employees, and resources of the
corporation. Managers exist in every mission-critical function and in every strategic
Management by Objectives (MBO): A system
based on clear, specific, measurable goals or objectives prepared by employees and
managers. Performance is then measured by these goals.
Mandate: Authority to move ahead, to do something, or to act.
Manufacturer's Suggested Retail Price (MSRP): Price a
manufacturer suggests to retailers as the price retailers should charge
customers for a product.
Manufacturing: Department that handles
the production of products.
Originally a handwritten document. Today, manuscripts are often
prepared on computers, but computer manuscripts are considered to be
draft copies. They are not considered edited final drafts to be used for
professionally printed versions of the final document.
Market: The broad audience or group of
customers considered willing to spend money for a product or goods and services.
Market Niche: The specific audience for a
specialized product or line of products who are considered potential buyers.
Market Research: The systematic study of marketing, sales, and
customer support which provides information to decision-makers regarding
marketing issues, problems, and opportunities.
Market Sector: A focus on one industry
from its beginning stages in research and development, into marketing and sales, through
final customer support. For example, TeleView focuses on the electronics sector.
Market Segment: Part of a market that
shares common interests and characteristics.
Market Share: The percentage of an
industry controlled by a particular company.
Market-Driven: A system in which customer
wants and needs drive the development of products and services. In a market-driven
corporation, every product created must be practical and marketable.
Marketed: Past tense of market. The promotion of products or services for
Marketing: A business function or department whose goal is to
motivate people to investigate and purchase a company's products. In
more general terms, marketing includes all of the activities needed to
bring a company's products and services to customers.
Marketing and Sales: The Marketing
Department plans and carries out marketing and advertising campaigns for products and
services. The Sales Department carries the marketing message to the customer to
"conclude a sale," that is, exact payment from a customer and supply him or her
with the product or service paid for.
Marketing Circle of Success (MCS): Business model whereby
customer-oriented products and solutions are efficiently developed,
brought to market, sold to customers, and supported throughout their
Marketing Collateral: Sum of marketing resources and tools
used to promote products. These tools can include advertising, Web
pages, packaging, pricing, and any other marketing tool or medium.
Marketing Manager (MM): Team leaders that direct the
day-to-day activities of the marketing, sales, and support functions.
Also called Product Marketing Manager.
Marketing Mix: The combination of advertising and promotional efforts aimed at a
Marketing Research Assistant: A person who researches marketing
issues, problems, and opportunities, and reports the findings to decision
Marketplace: Any location or space (including digital spaces) where
goods and services are bought and sold.
Markup: Amount or percentage by which a seller increases the selling
price of the goods over the amount paid to produce or purchase the goods.
Mass Media: Channels that share information with a large (massive) audience.
Typically associated with radio, television, newspapers, and the World Wide Web, each
allows the broadcasting of great quantities of information to a large potential audience.
Media: The plural form of medium. Often used to describe
mass media as in newspapers, television, and radio. Related to
training, the means by which information or training is delivered
such as in print or online.
Elements of the press (radio, television, newspapers, magazines)
that rephrase and interpret information provided by corporations.
In filtering information, the media alter the message the consumer
reads or hears.
Medicare: A government-sponsored health care plan that
provides medical coverage to individuals who are full Social Security
retirement age and older. Employees and their employers contribute
to Medicare during the employees' working years.
Medium: In communications, the means or form in which data or information is
transmitted or received. This can be hard copy paper as well as electronic forms,
including but not limited to television, radio, and online forums such as World Wide Web
pages. Any storage device is also a medium, such as DVD, hard drives, or diskettes.
Merchandising: Placement and display of products in retail stores to
attract attention and stimulate sales.
Messages: Any communicationsprinted, electronic,
digital, or verbalthat a sender shares with a receiver.
Middlemen: Business people who buy from suppliers and sell to
wholesalers, retailers, or directly to consumers.
Mirror Site: A duplicate of an original
Mission Statement: A statement of the
goals, priorities, and beliefs of a company.
Mission-Critical: Essential to the success of the
organization. For example, marketing is a mission-critical function of a
Any combination of two or more of the following media: text,
audio, graphics, and video.
A corporation that has units in two or more nations.
Multiple-Evaluator Method: A procedure used in employee
performance evaluations during which input from more than one
person is used in assessing employee performance.
Multi-Tasked: Being able to perform
many activities or tasks at the same time.
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Name Recognition: When
a name of a product or company is widely known by consumers. For
example, IBM is a more readily recognized brand name than Mikes
network or Internet connection transporting voice, data, and streaming
video slower than 1.5 million bits of information per second. Usually
associated with slow modem speeds. The terms narrowband and wideband
have become synonymous. The term wideband has been dropped in favor of
the term narrowband.
NASDAQ: A stock exchange, like the New
York Stock Exchange.
Navigate: To plot or follow a path to a desired destination.
Related to the World Wide Web, to move through the links or pages of a
Web site or sites.
Navigation Bars: Web-page
graphic images having links to other places at the Web site.
Needs Analysis: Related to training, a study of the skills
required to do a job, the skills the employee has, and the training
required to eliminate skills deficits.
Net Profit: Amount of money
received from sales minus all the expenses of business operations.
Netiquette: Accepted rules of etiquette for online communications
such as via electronic mail, the Internet, or an Intranet.
New Media: Digital media, complete with graphics, multimedia
effects, and interactivity; normally associated with Web pages as seen
on the Internet.
Newsgroups: Online discussion groups. Newsgroups exist for
a multitude of topics and follow conversation threads. Newsgroup
software looks and acts much like email software. An interactive
communications system that allows participants to follow threads
of a particular conversation or discussion with the help of Usenet
newsreader clients. Tens of thousands of newsgroups involving
millions of Internet users discuss virtually any topic imaginable
No-Fault: Without liability or legal responsibility. Worker's
compensation is an example of a no-fault insurance system that
pays medical expenses and a percentage of lost wages to employees
who are injured on the job.
Noncontributory Pension Plan: A pension plan that is entirely
funded by the employer.
Non-Disclosure Agreement: Legal document wherein an employee of a
company agrees not to disclose or discuss sensitive company information with
NYSE: New York Stock Exchange.
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Occupational Outlook Handbook (OOH):
A publication by the Bureau of Labor Statistics that provides a catalog of jobs and gives
advice on how to find a job and evaluate a job offer.
Occupational Therapist: An employee
within a corporation who works to solve employee injury and safety problems.
Organization: In technical communications, refers to how a document or
presentation is structured or arranged. For the most part, technical documents and
presentations should be organized so that general information and definitions are
presented before specific details.
Organization Chart: A diagram that shows the hierarchical
relationship between managers and employees in an organization.
Orientation: The process of becoming familiar with a situation
or environment; for example, training sessions for newly hired
Outsourcing: When a company hires another
company or person to do a specific job that might otherwise be done by company employees.
Overhead: Business costs not associated directly with the cost
of wages or materials used in making a product. Examples of overhead
include rent, legal fees, and property taxes.
Owner Equity: A companys assets
minus its liabilities equals the owner equity. Also called net worth.
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Page Views: The number of times an individual Web page is
seen by a visitor.
Pagination: The way pages in a document are organized, counted, calculated, and
Paper Trail: A series of documents, either paper or electronic, providing an
accurate history of events, decisions, and actions.
Parameters: In technical communications, restrictions or rules that
affect the message such as the required length, delivery medium, or time allowed
for creating the message.
Partnership: A business owned by two or
more people that is not incorporated.
Patent: A form of legal protection that
confers exclusive rights to an invention for a specified length of time.
Patent Pending: A term
applied to a product for which a patent application is under way,
but the patent has not yet been granted.
Pay Grades: In compensation structures, designations of
salary range and rank.
Payroll: Department whose main
responsibility is the distribution of payments to employees.
PDA (Personal Digital Assistant):
A hand-held computer used to plan and organize various tasks.
Peer Coaching: A method of employee improvement wherein
an employee possessing certain know-how skills instructs or helps
another employee attempting to learn those skills.
Peer Evaluation: When
team members or others from the same position or rank contribute
to the evaluation of a candidate or employee.
Performance Evaluations: Methods by which employees' know-how
skills and job performances are assessed.
Performance Rating Scales: Systems used for recording
performance measurements, usually in the form of numerical values.
Performance Review: A process for evaluating whether or
how well an employee has accomplished the duties and responsibilities
of her or his job or accomplished certain job goals.
Performance Standard: An established basis of comparison
for how well employees accomplish their job tasks, duties, and
extra device attached to a personal computer that is usually not
considered standard equipment on a PC. Printers, joysticks, and
digital appliances are examples of peripherals.
Perks: Benefits optionally provided at the employer's
discretion, such as health care insurance, vacation, holidays,
sick time, retirement plans, and stock options.
Personal Planner: Planner that contains
addresses, notes, appointments, and other useful information. Usually in paper form.
Personality: In technical communications, the style, mood, flair, voice, tone,
and attitude of a message or presentation.
Personalization: The use of interactive content that responds to the needs of
the audience or that can be customized to meet customer needs.
Personnel: People employed by or active
in an organization or business; employees.
PERT Chart: A chart that uses boxes and
other graphics to show the relationships between activities.
PIM (Personal Information Management):
Personal computer software that is used as a planner to organize tasks and appointments.
Pitch: When used as a verb, to present information in an
effort to make a sale. When used as a noun, an attempt at making a sale,
as in sales pitch. Information about a product shared directly
with customers (including questions asked of customers) to heighten
customer interest and lead to a sale.
Placement Center: Provides information
about the availability of jobs inside and outside the corporation. May provide seminars or
training on job seeking.
Portal: Relating to the Internet, gateways that assemble or access information
in a convenient format so that users can search for and find information easily.
Positioning: A marketing term used to describe how a product is presented in
relation to its competition.
Post: To upload or transfer
HTML documents to a Web server for display on the World Wide Web.
Documents may also be posted for display on a corporate Intranet.
Preferred Provider Organization (PPO): A health care plan
that allows employees to choose from any number of doctors or
facilities the insurance company has approved. The employee is
not required to choose a primary care physician or to have a referral
to specialists. The insurance company receives a discounted rate
from the health care providers and facilities, making this a cost-effective
plan for employers.
Premium: A payment made for health, life, or other insurance
Prizes or awards used to create and enhance the image of a
commercial brand. Premiums are often distributed by corporations at
Series of printing-related activities, including preparation,
layout, composition, and editing, which must be accomplished prior to
printing a final document.
Press Kit: A press kit is supplied to
members of the press (media) and can usually be obtained by journalists upon request or
before major events like conventions and new product releases. Sometimes a press kit is as
simple as a folder filled with relevant press releases, product information, and company
information. Increasingly, press kits are being made available online via the Web.
Press Release: A short document about
some newsworthy subject, prepared for the media and other interested parties.
Price Point: The price set by Marketing
managers that they determine is the price customers will accept and that will maximize
profits for the corporation.
Primary Audience: The most important readership or receivers
of a message. The audience best served by the information or that
needs the information the most.
Primary Care Physician: A physician or medical group that
provides basic medical care and, in some plans, provides referrals
to specialists and for other health services.
printing of documents. An individual print run can consist of a single copy of a
document or millions of copies of a book.
Private Sector: Economic activities,
ventures, or organizations that operate independent of government control. Jobs in the
private sector are in business, industry, or certain nonprofit organizations.
Problem-Solving Workgroup: A team created
specifically to solve a problem.
Product Information Database (PID): Database cataloging information
Product Life Cycle: Sales trends for a product beginning with
early start-up sales, passing through an accelerated growth phase,
reaching maturity as a product, and then declining somewhat before being
revitalized or discontinued.
Product Line: A group of related merchandise, goods, services, or solutions that
can be sold and marketed to customers.
Product Mix: The combination of products in a product line.
Product Workgroup: A team responsible for
taking a product from research and development to market.
Product-Driven: A business model that is driven or pushed by the
products a company markets and sells and the profit they can generate.
Companies that specialize in the development of media products, such as books, magazines, video
production, new media, and other forms.
Production Schedule: Schedule determined by the manufacturing function
of a corporation by which products are produced and delivered to customers.
Products: Merchandise, goods, services, or solutions that can be sold to a
Professional Delivery: In technical communications, selecting the proper medium
and using it effectively to communicate a business message. This includes supplying any
necessary visual information that will add to the message.
Profiles: Data about customers indicating their interests and
likelihood of buying particular products. Profiles are used to locate
Profit: The total money remaining after
all expenses have been paid.
Profit Margin: The total money remaining after all expenses
have been paid; usually expressed as a percentage of sales.
Profit Sharing Plan: A plan that provides for a percentage
of the company's profits to be distributed to the employees. An
employee can usually choose a cash plan that pays quarterly or
annually or a deferred plan that pays when the employee retires
or leaves the company.
Project Planning Software:
Computer software that helps in the organization of projects.
Proprietary: Privately developed and owned by a person
Prospecting: Searching for customers. For example, following
up on leads provided by business associates, mailing lists, or other
Protocol: Communications system used to
transfer data over networks. TCP/IP, HTTP, and FTP are examples.
Prototype: A sample product, or working
Public Domain: The condition of being
free from copyright or patent restrictions and, thus, free for public use.
Public Sector: Economic activities,
ventures, or services that are carried out by or controlled by government. Jobs in the
public sector are in government agencies, the military, public education, and other areas
run by the government.
Purchasing: The department that is
responsible for buying goods for the company.
Purpose: In technical communications, the reason for creating the message. The
purpose is synonymous with the objectives and goals of a communications project or
Push Technology: Technology that allows
new information to be updated or "pushed" to a particular Web page.
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Quarter: A fiscal quarter is three continuous months of
business activity. A quarter is one fourth of a fiscal year, which is a
twelve-month period designated by a business for accounting and
reporting purposes. The fiscal year often parallels the calendar year
with the first quarter being January through March, the second quarter
April through June, the third quarter July through September, and the
fourth quarter October through December.
Request for information from a database.
QuickTime: A compressed video format created by Apple Computer Corp.
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Rags: A term derived from the
historical use of rags to create newsprint for newspapers and magazines.
The term often applies to industry and trade magazines.
Random Access: Movement from an item to a nonadjacent item;
that is, movement in a nonlinear or nonsequential manner.
Ranking Method: A procedure used in employee performance
evaluations during which employees are scored from highest to
lowest in terms of their overall performance. This is a comparative
model and forces managers to compare employees with one another.
RealPlayer: Client and server supported
software created by RealNetworks Inc. that allows streaming video and
audio to be transmitted and displayed effectively over the Internet.
As it happens, with a duration equal to the actually elapsed time. Often used as a synonym for
the words right now and live.
Receivers: Those who get (hear, read, see) a message from a sender.
Recession: An economic downturn
characterized by higher than usual unemployment.
element containing fields of data about one item in the database.
For example, in an address database, one record might contain
the name, address, and phone number for one particular person.
Recruiter: A person whose job it is to find and hire qualified
candidates for job positions.
Airline flight leaving late at night or early in the
morning that arrives at its destination before the normal business day
Reduction-in-Force (RIF): When a company
downsizes or decreases it workforce.
Registered Trademark: A distinctive word,
phrase, symbol, design, or combination of these that has been registered with the U.S.
Patent and Trademark Office. Registration can secure benefits beyond the rights one
acquires through using a mark.
Regulated Monopoly: A corporation that
controls an entire industry with the approval and supervision of the government, such as
AT&T before the antitrust suit broke it into smaller unregulated corporations.
Formed by database tables consisting of records, fields, and the
corresponding data. A database is relational when the records and fields
from two or more database tables can be cross-referenced to generate a
third table of data.
Remote Login: A system of login names and passwords that
allows a user to connect to a computer network from a distant or remote
Email that can be accessed away from the office,
perhaps at home or while traveling.
To use again, recycle, or rework for a different purpose.
Research and Development (R&D):
Department responsible for developing and creating new products and services to meet
Research Park: A workplace
where a Research and Development team can gather to share ideas,
conduct tests, and make new products.
Resume: A brief document detailing an individual's qualifications
and know-how skills related to employment.
Retail: The sale of products or services directly to customers.
Retailers: Stores, including online stores, that sell goods to customers.
Return on Investment (ROI): Report usually prepared by the Marketing
or Finance and Accounting teams that demonstrates the profit potential of a
Revenue: The money generated by a
particular product or service.
Revenue Stream: The flow of money generated by the companys
products or services.
Reverse Discrimination: A situation that exists when a
non-minority person or group is being discriminated against or
excluded because of preference given to a minority person or group.
Reverse-Engineer: To study a product or
take it apart to figure out how it was made.
Rollout: The steps required to release a new product into the
market. A rollout is often called a launch.
Rules of Use: Legal document detailing how something can be
used. Often posted on ecommerce sites to describe how the Web site
itself can be used.
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Salary Range: The difference between the
most and the least an employee may be paid for a particular job.
Salary Schedule: A document or chart that
shows the amount a new or beginning employee may be paid for a particular job as well as
the amounts employees with higher levels of experience and/or skills may be paid for that
Sales Area: Geographic area, such as a state, designated a
territory of a sales representative.
Sales Associate: Front-line sales representative who deals
directly with customers.
Sales Chain: A series of steps that a customer proceeds
through on the way to making a purchase.
Sales Forecasts: A researched set of goals estimating the
number of units of a particular product that can be sold.
Sales Goals: Targets or objectives, usually set by sales
representatives and their companies, for how many units of a particular
product or what dollar volume a salesperson is responsible for selling
during a fiscal year or quarter.
Sales Region: Geographic area made up of several sales areas.
Usually managed by a Regional Sales Manager.
Examples of what a printed document will look like after the
final printing process. Sample pages are used to check for accuracy and
quality in layout, design, composition, text, and placement of graphics.
Sampling Techniques: Statistical methods used to identify
trends while examining only a fraction of the entire population.
Scarcity: A shortage of a good of service relative to the
demand for it, allowing it to command a higher than normal price.
Specialized programming used to make Web pages interactive, as in
SEC (Securities and Exchange Commission):
An independent regulatory agency that administers the federal securities laws, which
protect investors in securities markets and ensure them access to all material information
on publicly traded securities. The Commission also regulates firms that purchase or sell
securities, investment advisors, and investment companies.
Secondary Audience: Receivers of the message other than the primary audience.
The secondary audience may have influence on the parameters, decision making, and content
of a message.
Secondary Sales: Sales following primary sales. For example, someone
might buy a shirt and then decide to buy a matching tie. The tie represents a
secondary salean item the customer probably would not have bought unless he or
she bought the primary item.
Secure Socket Layer (SSL): Ecommerce
security system developed by Netscape Communications Corporation to
ensure privacy and security of ecommerce transactions.
Security: The department that protects
company products, facilities, employees, and intellectual property from theft, injury, or
Seminar: An organized training session
that focuses on a variety of topics, such as computer software, planning, workgroup
skills, human interaction, and relationship skills in the workplace.
Senders: Those who transmit a message to receivers.
Sequence: Order or arrangement.
Sequential: Movement from an item to an adjacent item; that is, movement in a
Server: A computer that meets the needs
of other computers on a network, for example, by supplying requested software or
processing. Computers that host Intranets or Web sites are often called Web servers.
Servicemark: The same as a trademark
except that it identifies and distinguishes the source of a service rather than a product.
Payment or benefits packages for employees who leave the corporation
voluntarily or are affected by a RIF (reduction in force).
Sexual Harassment: Sexually directed, unsolicited, and
unwanted actions or provocative speech creating an intimidating,
offensive, or hostile work environment.
Shareware: Software that may be
downloaded for free, tried out for a certain length of time, and then purchased for a
Shipping: The process of sending a
completed product to the sales channel and out to customers.
Shopping Carts: "Digital containers" in which customers can "put" the
products they have purchased while shopping at an ecommerce site.
Short Term: Occurring
over a relatively short period of time. In business this usually means
less than three years.
The area of a convention center dedicated to booths and
Information appearing in a rectangular region at the side of a Web page,
such as a table of contents or links to other places at the Web site.
Signoff: A signature (or initials) to indicate approval and verification. An
agreement to proceed under the defined parameters.
Simplicity: In technical communications, stating a message in a straightforward,
uncomplicated way that is easy for the receiver to understand.
Single or Sole Proprietorship: A business
owned by one person.
Sleepers: Products, product lines, or business units with unrealized profit
Slicks: Promotional documents
usually printed on slick, glossy paper used in direct mail campaigns or
distributed directly to customers in retail environments.
Sliding Scale: The basis
on which rates vary according to a set formula or standard. For example,
the U.S. federal income tax is based on a sliding scale of income, with
different percentages being charged for different income brackets. In
business, sliding-scale discounts are used to reward volume purchasers.
As clients purchase larger quantities of products or services, the price
discount they receive increases (slides up the scale of discount
Slogans: Easy-to-remember catch phrases or series of words. Often used in advertising to attract
Social Security: A government plan that provides basic
retirement and disability income to workers. Employees and employers
contribute to this fund through a tax on employee wages.
Solvent: Refers to a company which is
able to pay others what it owes without selling assets to raise the money.
reorganize database data by manipulating records to place a particular
field in ascending or descending order. See Ascending Order and
Speech-Recognition Software: Computer
programs that allow voice input.
used to enhance the image of a commercial brand. Often distributed by
corporations at trade shows. Also called Premiums.
Spin: To change a previously created document to serve
another purpose. A term used to describe how news organizations can
interpret information. A term used in marketing and public relations to
describe the position a company wishes to take regarding a product,
service, solution, or industry problem.
Spiral Branding: A marketing technique whereby a variety of media
including television, radio, print advertisements, and Wed sites or ads are used
to promote a product, service, or company brand. Ads in one medium build on ads
in other media or reference sources of information such as Web sites. Also
called Spiral Marketing.
Split Audience: Two or more audiences that have differing levels of background
knowledge, needs, or expectations for a message.
Stars: Products, product lines, or business units that are very profitable.
Statistical Analysis: Set of mathematical formulas and
techniques applied to a sample of a population to determine the
usefulness and reliability of the sample.
Statistical Sample: A sample that is significantly and
statistically large enough to represent the entire population.
Sticky: Term describing a Web site that, using a variety of marketing
techniques, keeps customers there for long periods of time. The goal of a sticky
site is to keep customers focused on the ecommerce Web site's content.
Stipend: A paymentfor example, for
the successful completion of a project or of a training session.
Stock Market Ticker: A one- to
five-letter symbol used to identify a company being traded on a stock exchange.
Stock Options: Allow employees of a
company to purchase that company's stock at a fixed price for a fixed period of time.
Options may be offered to employees as an incentive and are considered a form of profit
who own stock in a corporation.
Stock Options: The right to purchase shares of stock in
a company at a fixed price for a period of time.
Strategic Business Unit (SBU): A part of
a company that performs a specific function or focuses on a unique aspect of the company's
business. TeleView is one of the business units in the Corporate View corporation.
Strategic Markets: Integrated systems
that share common market characteristics.
Strategic Plan: A course of action for achieving company goals and objectives.
A data-handling process
that enables information to flow continuously, allowing Web site audio
and video to play without requiring that the entire file be downloaded
first. Information that is streamed is stored in a buffer and begins to
play while new information is arriving and being buffered. Streaming
allows the video and audio to continue playing naturally without breaks
Structured Query Language (SQL): Language
used to create and query relational databases. See Relational Database.
Style: In technical communications, the mood, tone, flair, voice, personality,
or attitude demonstrated in a message or presentation.
Style Guide: Gives an organizations
preferred standards for formatting documents such as letters, memos, and reports. It may
include information on grammar, punctuation, and usage.
Sheets: Specifications used
in word processing and desktop publishing to define the layout and look
of a document. Style sheets specify parameters such as font size, a font
appearance, margins, page size, and headings. Styles are often
incorporated into templates, which allow the style to be used
Subsidiary: A part of a company that
performs a specific function or focuses on a unique aspect of the company's business.
Subtitles: Secondary or explanatory titles that describe a section of a
Supplier: A business that provides a product or service to another
Support Chain: All elements used by a company to assist customers and
to increase customer satisfaction.
Survey: A series of questions given to
customers to determine their views about a particular product or idea.
Synergy: Creative power produced by
working with others.
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Table View: Spreadsheet-like
view of data in a database.
Tags: A device used in HTML; information
contained in angle brackets that allows Web browsers to display Web pages.
The specific details of issues that must be
covered during a discussion, presentation, or interview.
Technical Audience: Readers who need technical or detailed instructions in order
to complete a project, an operation, or a process.
Technical Communications: Messages
written or stated in a clear, simple way for someone who needs to know the information.
Telecommunications: The field dealing
with the electrical and electronic transmission of messages.
Telecommuting: The practice of working with others from a home
office or other remote location via telecommunications lines and
A live exchange or meeting among people linked remotely
through the support of audio, video, and other data services.
assisted, two-way communications between people and places; for
example, a telephone conversation.
Working using information technology, usually from remote locations.
Often synonymous with working over the Internet.
An Internet technology that
provides the ability to log in to remote servers or host computers and
use those resources as if you were a computer connected directly to that
particular server or host computer.
In printing, styles, designs, or generic documents used in the
creation of other documents. See Style
Termination: The conclusion, finish, end of something.
document detailing how something can be used. Often posted on ecommerce
sites to describe how the Web site itself can be used.
Test Market: Introduction of a new product or service into a
narrow range of possible markets to determine customer acceptance. Test
marketing often helps predict future sales once the product is released
to broader market distribution.
Text Format: The simplest form a document
file can be written in. HTML uses this type of format.
Think-Tank: An organization or workgroup
in which employees do interdisciplinary research. At Corporate View, R&D has a
think-tank atmosphereemployees continually think of marketable and cost-effective
ideas for products.
Thumbnail Sketch: Small rough sketch used to visualize ideas.
Often used by graphic artists, marketers, corporate communications
specialists, and others to test design ideas. Also called Thumbnail.
Todo List: Tasks or assignments that need
to be done in a certain time frame, usually found in a planner.
Tort: A wrong or an injury for which the
injured party has a right to sue in court for a remedy.
Trade and Industry Publications: Hard-copy or online magazines, journals, or
newsletters hat discuss specific commercial issues. For example, medical journals discuss
issues related to medicine. Travel industry newsletters discuss travel-related issues.
Computer trade magazines discuss computers.
Trade Name: The name of a business that
may have trademarked products.
Trade Show: A large promotional gathering
where companies can showcase their products.
Trademark: A distinctive word, phrase,
symbol, design, or combination of these used to differentiate a product for customers.
Traffic: (On the Internet) The number of visitors to a Web site as
measured by hits, page views, and other measurements.
Traffic Flow: Movement of customers through a traditional store or a
recorded path of the pages a user requested in moving through
a Web site. This information can help you understand how visitors
are using a store or a Web site and which areas or pages are getting
the most use.
Training Consideration: Elements, conditions, or events
that may affect how training is organized or delivered.
Training Plan: A document that identifies any know-how
skills deficits an employee may have, outlines a plan of training
to eliminate the deficits, and includes training considerations
such as the method of training preferred by the employee.
Sheet of clear or transparent plastic film containing text and/or graphics.
Transparencies are displayed on a wall or projection screen using an
Size of a final printed page after the excess has been trimmed.
Turnover: The rate at which the employees of a company change (some employees
leave the company and new employees are hired).
Twenty-four/seven: Twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week. Usually
expressed as a number: 24/7.
Process of placing type (rectangular pieces of metal or wood with raised letters
or symbols which, when coated with ink and pressed against paper, create an
image of the letter or symbol) to create pages for print documents.
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UL (Underwriters Laboratories Inc.): An
independent consulting company that tests products to determine safety and quality.
Unemployment Compensation: A system that provides basic
income to workers who have lost their jobs. The provisions and
restrictions of this program vary from state to state.
Merging of various communications systems including telephone,
email, and FAX.
Uniform Resource Locator (URL): The
address of a Web site.
Unique Visitors: Measurement of traffic through a Web site
that counts each Web user with a unique address entering a Web site at
some page for the first time that day (or for the first time in some
other designated time period). Users that return to the Web site within
the designated time period are not counted again.
United States Code (USC): A compilation
of the laws passed by Congress that are currently in effect.
Usability Report: An objective document
that describes the results of a usability study.
Usability Testing: Testing that
determines how well a product functions in real-world conditions.
USENET: Short for User Network. A network
containing tens of thousands of newsgroups on a wide variety of topics.
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The combining of two or more products or services to increase the
overall worth of the purchase. Value is added to products by offering
extra features or additional goods and services. Sometimes these
value-added extras increase the price of the overall package. Other
times they are provided free with a purchase to encourage additional
Value Chain: Complete set
of stages through which a product passes, including development,
marketing, sales, distribution, and support. Each step of the chain
should add value to the product.
Value Positioning: Study of products relative to their
competition in the marketplace. Value positioning looks at quality,
status, price, availability, customer demographics, and the level of
support for a product.
individuals, or organizations that sell products, services, or
Vertical Market: A market that focuses on one specific
industry sector, such as banking, transportation, technology, or travel.
See Market Sector.
Vertical Market Portal: An Internet portal that focuses
on information retrieval for a clearly identifiable vertical market.
See Vertical Market, Industry Sector, and Portals.
Vested: A fixed, settled, and established right that cannot
be eliminated. For example, to be vested in a pension plan means
that future pension benefits cannot be denied to the employee.
Virtual Reality (VR): On a computer,
systems that try to imitate or mimic reality.
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Warehousing: Department responsible for
managing the storage and shipment of products and production materials.
Web Page: A page of information created
in HTML and displayed on the World Wide Web.
Hyperlinked, low-key graphics and small blocks of text appearing on Web
pages to advertise a company, product, or service. Placements help
establish brand-name recognition without being as annoying or
distracting as banner ads.
Web Site: A series of interrelated Web
pages on a particular topic.
Webcasting: Broadcasting video and/or
sound programs over the World Wide Web.
Webmaster: A job title for the person
mainly responsible for the design and maintenance of a Web, Intranet, or other online
Webzine: A magazine on
the World Wide Web.
Wellness Programs: Preventive programs that promote healthy
lifestyles and help employees maintain and improve their health.
White Paper: A document that explains or
clarifies a position or suggests change. White papers are usually intended to help others
look at something in a new way or think about doing things more efficiently. A white paper
is comparatively easy to writegenerally short and concise, with a personality that
is interesting, informational, and often informal.
White Space: The blank
space around text and pictures in printed and new-media documents.
Wholesale: The sale of products or services in large
quantities to distributors, resellers, or retail outlets who in turn,
sell in smaller quantities directly to customers.
Wholesalers: Companies or individuals engaged in buying and
selling large quantities of merchandise for resale to retail outlets.
Windows Media Player:
Client- and server-supported software created by Microsoft
that allows streaming video and audio to be transmitted and displayed
effectively over the Internet.
Win-Win: A solution that
has a positive outcome for everyone involved.
Wireless Internet Voice Portal: Relating to the Internet
and a wireless connection, gateways that assemble or access information
by using requests made via the human voice and allowing users
to search for and find information easily.
Phrase used to describe the area visible within a browser window.
Worker's Compensation: An insurance program that provides
income protection to workers who are injured on the job or who
contract a work-related illness. The provisions and restrictions
of this program vary from state to state.
Workflow: Steps taken
to complete a job as it proceeds along its path to completion.
Workforce Trends: General patterns or changes observed
within the working population, such as the aging of the population,
the impact of global competition on job creation, and the growing
mobility of the workforce.
Workgroup: A team of employees who work
together and share ideas on a project or issue.
World Wide Web (WWW): A series of
computers that use and understand HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol). These computers
transmit HTML documents to Web users around the world.
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Printing process for copying text and images on paper. Copies of
an original are sensitized with static electricity. When coated with a
special toner, the charged areas maintain the ink-toner which is fused
into the paper, making a permanent copy.
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