eBook World War I: The Definitive Encyclopedia and Document Collection, 1st Edition

  • Editor: Spencer C. Tucker
  • Published By:
  • ISBN-10: 1851099654
  • ISBN-13: 9781851099658
  • DDC: 940.3
  • Grade Level Range: 9th Grade - College Senior
  • 1952 Pages | eBook
  • Original Copyright 2015 | Published/Released December 2014
  • This publication's content originally published in print form: 2015
  • Price:  Sign in for price

About

Overview

One hundred years after the beginning of World War I in 1914, this conflict still stands as perhaps the most important event of the 20th century. World War I toppled all of the existing empires at the time, transformed the Middle East, and vaulted the United States to becoming the world's leading economic power. Its effects were profound and lasting-and included outcomes that led to World War II. This multi-volume encyclopedia provides a wide-ranging examination of World War I that covers all of the important battles; key individuals, both civilian and military; weapons and technologies; and diplomatic, social, political, cultural, military, and economic developments. Suitable as a reference tool for high school and undergraduate students as well as faculty members and graduate-level researchers, World War I: The Definitive Encyclopedia and Document Collection offers accessible, in-depth information and up-to-date analyses in a format that lends itself to quick and easy use. The set comprises alphabetically arranged, cross-referenced entries accompanied by further reading selections as well as a comprehensive bibliography. A fifth volume provides chronologically arranged documents and an A-Z index.

Contributors

Contributors

  • Spencer C. Tucker

Table of Contents

Front Cover.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Dedication Page.
About the Editors.
World War I Encyclopedia Editorial Advisory Board.
ABC-CLIO Military History Advisory Board Members.
Contents.
List of Entries.
List of Maps.
Foreword.
Preface.
General Maps.
The Origins of World War I.
The Outbreak of World War I (After June 28, 1914).
World War I Overview.
1: Aa, Battle of the.
2: Abbeville Conference.
3: Abdul Hamid II, Sultan.
4: Aboukir, Cressy, and Hogue, Sinking of.
5: Abyssinia.
6: Aces.
7: Addams, Jane.
8: Aden.
9: Adler, Victor.
10: Adrian, Louis Auguste.
11: Adriatic Theater.
12: Aeronautical Mission, U.S..
13: Afghanistan.
14: Africa, Campaigns in.
15: African Americans.
16: Air Warfare, Fighter Tactics.
17: Air Warfare, Strategic Bombing.
18: Airco DH2 Fighter Aircraft.
19: Aircraft, Bombers.
20: Aircraft, Fighters.
21: Aircraft, Production of.
22: Aircraft, Reconnaissance and Auxiliary.
23: Aircraft, Seaplanes.
24: Aircraft Carriers.
25: Aisne, First Battle of the.
26: Aisne, Second Battle of the.
27: Aisne-Marne Offensive.
28: Aitken, Sir William Maxwell.
29: Alain-Fournier, Henri.
30: Albania.
31: Alberich, Operation.
32: Albert, First Battle of.
33: Albert, Third Battle of.
34: Albert I, King of Belgium.
35: Albion, Operation.
36: Albrecht, Duke of Württemberg.
37: Alcohol.
38: Alderson, Sir Edwin Alfred Hervey.
39: Alekseyev, Mikhail Vasilyevich.
40: Aleppo, Battle of.
41: Alexander Karageorgević, Prince.
42: Alexandra Fyodorovna, Czarina of Russia.
43: Allen, Henry Tureman.
44: Allen, James.
45: Allen, Sir James.
46: Allenby, Sir Edmund Henry Hynman.
47: Alliances, Prewar.
48: Allied Maritime Transport Council.
49: Alpine Warfare.
50: Alsace and Lorraine.
51: Altvater, Vasilii Mikhailovich.
52: Amade, Albert-Gérard-Léon d’.
53: Amara, Battle of.
54: American Battle Monuments Commission.
55: American Federation of Labor.
56: American Legion.
57: American Relief Administration.
58: American Union Against Militarism.
59: American Volunteer Ambulance Units.
60: Amiens Dispatch.
61: Amiens Offensive.
62: Amman Campaign.
63: Amphibious Warfare.
64: Anarchists.
65: Andrássy von Csík-Király, Gyula.
66: Andrew, Abram Piatt.
67: Angell, Sir Ralph Norman.
68: Anglo-German Naval Arms Race.
69: Anglo-Japanese Alliance.
70: Anglo-Russian Entente.
71: Animals.
72: Anthoine, François Paul.
73: Antiaircraft Weapons.
74: Anti-Semitism.
75: Antisubmarine Campaign, Allied Powers.
76: Antivari, Action off.
77: Antwerp, Belgium, Siege of.
78: Anzac.
79: Anzac Convoy.
80: Apollinaire, Guillaume.
81: Apponyi de Nagy-Appony, Albert.
82: Aqaba, Capture of.
83: Arabic, Sinking of.
84: Arab Revolt of 1916–1918.
85: Arctic Theater.
86: Ardennes, Battle of the.
87: Argus, HMS.
88: Arigi, Julius.
89: Armaments Production.
90: Armed Merchant Cruisers.
91: Armenia and the Armenian Massacre.
92: Armistice.
93: Armored Cars.
94: Arnauld de la Perière, Lothar von.
95: Arras, First Battle of.
96: Arras, Second Battle of.
97: Art and the War.
98: Artillery.
99: Artois, First Battle of.
100: Artois, Second Battle of.
101: Artois, Third Battle of.
102: Arz von Straussenburg, Artur.
103: Asdic.
104: Askaris.
105: Asquith, Herbert Henry.
106: Assault Weapons.
107: Atrocities.
108: Aubers Ridge, Battle of.
109: Auffenberg von Komarów, Moritz.
110: Augagneur, Jean Victor.
111: Australia.
112: Australia, Army.
113: Australia, Navy.
114: Austria-Hungary.
115: Austria-Hungary, Air Service.
116: Austria-Hungary, Army.
117: Austria-Hungary, Navy.
118: Austria-Hungary, War Plan.
119: Auxiliary Vessels.
120: Averescu, Alexandru.
121: Avesnes.
122: Aviation, Ground-Attack.
123: Azerbaijan.
124: Bachmann, Gustav.
125: Bacon, Sir Reginald.
126: Badoglio, Pietro.
127: Baghdad, British Capture of.
128: Baker, Newton Diehl.
129: Balch, Emily Greene.
130: Baldwin, Roger Nash.
131: Balfour, Arthur James.
132: Balfour Declaration.
133: Balkan Front.
134: Balkan Wars.
135: Ball, Albert.
136: Balloons, Observation.
137: Baltic Operations, Land.
138: Baltic Operations, Sea.
139: Band-i-Adhaim, Battle of.
140: Bapaume, Second Battle of.
141: Baracca, Francesco.
142: Barbed Wire and Wire Sapping.
143: Barchini Saltatori.
144: Barnett, George.
145: Barrès, Maurice.
146: Baruch, Bernard Mannes.
147: Basra, Capture of.
148: Battisti, Cesare.
149: Battle Cruisers.
150: Battleships.
151: Bauer, Max Hermann.
152: Baxter, Archibald McColl Learmond.
153: Bayonets.
154: Bean, Charles Edwin Woodrow.
155: Beatty, David.
156: Beersheba, Battle of.
157: Beersheba-Gaza Line, Battles of.
158: Behncke, Paul L. Gustav.
159: Belgium.
160: Belgium, Air Service.
161: Belgium, Army.
162: Belgium Overrun.
163: Belgium under German Occupation.
164: Bell, Gertrude Margaret Lowthian.
165: Belleau Wood, Battle of.
166: Below, Fritz von.
167: Below, Otto Ernst Vinzent von.
168: Benedict XV, Pope.
169: Beneš, Edvard.
170: Benson, William Shepherd.
171: Berchtold, Leopold Anton Johann Sigismund Joseph Korsimus Ferdinand.
172: Bergson, Henri.
173: Berlin Conference and Agreement of February 26, 1885.
174: Bernstorff, Johann Heinrich von.
175: Berry au Bac, Battle of.
176: Berthelot, Henri-Mathias.
177: Beseler, Hans Hartwig von.
178: Bethmann-Hollweg, Theobald von.
179: Bettignies, Louise de.
180: Big Bertha.
181: Birch, Sir James Frederick Noel.
182: Birdwood, Sir William Riddell.
183: Bishop, William Avery.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
1: Dallolio, Alfredo.
2: Daly, Daniel Joseph.
3: Damascus, Allied Capture of.
4: Daniels, Josephus.
5: Danilov, Yuri Nikiforovich.
6: Dankl von Krasnik, Viktor.
7: D’Annunzio, Gabriele.
8: Dardanelles Campaign.
9: Dartige du Fournet, Louis René Charles.
10: Daszyn´ski, Ignacy.
11: Debeney, Marie-Eugène.
12: Debs, Eugene Victor.
13: Declarations of War.
14: Defence of the Realm Act.
15: Defense In-Depth.
16: Defensively Armed Merchant Vessels.
17: De Gaulle, Charles.
18: Degoutte, Jean-Marie-Joseph.
19: Delcassé, Théophile.
20: Denikin, Anton Ivanovich.
21: Denmark.
22: Depth Charges.
23: Deraa, Actions Around.
24: de Robeck, Sir John.
25: Destroyers.
26: Deutschland, SMS.
27: de Valera, Éamon.
28: Diaz, Armando.
29: Dickman, Joseph Theodore.
30: Dimitriev, Radko Ruskov.
31: Dimitrijević, Dragutin.
32: Dinant, Belgium, German Occupation of.
33: Dix, Wilhelm Heinrich Otto.
34: Djaved Bey, Mehmed.
35: Djemal Pasha, Ahmed.
36: Dmowski, Roman.
37: Dobro Pole, Battle of.
38: Dogfight.
39: Dogger Bank, Battle of the.
40: Doiran, Battles of.
41: Dolchstosslegende.
42: Dönitz, Karl.
43: Douhet, Giulio.
44: Doullens Conference.
45: Doumenc, Joseph Édouard Aimé.
46: Dover Barrage.
47: Dover Straits, First Battle of.
48: Dover Straits, Second Battle of.
49: Dover Straits, Third Battle of.
50: Dowbór-Mus´Nicki, Józef.
51: Dreadnought, HMS.
52: Dreikaiserbund of 1872.
53: Dreyfus Affair.
54: Driant, Émile Cyprien.
55: Drina River, Battle of the.
56: Drum, Hugh Aloysius.
57: Duan Qirui.
58: Dubail, Auguste Yvon Edmund.
59: Dubois, Pierre Joseph Louis Alfred.
60: Du Bois, William Edward Burghardt.
61: Duchêne, Denis Auguste.
62: Dujaila, Battle of.
63: Dukhonin, Nikolai Nikolaevich.
64: Dunsterforce.
65: Durazzo, First Battle of.
66: Durazzo, Second Battle of.
67: Eastern Front.
68: Easter Rising.
69: Eastman, Crystal.
70: Eastman, Max Forrester.
71: East Prussia, Campaigns in.
72: Eberhardt, andrei Augustovich.
73: Ebert, Friedrich.
74: Egypt.
75: Eichhorn, Hermann von.
76: Einem Genannt von Rothmaler, Karl Wilhelm von.
77: El Arish, Battle of.
78: Ely, Hanson Edward.
79: Emden, SMS.
80: Emmich, Theodor Otto von.
81: English Channel.
82: Entente Cordiale.
83: Enver Pasha.
84: Épehy, Battle of.
85: Erzberger, Matthias.
86: Erzincan, Battle of.
87: Erzurum Offensive.
88: Espionage Act of 1917.
89: Essen, Nikolai Ottovich von.
90: Es Sinn, Battle of.
91: Estienne, Jean-Baptiste Eugène.
92: Estonia.
93: Eugen of Habsburg-Lothringen, Archduke.
94: Evan-Thomas, Sir Hugh.
95: Evert, Aleksei Ermolaevich.
96: Faisal, Prince.
97: Falkenhausen, Ludwig Alexander Friedrich August Philipp.
98: Falkenhayn, Erich Georg Anton Sebastian von.
99: Falklands, Battle of the.
100: Fatherland Party.
101: Faustschlag, Operation.
102: Fayolle, Marie Émile.
103: Ferdinand I, Czar of Bulgaria.
104: Ferdinand I, King of Romania.
105: Ferrié, Gustave.
106: Festubert, Battle of.
107: Film and World War I.
108: Finland.
109: Fisher, Andrew.
110: Fisher, John Arbuthnot.
111: Fiske, Bradley Allen.
112: Flamanda, Battle of.
113: Flamethrowers.
114: Flanders Campaign.
115: Flers-Courcelette, Battle of.
116: Florina, Battle of.
117: Flying Circus.
118: Foch, Ferdinand.
119: Fokker, Anthony Herman Gerard.
120: Fokker Eindecker Fighter Aircraft.
121: Fonck, René Paul.
122: Ford, Henry.
123: Four-Minute Men.
124: Fourteen Points.
125: France.
126: France, Air Service.
127: France, Army.
128: France, Army Mutiny.
129: France, Artillery Shell Shortage in.
130: France, Colonial Troops.
131: France, Navy.
132: France, War Plan XVII.
133: Franchet D’Esperey, Louis-Félix-Marie-François.
134: François, Hermann von.
135: Franco-Prussian War.
136: Franco-Russian Alliance of 1894.
137: Franz Ferdinand, Archduke.
138: Franz Ferdinand, Assassination of.
139: Franz Joseph I, Emperor.
140: Freikorps.
141: French, John Denton Pinkstone.
142: French Empire and the War.
143: French 75 Gun.
144: Freyberg, Bernard Cyril.
145: Friedensturm.
146: Friedrich Maria Albrecht, Archduke of Austria.
147: Fromelles, Battle of.
148: Frontiers, Battle of the.
149: Frunze, Mikhail Vasilyevich.
150: Fuller, John Frederick Charles.
151: Furious, HMS.
152: Gabrys, Juozas.
153: Galicia Campaigns.
154: Gallieni, Joseph-Simon.
155: Gallipoli Campaign.
156: Gallwitz, Max von.
157: Gantt, Henry Laurence.
158: Garrison, Lindley Miller.
159: Garros, Roland.
160: Gauchet, Dominique-Marie.
161: Gaza, First Battle of.
162: Gaza, Second Battle of.
163: Gaza, Third Battle of.
164: Geddes, Sir Eric Campbell.
165: Genevoix, Maurice.
166: George V, King.
167: Gerard, James Watson.
168: German Americans and the War.
169: Germany.
170: Germany, Air Service.
171: Germany, Army.
172: Germany, Navy.
173: Germany, Revolution in.
174: Geyer, Hermann.
175: Gibraltar, Strait of.
176: Gillies, Harold Delf.
177: Giolitti, Giovanni.
178: Gleaves, Albert.
179: Godley, Alexander John.
180: Goeben and Breslau, Escape of.
181: Goethals, George Washington.
182: Goldman, Emma.
183: Goltz, Gustav Adolf Joachim Rüdiger von der.
184: Goltz, Wilhelm Leopold Colmar von der.
185: Gompers, Samuel.
186: Goremykin, Ivan Logginovich.
187: Göring, Hermann.
188: Gorlice-Tarnow Offensive.
189: Gotha G.IV German Bomber.
190: Gotō Shimpei.
191: Gough, Sir Hubert de la Poer.
192: Gough-Calthorpe, Sir Somerset Arthur.
193: Gouraud, Henri Joseph Eugène.
194: Grand Couronné, Battle of.
195: Grand Fleet.
196: Grandmaison, François-Jules Loiseau de.
197: Graves, Robert Ranke.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
1: Kamio Mitsuomi.
2: Kanin, Vasilii Aleksandrovich.
3: Kánya, Kálmán.
4: Karl I, Emperor of Austria.
5: Karlsruhe, Bombing of.
6: Karlsruhe, SMS.
7: Károlyi, Mihály.
8: Katō Takaaki.
9: Kemal, Mustafa.
10: Kemp, Albert Edward.
11: Kerensky, Alexander Fyodorovich.
12: Kerensky Offensive.
13: Keyes, Sir Roger John Brownlow.
14: Keynes, John Maynard.
15: Khadairi Bend, Battle of.
16: Khanaqin, Battle of.
17: Kiel Canal.
18: Kiel Mutiny.
19: Kiggell, Sir Launcelot Edward.
20: Kitchener, Horatio Herbert.
21: Kluck, Alexander von.
22: Kolchak, Aleksandr Vasiliyevich.
23: Kollwitz, Käthe.
24: Kolubara River, Battle of the.
25: Komarów, Battle of.
26: Königsberg, SMS.
27: Körber, Ernst von.
28: Korfanty, Wojciech.
29: Kornilov, Lavr Georgiyevich.
30: Kovel Offensive.
31: Kövess von Kövessháza, Hermann.
32: Kozakov, Aleksandr Alexandrovich.
33: Krafft von Dellmensingen, Konrad.
34: Kramář, Karel.
35: Kraśnik, Battle of.
36: Krauss, Alfred.
37: Kress von Kressenstein, Friedrich Sigismund Georg.
38: Kreuznach Conferences of 1917.
39: Krithia, Battles of.
40: Krivoshein, Alexander Vasilevich.
41: Krobatin, Alexander von.
42: Kucharzewski, Jan.
43: Kuhl, Hermann Joseph von.
44: Kuhlmann, Richard von.
45: Kummer von Falkenfeld, Heinrich.
46: Kun, Béla.
47: Kurland Offensive.
48: Kuropatkin, Aleksey Nikolayevich.
49: Kut, First Battle of.
50: Kut, Second Battle of.
51: Kut, Siege of.
52: Lacaze, Marie-Jean-Lucien.
53: Lafayette Escadrille.
54: Lake, Sir Percival Henry.
55: Lake Naroch, Battle of.
56: Lake Prespa, Battle of.
57: Lake Tanganyika, Battles for.
58: La Malmaison, Battle of.
59: Lammasch, Heinrich.
60: Landships Committee.
61: Langemarck, Battle of.
62: Langle de Cary, Fernand Louis Armand Marie de.
63: Lanrezac, Charles-Louis-Marie.
64: Lansing, Robert.
65: Lansing-Ishii Agreement.
66: Latin America and the War.
67: Latvia.
68: Laurier, Sir Wilfrid.
69: Lausanne, Treaty of.
70: Lawrence, Thomas Edward.
71: Laws of Warfare.
72: League of Nations.
73: Le Cateau, Battle of.
74: Legacy of the War.
75: Le Hamel, Battle of.
76: Leipzig War Crimes Trials.
77: Lejeune, John Archer.
78: Leman, Gérard Mathieu.
79: Lenin, Vladimir.
80: Leopold Maximilian Joseph Maria Arnulf, Prince of Bavaria.
81: Le Prieur Rocket.
82: Lettow-Vorbeck, Paul Emil von.
83: Levetzow, Magnus von.
84: Lewis, Percy Wyndham.
85: Lewis Gun.
86: Liberia.
87: Liberty Loans.
88: Lichnowsky, Karl Max von.
89: Liebknecht, Karl.
90: Liège, Siege of.
91: Liggett, Hunter.
92: Lighter-Than-Air Craft.
93: Liman von Sanders, Otto.
94: Linsingen, Alexander von.
95: Lippmann, Walter.
96: Literature and World War I.
97: Lithuania.
98: Little Willie.
99: Litvinov, Alexander.
100: Livens Projector.
101: Lloyd George, David.
102: Lodge, Henry Cabot.
103: Łódź, Battle of.
104: Logistics.
105: London, German Bombing of.
106: London, Treaty of.
107: Lone Pine, Battle of.
108: Lorraine, French Invasion of.
109: Lossberg, Fritz von.
110: Lost Battalion.
111: Lost Generation.
112: Louvain, Destruction of.
113: Luckner, Felix von.
114: Ludendorff, Erich Friedrich Wilhelm.
115: Ludendorff Offensives.
116: Ludwig III, King of Bavaria.
117: Lufbery, Raoul Gervais.
118: Lugard, Frederick John Dealtry.
119: Lusitania, Sinking of.
120: Lutsk, Battle of.
121: Luxembourg.
122: Luxemburg, Rosa.
123: Lvov, Georgy Yevgenyevich.
124: Lyautey, Louis-Hubert-Gonzalve.
125: Lys Offensive.
126: Ma’an, Siege of.
127: Maastricht Appendix.
128: MacArthur, Douglas.
129: MacDonald, James Ramsay.
130: Machine Guns.
131: Mackensen, Ludwig August Friedrich von.
132: Madden, Sir Charles.
133: Magdeburg, SMS.
134: Maghar Ridge, Battle of.
135: Maginot, André.
136: Mahiwa, Battle of.
137: Maistre, Paul André Marie.
138: Makino Nobuaki.
139: Maklakov, Nikolai Alekseevich.
140: Malinov, Aleksandar.
141: Malvy, Louis-Jean.
142: Mandates.
143: Mangin, Charles-Marie-Emmanuel.
144: Manifesto of the Ninety-Three.
145: Mannerheim, Carl Gustav Emil.
146: Mannock, Edward Corringham.
147: Manzikert, Battle of.
148: March, Peyton Conway.
149: March First Movement.
150: Marghiloman, Alexandru.
151: Marne, First Battle of the.
152: Marne, Second Battle of the.
153: Marshall, George Catlett.
154: Marshall, Thomas Riley.
155: Marshall, Sir William Raine.
156: Marterer, Ferdinand von.
157: Martinengo, Federico Carlo.
158: Martin-Leake, Arthur.
159: Marwitz, Georg Kornelius Adalbert von der.
160: Masaryk, Tomáš Garrigue.
161: MAS Boats.
162: Massey, William Ferguson.
163: Masterman, Charles.
164: Masurian Lakes, First Battle of the.
165: Masurian Lakes, Second Battle of the.
166: Mata Hari.
167: Maubeuge, Siege of.
168: Maude, Sir Frederick Stanley.
169: Maud’huy, Louis Ernest de.
170: Maunoury, Michel Joseph.
171: Maurras, Charles Marie Photius.
172: Maxse, Sir Frederick Ivor.
173: Max von Baden.
174: Maxwell, Sir John Grenfell.
175: May Fourth Movement.
176: Mayo, Henry Thomas.
177: McAdoo, William Gibbs.
178: McCrae, John.
179: McKenna, Reginald.
180: Medicine in the War.
181: Medina, Siege of.
182: Mediterranean Theater Naval Operations.
183: Megiddo, Battle of.
184: Mehmed V.
185: Mehmed VI.
186: Menin Gate.
187: Menin Road, Battle of.
188: Merchant Shipping.
189: Mercier, Désiré-Joseph.
190: Mesopotamian Theater.
191: Messines Ridge, Battle of.
192: Metaxas, Ioannis.
193: Methuen, Paul Sanford.
194: Meuse-Argonne Offensive.
195: Mexico.
196: Michaelis, Georg.
197: Michel, Victor.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
1: Race to the Sea.
2: Racial Equality Clause Controversy.
3: Radio.
4: Radoslavov, Vasil Hristov.
5: Railroads.
6: Railway Artillery.
7: Ramadi, Battles of.
8: Rankin, Jeannette Pickering.
9: Rapallo Conference.
10: Rasputin, Grigory Yefimovich.
11: Rathenau, Walther.
12: Rawlinson, Sir Henry Seymour.
13: Raynal, Sylvain-Eugène.
14: Recruiting Posters.
15: Red Cross.
16: Red Scare.
17: Reichstag Peace Resolution.
18: Reims, France, German Bombardment of.
19: Religion and the War.
20: Remarque, Erich Maria.
21: Rennenkampf, Pavel Karlovich.
22: Reparations.
23: Reuter, Ludwig von.
24: Rhineland, Allied Occupation of.
25: Ribot, Alexandre.
26: Rice Riots in Japan.
27: Richthofen, Manfred Albrecht von.
28: Rickenbacker, Edward Vernon.
29: Riezler, Kurt.
30: Rifles.
31: Riga, Battle of.
32: Rize Landing.
33: Rizzo, Luigi.
34: Robertson, Sir William Robert.
35: Rodman, Hugh.
36: Rodzianko, Mikhail Vladimirovich.
37: Rohr, Wilhelm Martin.
38: Rohr von Denta, Franz.
39: Rolland, Romain.
40: Romani, Battle of.
41: Romania.
42: Romania, Army.
43: Romania, Navy.
44: Romanian Campaign of 1916.
45: Rome Congress of Oppressed Nationalities.
46: Rommel, Erwin Johannes Eugen.
47: Ronarc’h, Pierre-Alexis-Marie-Antoine.
48: Room 40.
49: Roosevelt, Franklin Delano.
50: Roosevelt, Theodore.
51: Roques, Pierre Auguste.
52: Rothschild, Edmond de.
53: Rufiji Delta Campaign.
54: Ruhr, French Occupation of.
55: Rupprecht von Bayern, Crown Prince of Bavaria.
56: Russell, Sir Andrew Hamilton.
57: Russell, Bertrand Arthur William.
58: Russia.
59: Russia, Air Service.
60: Russia, Allied Intervention in.
61: Russia, Army.
62: Russia, Navy.
63: Russia, War Plan of 1914.
64: Russian Baltic Fleet Mutiny.
65: Russian Civil War.
66: Russian Revolution of 1905.
67: Russian Revolution of March 1917.
68: Russian Revolution of November 1917.
69: Russo-Japanese War.
70: Ruzsky, Nikolai Vladimirovich.
71: Rydz-Śmigły, Edward.
72: Sabotage.
73: Sabotage Act of 1918, U.S..
74: Sainte Addresse, Declaration of.
75: Saint-Germain, Treaty of.
76: Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne Conference.
77: Saint-Mihiel Offensive.
78: Saint-Quentin Canal, Battle of.
79: Saint-Quentin Offensive.
80: Saionji Kinmochi.
81: Salandra, Antonio.
82: Salonika Front.
83: Salvation Army.
84: Samarrah Offensive.
85: Sambre Offensive.
86: Samson, Charles Rumley.
87: Samsonov, Aleksandr Vasiliyevich.
88: San Giuliano, Antonino di.
89: Sari Bair, Battle of.
90: Sarikamis̨, Battle of.
91: Sarkotic von Lovcen, Stefan.
92: Sarrail, Maurice-Paul-Emmanuel.
93: Sassoon, Siegfried Loraine.
94: Satō Kōzō.
95: Savoia, Luigi Amedeo di.
96: Sazonov, Sergey Dmitriyevich.
97: Scandinavia.
98: Scapa Flow.
99: Scapa Flow, Scuttling of the German Fleet at.
100: Scarborough Raid.
101: Scheer, Reinhard.
102: Scheer Program.
103: Scheidemann, Philipp.
104: Schenck V. United States.
105: Schlieffen, Alfred von.
106: Schlieffen Plan.
107: Schmidt, Erhard.
108: Schmidt von Knobelsdorf, Konstantin.
109: Schönburg-Hartenstein, Alois von.
110: Schröder, August Ludwig von.
111: Second International.
112: 2nd Special Squadron.
113: Sedition Act of 1918, U.S..
114: Seeadler, SMS.
115: Seeckt, Johannes Friedrich Leopold Hans von.
116: Seeger, Alan.
117: Seicheprey, Battle of.
118: Seidler von Feuchtenegg, Ernst Ritter.
119: Selective Service Act of 1917, U.S..
120: Selle, Battle of the.
121: Senussi and Sultan of Darfur Rebellions.
122: Serbia.
123: Serbia, Army.
124: Serbia, Conquest of.
125: Sèvres, Treaty of.
126: Shaiba, Battle of.
127: Shandong Settlement.
128: Sharp, William Graves.
129: Shcherbachev, Dmitry Grigorevich.
130: Sheikh Sa’ad, Battle of.
131: Shell Shock.
132: Shiala, Battle of.
133: Shuvaev, Dmitry Savelevich.
134: Siberian Intervention.
135: Siegfriedstellung.
136: Sikorsky, Igor.
137: Sikorsky Ilya Muromets Heavy Bomber.
138: Sims, William Sowden.
139: Sinai Campaign.
140: Sinclair, Upton Beall, Jr..
141: Singapore Mutiny.
142: Sixtus, Prince of Bourbon-Parma.
143: Sixtus Affair.
144: Sixt von Arnim, Friedrich Bertram.
145: Skoropadsky, Pavlo Petrovich.
146: Slava, Russian Battleship.
147: Slovaks, Wartime Role and the Formation of Czechoslovakia.
148: Smith-Dorrien, Sir Horace Lockwood.
149: Smuts, Jan Christian.
150: Snipers.
151: Solf, Wilhelm Heinrich.
152: Somme, Battle of the.
153: Sonnino, Giorgio Sidney.
154: Sopwith, Sir Thomas.
155: Sopwith F.1 Camel.
156: Sorley, Charles Hamilton.
157: Souchon, Wilhelm.
158: Spain.
159: Spartacus League.
160: Spee, Maximilian Johannes Maria Hubert von.
161: Sports and Athletics.
162: Spring-Rice, Sir Cecil Arthur.
163: Stalin, Joseph.
164: Stallupönen, Battle of.
165: Stamboliyski, Aleksandar.
166: Stanley, Edward George Villiers.
167: Stavka.
168: Stein, Hermann von.
169: Stinnes, Hugo.
170: Stockholm Conference.
171: Stöger-Steiner von Steinstatten, Rudolf.
172: Stokes Mortar.
173: Storm Troops.
174: Stowers, Freddie.
175: Stresemann, Gustav.
176: Strypa River, First Battle of the.
177: Strypa River, Second Battle of the.
178: Sturdee, Sir Frederick Charles Doveton.
179: Stürgkh, Karl von.
180: Stürmer, Boris Vladimirovich.
181: Submarines.
182: Submarine Warfare, Allied Powers.
183: Submarine Warfare, Central Powers.
184: Sueter, Sir Murray Frazer.
185: Suez Canal.
186: Sukhomlinov, Vladimir Aleksandrovich.
187: Summerall, Charles Pelot.
188: Supreme War Council.
189: Sussex, Torpedoing of.
190: Suvla Bay Offensive.
191: Sweden.
192: Swinton, Sir Ernest Dunlop.
193: Switzerland.
194: Sykes-Picot Agreement.
195: Szőgyény-Marich de Magyar-Szőgyén Et Szolgaegyháza, László.
196: Tabora Offensive.
197: Tafila, Battle of.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Section 1: World War I Documents (Up to 1913).
1. The Treaty of London (Excerpts), April 19, 1839.
2. The Idea of Progress: Herbert Spencer, The Study of Sociology (1873).
3. The Dual Alliance between Austria-Hungary and Germany, October 7, 1879.
4. The Three Emperors League, June 18, 1881.
5. The Austro-Serbian Alliance, June 16 [28], 1881.
6. The Triple Alliance (First Eight Articles), May 20, 1882.
7. The Reinsurance Treaty between Germany and Russia, June 18, 1887.
8. The Franco-Russian Alliance Military Convention, August 18, 1892.
9. Theodore Roosevelt, “the Strenuous Life”: Address to the Hamilton Club, Chicago, April 10, 1899.
10. The Entente Cordiale between Great Britain and France, April 8, 1904.
11. William James, “The Moral Equivalent of War,” 1910.
12. Agreement between the United Kingdom and Japan, July 13, 1911.
13. General Helmuth von Moltke, Chief of Staff of the German Army, Memorandum, December 1912.
14. Norman Angell, The Great Illusion, 1912.
15. Extract from General Friedrich von Bernhardi, Our Future: A Word of Warning to Germans (1912).
16. Homer Lea, The Day of the Saxon (1912).
Section 2: World War I Documents (January–August 1914).
17. Austrian Official Report on the Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, June 28, 1914.
18. Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria-Hungary to Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany, July 2, 1914.
19. “The Blank Check”: German Imperial Chancellor Theobald von Bethmannhollweg to the German Ambassador at Vienna, Heinrich von Tschirschky, Sent from Berlin, July 6, 1914.
20. The Austro-Hungarian Ultimatum to Serbia, July 23, 1914.
21. Russian Memorandum of Advice to Serbia: Extract from the Special Journal of the Council of Ministers, July 24 [11], 1914.
22. The Serbian Response to the Austro-Hungarian Ultimatum, July 25, 1914.
23. The Austro-Hungarian Declaration of War on Serbia: Telegram from Count Leopold von Berchtold, Austro-Hungarian Minister of Foreign Affairs, to M. N. Pashitch, Serbian Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs, July 28, 1914.
24. The Pledge Plan: Telegram 174 from the Imperial Chancellor, Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg, to the German Ambassador at Vienna, Heinrich von Tschirschky, Sent from Berlin, July 28, 1914.
25. Helmuth von Moltke, Chief of the German General Staff, to Imperial Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg, July 29, 1914.
26. The Willy-Nicky Telegrams, July 29–August 1, 1914.
27. British Foreign Secretary Sir Edward Grey to Sir Francis Bertie, British Ambassador to France, July 31, 1914.
28. The German Declaration of War on Russia, August 1, 1914.
29. Germany’s Ultimatum: The German Request for Free Passage Through Belgium, August 2, 1914.
30. Treaty of Alliance between Germany and Turkey, August 2, 1914.
31. The Belgian Refusal of Free Passage, August 3, 1914.
32. The German Declaration of War on France: Wilhelm von Schoen, German Ambassador in Paris, to French Prime Minister René Viviani, August 3, 1914.
33. The “Scrap of Paper”: Sir Edward Goschen, British Ambassador in Berlin, to British Foreign Secretary Sir Edward Grey, August 4, 1914.
34. John Maynard Keynes on Globalization: The Economic Consequences of the Peace (1919).
35. Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan to President Woodrow Wilson, August 10, 1914.
36. British Secretary of War Lord Kitchener Anticipates a Long War, August 13, 1914.
37. Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan to J. P. Morgan and Company, August 15, 1914.
38. President Woodrow Wilson, “An Appeal to the American People: Message to the United States Congress,” August 18, 1914.
39. “The Contemptible Little Army”: Kaiser Wilhelm II, Army Order, August 19, 1914.
40. Robert Musil, Extract from Notebook, August 1914.
41. Rupert Brooke, War Sonnets, 1914.
Section 3: World War I Documents (September–December 1914).
42. The First Engagement in Submarine Warfare: German and British Perspectives, September 22, 1914.
43. Acting Secretary of State Robert Lansing, Memorandum of a Conversation with the President at 8:30 This Evening Relative to Loans and Bank Credits to Belligerent Governments, October 23, 1914.
44. Turkey Declares War on the Allies: Proclamation by Sultan Mehmed, October 29, 1914.
45. Turkey, Official Rejection of Treaties of Dependence, October 29, 1914.
46. German Rear Admiral G. Schlieper Describes the Japanese Capture of Qingdao, November 7, 1914.
47. British Admiralty, Declaration of North Sea War Zone, November 3, 1914.
48. Vladimir Lenin, “The War and Russian Social Democracy,” November 1914.
49. The British Finance Act (Session 2), November 27, 1914.
50. German Propaganda: Austro-German Proclamation to Russian Troops, 1914 or Early 1915.
Section 4: World War I Documents (1915).
51. Agreement between the British Government and J. P. Morgan and Company, January 15, 1915.
52. The Japanese Government’s “Twenty-One Demands” on China, January 18, 1915.
53. German Admiralty Declaration, February 4, 1915.
54. Russian War Aims: Memorandum from the British Embassy at Petrograd to the Russian Government, March 12 [February 27], 1915.
55. The Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs to the Russian Ambassador at London, Count Aleksandr de Benckendorff, March 7 [20], 1915.
56. Platform for “League of Peace” Adopted at the Century Club, as Revised by William Howard Taft the Following Morning, April 9, 1915.
57. The Treaty of London, April 26, 1915.
58. German Use of Gas, April 1915: Report of British Field Marshal Sir John French on the Second Battle of Ypres, June 15, 1915.
59. Rosa Luxemburg, The Junius Pamphlet, Written April 1915, Published in Zurich in February 1916, and Illegally Distributed in Germany.
60. Tomas G. Masaryk, Independent Bohemia, Confidential Memorandum, April 1915.
61. “Too Proud to Fight”: President Woodrow Wilson, Address in Philadelphia to Newly Naturalized Citizens, May 10, 1915.
62. The First Lusitania Note Sent by the U.S. Government to the Imperial German Government, May 13, 1915.
63. German Foreign Minister Gottlieb von Jagow, Reply to the First Lusitania Note, May 28, 1915.
64. The Second Lusitania Note: The U.S. Government to the German Minister of Foreign Affairs, Gottlieb von Jagow, June 9, 1915.
65. Secretary of State Robert Lansing to President Woodrow Wilson, September 6, 1915.
66. President Woodrow Wilson to Secretary of State Robert Lansing, September 8, 1915.
67. The Arabic Crisis: German Ambassador to Washington Count Johann Heinreich Von Bernstorff to Secretary of State Robert Lansing, October 5, 1915.
68. Sir Henry McMahon, British High Commissioner in Cairo, to Hussein ibn Ali, Sharif of Mecca, October 24, 1915.
69. Jane Addams to President Woodrow Wilson, October 29, 1915.
70. Colonel Edward M. House to President Woodrow Wilson, November 10, 1915, and Wilson Cable to House, November 11, 1915.
71. President Woodrow Wilson, Annual State of the Union Message, December 7, 1915.
72. Mary, Countess of Wemyss, to Arthur J. Balfour, December 22, 1915.
73. John Mccrae, “In Flanders Fields,” December 1915.
74. Charles Hamilton Sorley, “When You See Millions of the Mouthless Dead,” Circa 1915.
Section 5: World War I Documents (1916).
75. Antiwar American Labor Activists: The Industrial Workers of the World.
76. The British Military Service Act, January 27, 1916.
77. The Gore Resolution: Senate Concurrent Resolution 14, February 17, 1916.
78. Eugene V. Debs, “The Prospect for Peace,” American Socialist, February 19, 1916.
79. The Battle of Verdun, February–December 1916: General Erich Von Falkenhayn, Account of the Beginning of Verdun, February–May 1916.
80. The House-Grey Memorandum: Confidential Memorandum of Sir Edward Grey, February 22, 1916.
81. The German Ministry of War, Instruction XXI to the Press, J.-Nr.123/16.IV/M, February 25, 1916.
82. Edward T. Devine, “Social Preparedness,” The Survey, March 18, 1916.
83. Beatrice Webb on Pacifism: Diary Entry, April 8, 1916.
84. Secretary of State Robert Lansing to James W. Gerard, U.S. Ambassador in Germany, Transmitting the Sussex Note to the German Government, April 18, 1916.
85. The Sinn Féin Uprising, Easter 1916: Proclamation Issued in Dublin and Signed by Padraic Pearse and Six Others, April 24, 1916.
86. ”The Sussex Pledge”: German Foreign Minister Gottlieb Von Jagow, Note for the U.S. Government, May 4, 1916.
87. The Sykes-Picot Agreement: Sir Edward Grey to Paul Cambon, May 15–16, 1916.
88. President Woodrow Wilson, Address to the League to Enforce Peace, Washington, DC, May 27, 1916.
89. King Hussein, Sharif of the Hejaz, Proclamation Published in Mecca, June 27, 1916.
90. Lord Bryce on the Armenian Massacres, June 1916.
91. Sir Douglas Haig, Second Dispatch on the Somme Campaign of July–November 1916, December 23, 1916.
92. The War Spirit: Walter Hines Page, U.S. Ambassador in London, to President Woodrow Wilson, July 21, 1916.
93. Romania Joins the Allies: The Treaty of Bucharest and Associated Military Convention, August 4 [17], 1916.
94. John Maynard Keynes, “The Financial Depende