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Packed with hands-on applications, PUBLIC SPEAKING: CHOICES AND RESPONSIBILITY, 2e delivers a practical and up-to-date public speaking text based on rhetorical theory. It emphasizes the role of choices and civic engagement/responsibility throughout in narrative, features, and examples. Giving students valuable insight, it describes the audience as a "public" to which the speaker belongs, rather than as a separate entity defined only by demographics. The Second Edition includes new coverage of Monroe's Motivated Sequence, discussions of TED talks and PechaKucha, extended treatment of fallacies, and expanded emphasis on outlining. New Remix features apply the latest research in business and social science to public speaking skills. In addition, MindTap® digital learning solution helps instructors engage and transform students into critical thinkers.
- Each chapter begins with a vignette that builds directly on a video of a student speech available in MindTap®, allowing for a quick preview of chapter topics and skills.
- Coverage of group presentations has been moved to Chapter 9 on delivery to emphasize the continuity of skills between solo and group delivery.
- Chapter 7 on organization now features Monroe's Motivated Sequence, demonstrating how it adds distinctive organizational forms and purposes.
- Discussions of TED talks and PechaKucha are included in Chapter 12 on informative speaking, illustrating how these vital new forms add to students' choices about how to give compelling and effective informative presentations. In addition, extended treatment of fallacies emphasizes their key features and distinguishes them from good arguments.
- The text's expanded emphasis on outlining includes new examples for student use in the Appendix.
- Each chapter now includes the Remix, an exciting new feature that brings together the best of research in business and social science to bear on the practical questions of how to become an excellent public speaker.
- Practical, hands-on "Try It" applications encourage students to analyze and act on what they just read, enabling them to put what they learn into practice.
- Based on real questions the authors' students asked, the FAQ feature provides hip, interesting facts and answers to questions that students will ask and will want to know the answers to.
- The robust instructor's manual is packed with countless creative ideas for getting students thinking on their feet and mastering public speaking.
1. Public Speaking.
Introduction: Why Learn Public Speaking? Remix: What is a Remix? Speech Is Powerful. The Power of Public Speaking to Change the World. The Power of Speeches to Change Your World. Speaking Connects You to Others: Democracy in Everyday Life. The Conversational Framework. Remix: Public Speaking and Democracy.
The Communication Process. The Public in Public Speaking. Speaking Is About Making Choices. Preparation. Informing. Persuading. The Speaking Process: Thinking, Creating, and Speaking. Thinking Through Your Choices. Your Responsibilities (Chapter 2). Your Audience (Chapters 3, 4). Your Goals (Chapter 5). Creating Your First Speech. Information and Arguments (Chapters 6, 7). Research (Chapter 8). Organizing (Chapter 9). Finding the Words (Chapter 10). Giving Your First Speech. Delivering the Speech (Chapter 11). Overcoming Anxiety (Chapter 11). Presentation Aids (Chapter 12). Making Responsible Choices. Good Speeches Are the Result of Choices. Taking Responsibility Means Respecting the Audience.
2. Ethics and the Responsible Speaker.
Introduction: Why Ethics Matter in Public Speaking. Remix: Ethics and Effectiveness.
Ethical Pitfalls in Public Speaking. Deceptive Speech. Inappropriately Biased Speech. Remix: Bias, or, on Being Fair and Balanced. Poorly Reasoned Speech. Seven Principles of Ethical Public Speaking. Be Honest. Be Open. Be Generous. Be Balanced. Represent Evidence Responsibly. Take Appropriate Risks. Choose Engagement. How to Avoid Plagiarism. How to Create an Ethical Speech. Respect Your Audience. Remix: The Golden Rule. Respect Your Topic. Present Other Views and Treat Them Fairly. Avoid Fallacies and Prejudicial Appeals. Name Calling. Glittering Generalities. Inappropriate Testimonials. Plain-Folks Appeals. Card Stacking. Bandwagoning. Remix: Ethics and the Audience.
3. Understanding Audiences and Publics.
Introduction: Those People Sitting in Front of You. Audience Analysis. The Literal Audience: Demographics. Problems With the Demographic Approach.
The Rhetorical Audience. The "As" Test. From "Me" to "Us". Adapting Your Speech to Your Audience. Identify Common Interests. Make the Most of Shared Experience. Work from Common Premises. Be Directive. Remix: Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and the Address to the March on Washington. Two Views of the Audience: Marketing vs. Engagement. Marketing. Engagement.
The Audience and the Public. Advancing the Public Conversation. Remix: Public or Publics. Our Responsibilities to Your Audience.
4. Becoming a Skilled Listener.
Introduction: Public Hearing and Listening. Types of Listening. Passive Listening. Active Listening. Critical Listening. The Ethics of Listening. Obstacles to Good Listening. Distractions. Your Mental Zone. Taking Good Notes. Remix: Taking Notes. Giving Constructive and Useful Feedback. Criticize Speeches, Not People. Be Specific. Focus on What Can Be Changed. Be Communication Sensitive.
Part II: CREATING A GREAT SPEECH.
5. Choosing a Topic and Purpose.
Introduction: Picking a Topic and Defining Your Purpose. A Strategy for Picking a Topic. What Interests You? What Will Interest Your Audience? What Is the Occasion? What Is Your Purpose? What Is Your Thesis? How to Find a Topic Among Your Interests. What Do You Already Know or Care About? What Do You Want to Know More About? Remix: Brainstorming. Brainstorming. Choosing One of Your Topic Ideas. How to Focus Your Topic for Your Audience. Geography or Location. Past, Present, or Future. Typical Audience Interests. Speaking Purposes and Speaking Situations. General Purposes of Speeches. Types of Speaking Situations. Time Constraints. The Thesis Statement: Putting Your Purpose Into Words.
Introduction: Becoming an Expert. Researching Responsibly. The Research Process. Figuring Out What You Already Know. Designing a Research Strategy. Deciding Where to Go. Making a Methodical Search. How to Conduct an Online Search. Creating Search Terms. Remix: Google Like a Pro. Focusing Your Search. Gathering Your Materials. Reading Your Materials and Taking Notes. Evaluating Sources. Blogs. News Articles. Opinion or Advocacy Pieces. Scholarly, Peer-Reviewed Articles. Wikis. Websites and Web Pages. Revising Your Claims. Organizing Your Research Information. Choosing the Sources for Your Speech. Citing Your Sources and Avoiding Plagiarism. Getting Help From a Research Expert.
Introduction: Getting Organized. The Basic Three-Part Structure. Remix: Structure and Persuasion. The Introduction. Functions of an Effective Introduction. Elements of the Introduction. The Body. Functions of the Body. Points. Transitions. Internal Previews. The Conclusion. Functions of the Conclusion. Elements of the Conclusion. Patterns of Organization. Chronological. Spatial. Cause and Effect. Problem-Solution. Topical. Monroe Motivated Sequence. Remix: Helping Your Audience to do Something. Attention. Need. Satisfaction. Visualization. Action. Combination. Choosing the Order of Points: Primacy vs. Recency. Arranging Your Supporting Materials. Outlining. Outline Structure. Preparation and Delivery Outlines.
Part III: PRESENTING A GREAT SPEECH.
8. Verbal Style.
Introduction: What Is Style, and Why Does It Matter? Characteristics of Effective Style. Concrete and Lively Language. Remix: Speaking in Images. Respectful Language. Classifying Verbal Style: Figures and Tropes. Figures. Figures of Repetition. Figures of Contrast. Tropes. Remix: Advice for Being More Charismatic. Tropes of Comparison: Metaphor and Simile. The Trope of Substitution: Metonymy. Tropes of Exaggeration: Overstatement and Understatement. The Trope of Voice: Personification. Matching the Style to the Topic and the Occasion.
Introduction: Stand and Deliver. Speaking or Talking? Creating Focus and Energy From Your Anxiety. Types of Preparation and Delivery. Speaking From Memory. Speaking From Manuscript. Extemporaneous Speaking. Impromptu Speaking. Staying on Time. Types of Speaking Aids. Using Your Voice Effectively. Volume. Speed. Remix: Words per Minute. Articulation. Inflection. Using Your Body Effectively. Standing. Walking. Using Gestures. Communicating Credibility. Making Eye Contact. Choosing Your Appearance. How to Practice Delivering Your Speech. Practice, All the Way Through, at Least Four Times. Practice in Front of an Audience. Practice Making Mistakes. Breathe, Breathe, Breathe. Answering Questions from the Audience. Anticipating Questions. Interpreting the Questions. Giving Your Answers. Remix: Vocal Fry. Group Presentation. Cooperation. Coordination. Delivering the Group Presentation. Rehearsing the Group Presentation.
10. Presentation Aids.
Introduction: Adding Media to Your Message. Why Use Presentation Aids? Principles for Integrating Presentation Aids. Static Visual Elements. Pictures and Photos. Remix: Why Use Graphs and Charts? Charts and Graphs. Maps and Diagrams. Text. Moving Images. Audio. Non-Electronic Media. Remix: To Handout or not to Handout. Handouts. Posters and Flip Charts. Objects. Demonstration Speeches and Presentation Aids. Presentation Software. Delivering Your Speech With Presentation Aids. Preparing to Use Digital Media. Developing a Backup Plan for Digital Media.
Part IV: KINDS OF SPEECHES.
11. Informative Speaking.
Introduction: Telling It Like It Is. Goals of Informative Speaking. Present New Information. Provide New Perspective. Generate Positive or Negative Feelings. How to Choose an Informative Goal. The Responsibilities of the Informative Speaker. Topics for Informative Speeches. Objects and Events. People. Processes. Ideas.
Techniques of Informative Speaking. Remix: Definitions, Explanations and Feelings. Defining. Describing. Explaining. Choices That Make Information Effective. Keep It Simple. Connect Your Topic to Your Audience. Use Supporting Material Wisely. Choose Effective Organizational Patterns. Choose Effective Language. Alternative Speech Formats. TED Talks. PechaKucha.
12. Being Persuasive.
Introduction: Giving the Audience Proofs. Ethos: Why Audiences Should Believe You. Classical Dimensions of Ethos. Why Are You Speaking on This Topic? Pathos: The Framework of Feelings. Appeals to Positive Emotions. Remix: Activities Feelings and Senses. Fear and Other Negative Appeals. Framing. Logos: Who Needs an Argument? Making Connections: The Process of Reasoning. Types of Arguments. Arguments From Examples (Inductive Reasoning). Formal Arguments (Deductive Reasoning). Causal Arguments. Arguments From Analogy. Remix: Thinking through Analogies. Arguments From Signs. Arguments From Authority.
What About the Other Side? Dealing with Counterarguments. Why Addressing Counterarguments Is Persuasive. Tips for Dealing With Counterarguments.
13. Special Types of Speeches and Presentations.
Adapting Your Skills to New Challenges. Speeches at Life Transitions. Toasts. Eulogy. Graduation. Speeches at Ceremonies. Introducing a Speaker. After-Dinner Speaking. Presenting an Award. Group Presentations. Cooperation. Coordination. Delivering the Group Presentation. Rehearsing the Group Presentation.
Appendix A: Selected Speeches.
Statement to the Iowa House Judiciary Committee by Zach Wahls. Rated "D" for Deficiency: The Sunshine Vitamin by Nicole Platzar. Speech at Kensington Town Hall ("Britain Awake") (The Iron Lady). Statement on Behalf of the African National Congress, on the Occasion of the Adoption by the Constitutional Assembly of the Republic of South Africa Constitution Bill 1996 by Deputy President Thabo Mbeki. The Perils of Indifference by Elie Wiesel.
Appendix B: Sample Outlines.
Persuasive/Problem solution. Informative. Group Presentation.
"The focus on the rhetorical audience is the largest help in this book toward helping students with appropriate topic selection and tailoring their word choice to the audience."
"I like that Chapter 1 focuses on community, ethics, and personal responsibility in public speaking. I think that many colleges include these ideas in their mission statements. This also gets at the reasons public speaking is such a powerful tool."
Cengage provides a range of supplements that are updated in coordination with the main title selection. For more information about these supplements, contact your Learning Consultant.
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