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This core text in ethics devotes the first half to moral theory and the second half to contemporary moral issues. Designed for the beginning student with no background in philosophy, it is an understandable and engaging introduction to the range of theory and issues that are most pressing to today's students. First, an introductory chapter on moral reasoning provides a solid framework for evaluating and constructing moral arguments. Following that, one finds comprehensive coverage of all major ethical theories, including virtue ethics, natural law theory, divine command theory, and social contract theory. Finally, students get to see this theory in action amidst seven chapters devoted to important discussions in applied ethics.
- To enhance the teaching and learning experience, the Fourth Edition is now supported by two new technologies. When adopted along with the book, TurnItIn offers an efficient way of preventing plagiarism in student papers, while JoinIn� on TurningPoint® for Ethics, an interactive classroom response system, offers instructors a way of quickly garnering students' positions on a number of ethical concerns and will keep students in even the largest ethics classes engaged in lectures.
- Chapter 14 now focuses exclusively on capital punishment and discusses whether murderers have forfeited their right to life or whether they deserve the penalty of death has been expanded.
- Chapter 15 (War and Peace) has been enhanced with a discussion of torture and cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatment in the context of interrogation.
- Several new extended case studies have been added including one on the McWane Company and one on the allegations of torture of detainees in U.S. Custody.
- To aid student comprehension, learning objectives have been added to each chapter and many chapters now begin with provocative real life case studies.
- Chapter 1 (Morality and Moral Reasoning) has been completely rewritten to simplify the material on the justification of basic moral principles and to strengthen the discussion of all-things-considered singular moral judgments and their justification.
- Chapter 2 (Natural Law and Divine Commands) has been substantially rewritten to include an extended discussion of natural law theories, in both their religious and secular forms.
- Chapter 7 (Virtue and Vice) now includes a discussion of the Socratic view on the unity of the virtues and brings attention to the views of John McDowell that character affects how we perceive situations that present moral issues.
- A one-page guide to moral decision making is included to provide students with quick and easy reference.
- Engaging case studies and examples spotlight the relevance of ethical deliberation.
- Suggested readings include lists of Internet resources, including full texts of primary sources.
- Discussion questions at the end of each chapter motivate classroom discussions and out of class reflection.
Kinds of Moral Judgment. Moral Judgments and Moral Reasons. Evaluating Moral Arguments. The Concept of Moral Judgment. Moral Disagreement. Morality and Law. Basic Moral Principles. Basic Moral Principles are Neither True Nor Justified. Agreement on Basic Moral Principles. Duties to Ourselves?
2. NATURAL LAW AND DIVINE COMMANDS.
Stoicism. Thomas Aquinas. Hobbes. Philippa Foot. The Divine Command Theory. Problems for the Divine Command Theory. Religion and a Meaningful Life.
3. REALISM, NIHILISM, SUBJECTIVISM AND RELATIVISM.
Moral Realism. Moral Nihilism. Moral Subjectivism. Moral Relativism.
4. PSYCHOLOGICAL EGOISM AND MORAL EGOISM.
Commonsense Morality. Psychological Egoism. Moral Egoism.
Act Utilitarianism. Rule Utilitarianism. Problems for All Versions of Utilitarianism.
6. KANTIAN MORAL THEORY.
Kant and the Good Will. Actions and Maxims. The Categorical Imperative.
7. VIRTUE AND VICE.
Which Are the Virtues, Which Are the Vices? Aristotle on Virtue. the Unity of Virtue. Epicureans. Stoicism. Hobbes and Hume. The Seven Deadly Sins. Virtues as Dispositions to Obey Moral Rules. Virtue and Vice in Hinduism: Ahimsa. Virtue and Vice in Buddhism. Character and Freedom.
8. HUMAN RIGHTS.
Assaults on Human Dignity. Rights. The United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Classification of Rights. John Stuart Mill and the Harm Principle. Feinberg: Four Possible Principles Legitimating Coercion. Seven Basic Freedoms. Subsistence Rights.
9. FEMINISM AND SEXUAL EQUALITY.
Patriarchy. First Wave Feminism in the United States. Second Wave Feminism in the United States. The Current State of Women in the United States. Women Outside the United States. Contemporary Feminist Theory: The Third Wave. Liberal Feminism. The Ideal of Androgyny. International Documents on Women''s Rights. Male Justice versus Female Care Approaches to Moral Decision Making. Are Justice and Care Approaches Incompatible?
INTERLUDE: MORAL DECISION MAKING.
INTERLUDE: THINKING ABOUT CASE STUDIES.
McWane, Inc. Death and Tobacco. Allegations of Unethical Pharmaceutical Studies in Nigeria. Terrorism, Interrogation, and Torture. Insurance Fraud. Police Brutality in New York City. Prosecutor Withholds Evidence from the Defense. Florida Ban on Gay Adoptions. Tainted Evidence? The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment. Embryonic Stem Cell Research. Nancy Cruzan. The Philadelphia Head-Injury Studies on Primates.
10. MORALITY AND SEX.
Sex Without Marriage. Sex and Happiness. Moral Duties within Sexual Relationships. The Double Standard. Pornography. Adultery. Prostitution. Homosexuality.
11. LIFE AND DEATH ISSUES.
Abortion. Suicide. Euthanasia.
12. ECONOMIC INEQUALITY, POVERTY AND EQUAL OPPORTUNITY.
Is Too Much Economic Inequality Morally Wrong? Is Poverty in the Midst of Affluence Morally Wrong? Equal Opportunity. Justice, Fairness, and Taxes.
13. RACISM AND AFFIRMATIVE ACTION.
Solutions to Racism.
Social Protection. Desert. Competence: Age, Mental Health, and Intelligence.
15. WAR AND PEACE.
Peace. The Just War Tradition. Justice in Waging War. Justice in the Aftermath of War. Unconventional Weapons. Deterrence.
16. ETHICS AND ENVIRONMENT.
Environmental Threats. International Declarations and Agreements on the Environment. Creating a Sustainable Society. Environmental Racism and Justice. Life-Centered vs. Human-Centered Environmental Ethics.