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The most up-to-date and comprehensive reader in theoretical ethics available today, ETHICAL THEORY provides students with more than 70 of the most influential readings in classical and contemporary ethics. Using a pro and con format, with detailed introductions and argument summaries, ETHICAL THEORY provides students with an authoritative yet reader-friendly introduction to pivotal ethical debates. Moving from fundamental arguments about the nature and status of ethics, to normative theories such as utilitarianism and virtue ethics, to contemporary debates over moral realism, religion, and sociobiology, this text reflects the evolving needs of college instructors and students.
- This edition reflects the continually evolving needs of college instructors and students. First, and perhaps most significantly, this book now includes the complete texts of Kant's Groundwork and Mill's Utilitarianism, expanded significantly from the excerpts in previous editions. Also, the selections from Aristotle's Nichomachean Ethics have been expanded to include the complete text of books 1-4.
- New essays included in this edition are the following: II.2 Plato, "Objective Moral Forms" (the divided line) from The RepublicIII.3 Joseph Butler, "Against Egoism" from Fifteen SermonsIII.4 Joel Feinberg, "Psychological Egoism"IV.8 Carol Gilligan, "Women’s Conception of Self and of Morality" IV.9 Sarah Clark Miller, "The Need for Care: Gender in Moral Theory"V.1 Epicurus, "Pleasure" from Letter to MenoeceusIX.5 John Searle, "How to Derive 'Ought' from 'Is'"XI.2 David Hume, "Morality Independent from Religion" excerpted from Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion, The Natural History of Religion, and "Of National Characters"
- Succinct general introductions and individual abstracts accompany each article and provide readers with helpful insights to the most crucial points found in each reading.
- Inclusion of lively, student-accessible articles interspersed with more challenging pieces provides pacing and material appropriate for a wide range of students.
- The book's dialogical organization ensures a carefully balanced range of perspectives on key issues in ethics.
- This book is now supported by two new technologies. When adopted along with the book, TurnItIn offers an efficient way of preventing plagiarism in student papers, while JoinIn, an interactive classroom response system, offers instructors a way of quickly garnering students' positions on a number of ethical concerns and will keep students in even the largest ethics classes engaged in lectures.
Part I: WHAT IS ETHICS?
Plato: Socratic Morality: Crito.
Part II: ETHICAL RELATIVISM VERSUS ETHICAL OBJECTIVISM.
1. Herodotus: Custom is King.
2. Plato: Objective Moral Forms.
3. Thomas Aquinas: Objectivism: Natural Law.
4. Ruth Benedict: A Defense of Ethical Relativism.
5. Louis Pojman: A Critique of Ethical Relativism.
6. Gilbert Harman: Moral Relativism Defended.
Part III: MORALITY AND SELF-INTEREST.
1. Joseph Butler: Against Egoism.
2. Joel Feinberg: Psychological Egoism.
3. Plato: Why Be Moral?
4. Richard Taylor: On the Socratic Dilemma.
5. David Gauthier: Morality and Advantage.
Part IV: VALUE AND THE SELF.
1. Robert Nozick: The Experience Machine.
2. Richard Taylor: Value and the Origin of Right and Wrong.
3. Friedrich Nietzsche: The Transvaluation of Values.
4. Derek Parfit: What Makes Someone''''s Life Go Best?
5. Thomas Nagel: Value: The View from Nowhere.
6. Derek Parfit: Later Selves and Moral Principles.
7. Bernard Williams: Persons, Character, and Morality.
8. Carol Gilligan: Women’s Conception of Self and of Morality.
9. Sarah Clark Miller: The Need for Care: Gender in Moral Theory.
Part V: UTILITARIANISM.
1. Epicurus: Pleasure.
2. Jeremy Bentham: The Utilitarian Calculus.
3. John Stuart Mill: Utilitarianism (complete).
4. J.J.C. Smart: Extreme and Restricted Utilitarianism.
5. Kai Nielsen: Against Moral Conservatism.
6. Bernard Williams: Against Utilitarianism.
7. John Hospers: Rule-Utilitarianism.
8. Robert Nozick: Side Constraints.
9. Peter Singer: Famine, Affluence and Morality.
Part VI: KANTIAN AND DEONTOLOGICAL SYSTEMS.
1. Immanuel Kant: The Foundation for the Metaphysics of Morals (complete).
2. W. D. Ross: What Makes Right Acts Right?
3. Onora O''''Neill: Kantian Formula of the End in Itself and World Hunger.
4. Thomas Nagel: Moral Luck.
5. Philippa Foot: Morality as a System of Hypothetical Imperatives.
6. Judith Jarvis Thomson: Killing, Letting Die, and the Trolley Problem.
Part VII: CONTRACTARIAN ETHICAL SYSTEMS.
1. Thomas Hobbes: The Leviathan.
2. David Gauthier: Why Contractarianism?
3. John Rawls: Contractualism: Justice as Fairness.
Part VIII: VIRTUE-BASED ETHICAL SYSTEMS.
1. Aristotle: The Ethics of Virtue (Books 1-4 complete).
2. Bernard Mayo: Virtue and the Moral Life.
3. William Frankena: A Critique of Virtue-Based Ethics.
4. Walter Schaller: Are Virtues No More than Dispositions to Obey Moral Rules?
5. Alasdair MacIntyre: The Nature of the Virtues.
6. Susan Wolf: Moral Saints.
7. Louis P. Pojman: In Defense of Moral Saints.
Part IX: THE FACT/VALUE PROBLEM: METAETHICS IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY.
1. David Hume: On Reason and the Emotions: The Fact/Value Distinction.
2. G. E. Moore: Non-Naturalism.
3. A. J. Ayer: Emotivism.
4. R. M. Hare: Prescriptivism: The Structure of Ethics and Morals.
5. John Searle: How to Derive Ought from Is.
6. Geoffrey Warnock: The Object of Morality.
Part X: MORAL REALISM AND THE CHALLENGE OF SKEPTICISM.
1. J.L. Mackie: The Subjectivity of Values.
2. Jonathan Harrison: A Critique of Mackie''s Error Theory.
3. Gilbert Harman: Moral Nihilism.
4. Bruce Russell: Two Forms of Ethical Skepticism.
Part XI: RELIGION AND ETHICS.
1. Plato: Morality and Religion: Euthyphro.
2. David Hume: Morality Independent from Religion.
3. Immanuel Kant: God and Immortality as Necessary Postulates of Morality.
4. George Mavrodes: Religious and the Queerness of Morality.
5. Kai Nielson: Ethics Without God.
Part XII: CONTEMPORARY CHALLENGES TO CLASSICAL ETHICAL THEORY.
A. Sociobiology and the Question of Moral Responsibility.
A.1. Charles Darwin: Ethics and the Descent of Man.
A.2. E.O. Wilson: Sociobiology and Ethics.
A.3. Michael Ruse: Evolution and Ethics: The Sociobiological Approach.
A.4. Elliot Sober: Prospects for an Evolutionary Ethics.
A.5. J.L. Mackie: The Law of the Jungle, Evolution and Morality.
B. The Challenge of Determinism to Moral Responsibility and Desert.
B.1 Louis Pojman: Free Will, Determinism, and Moral Responsibility: A Response to Galen Strawson.
B.2 Richard Taylor: A Libertarian Defense of Free Will and Responsibility.
A Glossary of Ethical Terms.