eBook The Encyclopedia Of the War Of 1812: A Political, Social, and Military History, 1st Edition

  • Spencer C. Tucker Texas Christian University
  • Published By:
  • ISBN-10: 1851099573
  • ISBN-13: 9781851099573
  • DDC: 973.5
  • Grade Level Range: 9th Grade - College Senior
  • 1034 Pages | eBook
  • Original Copyright 2012 | Published/Released December 2012
  • This publication's content originally published in print form: 2012
  • Price:  Sign in for price

About

Overview

This work is the most comprehensive reference work on the War of 1812 yet published, offering a multidisciplinary treatment of course, causes, effects, and specific details of the War that provides both quick reference and in-depth analysis for readers from the high school level to scholars in the field.

Table of Contents

Front Cover.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Dedication.
Contents.
About the Editors.
Editorial Advisory Board Members.
ABC-CLIO Military History Advisory Board Members.
List of Entries.
List of Maps.
Preface.
General Maps.
Introduction.
Overview of the War of 1812.
1: Adair, John.
2: Adams, John Quincy.
3: Admiralty, High Court of.
4: Admiralty Board.
5: African Americans.
6: Akwesasne and French Mills, Skirmishes at.
7: Alabama.
8: Alexandria, Virginia, British Capture of.
9: Algerine War.
10: Allan, William.
11: Allen, William Henry.
12: Allen, William Howard.
13: Alston, Joseph.
14: Amelia Island.
15: American Fur Company.
16: Ancaster Assize.
17: Antiwar Sentiment, U.S..
18: Apalachicola River.
19: Appling, Daniel.
20: Armistead, George.
21: Armistice Agreement.
22: Armstrong, John, Jr..
23: Armstrong, Robert.
24: Art.
25: Artillery, Land.
26: Artillery, Sea.
27: Artillery Ammunition, Land.
28: Artillery Ammunition, Sea.
29: Artillery Practice, Land.
30: Artillery Tactics, Land.
31: Aspinwall, Thomas.
32: Astor, John Jacob.
33: Autosse, Battle of.
34: Bacon, Ezekiel.
35: Bainbridge, William.
36: Baker, Louisa.
37: Baldwin, William.
38: Baltimore, Battle of.
39: Baltimore Riots.
40: Banking in Canada and Great Britain.
41: Banking in the United States.
42: Baratarian Pirates.
43: Barbour, James.
44: Barclay, Robert Heriot.
45: Barclay, Thomas.
46: Baring, Alexander, First Lord Ashburton.
47: Barker, Jacob.
48: Barlow, Joel.
49: Barney, Joshua.
50: Barrie, Robert.
51: Barron, James.
52: Basden, James Lewis.
53: Bathurst, Henry, Third Earl Bathurst.
54: Bayard, James Asheton.
55: Baynes, Edward.
56: Bayonet.
57: Beanes, William.
58: Beasley, Daniel.
59: Beaumont, William.
60: Beaver Dams, Battle of.
61: Belligerent Rights at Sea.
62: Belvidera, HMS, Capture of USS Vixen.
63: Benton, Thomas Hart.
64: Berkeley, George Cranfield.
65: Bermuda.
66: Bibb, William Wyatt.
67: Biddle, James.
68: Biddle, Nicholas.
69: Biddle, Thomas.
70: Bigelow, Abijah.
71: Big Warrior.
72: Bisshopp, Cecil.
73: Black Hawk.
74: Black Hoof.
75: Black Rock, New York.
76: Black Swamp.
77: Bladensburg, Battle of.
78: Blakeley, Johnston.
79: Block Island.
80: Bloomfield, Joseph.
81: Blount, Willie.
82: Blue-Light Affair.
83: Blue-Light Federalists.
84: Boerstler, Charles G..
85: Bomb Vessel.
86: Boyd, John Parker.
87: Boyle, Thomas.
88: Brady, Hugh.
89: Brig.
90: Brigantine.
91: British North America.
92: Brock, Sir Isaac.
93: Broke, Sir Philip Bowes Vere, First Baronet.
94: Brooke, Sir Arthur.
95: Brooke, George Mercer.
96: Brown, Jacob Jennings.
97: Brown, Noah.
98: Brownstown, Battle of.
99: Bruyeres, Ralph Henry.
100: Buffalo and Black Rock, New York, Destruction of.
101: Bulger, Andrew H..
102: Burbeck, Henry.
103: Burlington, Canada.
104: Burlington, Vermont.
105: Burlington Beach, Engagement at.
106: Burlington Races, Battle of.
107: Burns, Otway.
108: Burnt Corn Creek, Battle of.
109: Burrows, William.
110: Butler, William Orlando.
111: Cabot, George.
112: Cadet Gray.
113: Cadore Letter.
114: Calabee, Battle of.
115: Caldwell, William.
116: Caledonia and Detroit, HMS, Capture of.
117: Calhoun, John Caldwell.
118: Campbell, George Washington.
119: Campbell, John B..
120: Campbell’s Island, Battle of.
121: Camp Blount.
122: Canada, American Immigrants to.
123: Canada, Enemy Aliens in.
124: Canada and the Causation of the War of 1812.
125: Canada and the Prosecution of the War of 1812.
126: Canard River Skirmish.
127: Canning, George.
128: Cannon Founding.
129: Carden, John Surman.
130: Carmick, Daniel.
131: Carroll, William.
132: Carronade.
133: Cass, Lewis.
134: Castine, Maine.
135: Casualties.
136: Caulk’s Field, Battle of.
137: Causes of the War of 1812.
138: Cavalry and Light Dragoons.
139: Chads, Henry Ducie.
140: Chandler, John.
141: Chapin, Cyrenius.
142: Châteauguay, Battle of.
143: Chauncey, Isaac.
144: Chausser.
145: Cherokees.
146: Chesapeake Bay Campaign, First.
147: Chesapeake Bay Campaign, Second.
148: Chesapeake-Leopard Affair.
149: Cheves, Langdon.
150: Chickasaws.
151: Chippawa, Battle of.
152: Chittenden, Martin.
153: Choctaws.
154: Claghorn, George.
155: Claiborne, Ferdinand Leigh.
156: Claiborne, William Charles Cole.
157: Clark, William.
158: Claus, William.
159: Clay, Green.
160: Clay, Henry.
161: Clinton, DeWitt.
162: Clinton, George.
163: Clintonians.
164: Cobbett, William.
165: Cochrane, Sir Alexander Forrester Inglis.
166: Cockburn, Sir George.
167: Cocke, John Hartwell.
168: Codrington, Edward.
169: Coffee, John.
170: Colonial Marines.
171: Colpoys, Sir Edward Griffith.
172: Columbiad.
173: Combs, Leslie.
174: Commissariat.
175: Congress, U.S..
176: Congreve Rocket.
177: Conjocta Creek, Battle of.
178: Connecticut.
179: Conner, David.
180: Conscription.
181: Constitution, USS.
182: Constitution, USS, Chase of by HMS Shannon and Squadron.
183: Constitution, USS, vs. HMS Cyane and Levant.
184: Constitution, USS, vs. HMS Guerriere.
185: Constitution, USS, vs. HMS Java.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
1: Lacock, Abner.
2: Lacolle Mill, First Battle of.
3: Lacolle Mill, Second Battle of.
4: Lafitte, Jean.
5: Lafitte, Pierre.
6: Lake Borgne, Battle of.
7: Lake Champlain, Battle of.
8: Lake Erie, Battle of.
9: Lake Erie Campaign.
10: Lake Michigan.
11: Lake Ontario Campaigns.
12: Lambert, Henry.
13: Lambert, Sir John.
14: Lawrence, James.
15: Lawrence, William.
16: Leander, HMS, and Squadron vs. USS Levant.
17: Leander, HMS, Capture of USS Rattlesnake.
18: Leavenworth, Henry.
19: Lee, Henry.
20: Legacy of the War of 1812.
21: L’Enfant, Pierre Charles.
22: Letters of Marque and Reprisal.
23: Levy, Uriah Philips.
24: Lewis, Morgan.
25: Lewis, William.
26: Lewiston, New York, Destruction of.
27: Licensed Trade.
28: Literature.
29: Little Prince.
30: Little Turtle.
31: Little Turtle’s War.
32: Live Oaking.
33: Livingston, Edward.
34: Lockyer, Nicholas.
35: Logan, James.
36: Logistics, Great Britain.
37: Logistics, United States.
38: Longwoods, Battle of.
39: Loring, Robert Roberts.
40: Louisiana.
41: Louisiana Purchase.
42: Lovell, Joseph.
43: Lowell, Francis Cabot.
44: Lowell System.
45: Lower Canada.
46: Lowndes, William.
47: Loyal and Patriotic Society of Upper Canada.
48: Lundy’s Lane, Battle of.
49: Lyon, Matthew.
50: MacDonnell, George Richard John.
51: Macdonough, Thomas.
52: Machias, Maine.
53: Mackinac Island.
54: Macomb, Alexander.
55: Macon, Nathaniel.
56: Macon’s Bill No. 2.
57: Madison, Dolley.
58: Madison, James.
59: Maine, British Occupation of.
60: Maine, District of.
61: Main Poc.
62: Majestic, HMS, and Squadron vs. USS President.
63: Marblehead Peninsula, Battle of.
64: Markle, Abraham.
65: Martial Law.
66: Maryland.
67: Mason, Jeremiah.
68: Massachusetts.
69: Mathews, George.
70: McArthur, Duncan.
71: McArthur’s Raid.
72: McClure, George.
73: McDouall, Robert.
74: McIntosh, William.
75: McKay, William.
76: McNeil, John.
77: McQueen, Peter.
78: McRee, William.
79: Medicine, Military.
80: Medina, Battle of.
81: Medway, HMS, Capture of USS Siren.
82: Meigs, Return Jonathan, Jr..
83: Merritt, William Hamilton.
84: Miamis.
85: Michigan Territory.
86: Military Engineering and Architecture.
87: Militia, U.S..
88: Militia and Volunteers, Canadian.
89: Militia Controversy, New England.
90: Miller, James.
91: Miller, John.
92: Mines, Naval.
93: Mississinewa, Battle of.
94: Mississippi River.
95: Mississippi Territory.
96: Missouri Territory.
97: Mitchell, David Brydie.
98: Mitchell, George Edward.
99: Mobile, Battles of.
100: Monguagon, Battle of.
101: Monroe, James.
102: Monroe Doctrine.
103: Monroe-Pinkney Treaty.
104: Montreal.
105: Morris, Charles.
106: Morris, Gouverneur.
107: Morrison, Joseph Wanton.
108: Mortars.
109: Mulcaster, William Howe.
110: Music.
111: Muskets, Great Britain.
112: Muskets, United States.
113: Nancy, HMS, Destruction of.
114: Nantucket.
115: Napier, Sir Charles.
116: Napier, Henry Edward.
117: Napoleon I.
118: Napoleonic Wars.
119: Narcissus, HMS, vs. USS Viper.
120: National Anthem, U.S..
121: National Intelligencer.
122: Native American Policy, British.
123: Native American Policy, U.S..
124: Native Americans.
125: Native American Warfare.
126: Native American Weaponry.
127: Naval Blockade, British.
128: Naval Construction on the Great Lakes.
129: Naval Gunnery Practice.
130: Naval Strategy, Great Britain.
131: Naval Strategy, United States.
132: Naval Weapons, Boarding.
133: New Brunswick Maritime Province.
134: New England.
135: Newfoundland.
136: New Hampshire.
137: New Jersey.
138: New London, Connecticut.
139: New Orleans, Battle of.
140: New Orleans and Chippewa, USS.
141: New York City.
142: New York State.
143: Niagara Campaigns.
144: Niagara Frontier, Destruction of.
145: Niagara River.
146: Nicolls, Edward.
147: Niles’ Weekly Register.
148: Non-Importation Acts of 1806 and 1811.
149: Non-Intercourse Act.
150: Norfolk, Virginia.
151: North Carolina.
152: North Point, Battle of.
153: North West Company.
154: Northwest Ordinances of 1785 and 1787.
155: Norton, John.
156: Nova Scotia.
157: Ogden, Aaron.
158: Ogdensburg, Battle of.
159: Ohio.
160: Ohio River.
161: Old Northwest Territory.
162: Old Republicans.
163: Orders in Council.
164: Orpheus and Shelburne, HMS, vs. USS Frolic.
165: Oswego, Battle of.
166: Otis, Harrison Gray.
167: Pakenham, Sir Edward Michael.
168: Parish, David.
169: Parker, Sir Peter, Second Baronet.
170: Parker, Thomas Alexander.
171: Parliament, Great Britain.
172: Parsons, Usher.
173: Partridge, Alden.
174: Patriot War.
175: Patterson, Daniel Todd.
176: Patuxent River Campaign.
177: Peacock, USS, vs. HMS Epervier.
178: Peacock, USS, vs. HMS Nautilus.
179: Pearson, Sir Thomas.
180: Pelican, HMS, vs. USS Argus.
181: Pennington, William Sanford.
182: Pennsylvania.
183: Penobscot River Expedition.
184: Pensacola, Battle of.
185: Pensacola, West Florida.
186: Peoria, Illinois.
187: Perceval, Spencer.
188: Perry, Oliver Hazard.
189: Peter, George.
190: Phoebe and Cherub, HMS, vs. USS Essex.
191: Pickering, Timothy.
192: Pigeon Roost Massacre.
193: Pike.
194: Pike, Zebulon Montgomery, Jr..
195: Pinckney, Thomas.
196: Pinkney, William.
197: Pistols.
Half Title.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
List of Documents.
1: Documents.
2: Thomas Jefferson, Letter to James Madison on the “Need for a Little Rebellion Now and Then,” January 30, 1787.
3: An Ordinance for the Government of the Territory of the United States Northwest of the River Ohio, July 13, 1787.
4: Fugitive Slave Act, February 12, 1793.
5: George Washington, Proclamation of Neutrality, April 22, 1793.
6: Jay Treaty, November 19, 1794.
7: George Washington, Farewell Address, September 17, 1796 [Excerpt].
8: Alien and Sedition Acts, June–July 1798 [Excerpt].
9: Louisiana Purchase Treaty, April 30, 1803.
10: John Kelsall, Essex Decision: Sentence of British Vice-Admiralty Court, May 1805.
11: Napoleon I, Berlin Decree, November 21, 1806.
12: British Orders in Council, January 7 and November 11, 1807 [Excerpt].
13: Sir George Berkeley, British Order to Search for Deserters on the Chesapeake, June 1, 1807.
14: Thomas Jefferson, Message to Congress on the Chesapeake-Leopard Affair, 1807 [Excerpt].
15: Napoleon I, Milan Decree, December 17, 1807.
16: Embargo Act, December 22, 1807 [Excerpt].
17: Robert Smith, U.S. Secretary of the Navy’s Letter of Instruction to Enforce the Embargo, May 2, 1808.
18: William Cullen Bryant, The Embargo, a Poem, 1808.
19: Non-Intercourse Act, March 1, 1809 [Excerpt].
20: Napoleon I, Rambouillet Decree, March 23, 1810.
21: Nathaniel Macon, Macon’s Bill No. 2, May 1, 1810 [Excerpt].
22: James Madison, State of the Union Address, November 5, 1811.
23: Isaac Naylor, Account by an American Participant in the Battle of Tippecanoe, 1811.
24: Chief Shabonee, Account by an Indian Participant in the Battle of Tippecanoe, 1811.
25: Felix Grundy, Speech Demanding War against Great Britain, 1811 [Excerpt].
26: John Rodgers, Letter on the President–Little Belt Incident, 1811.
27: Tecumseh, Speech to the Osages, 1811.
28: Andrew Jackson, Call for Volunteers, March 7, 1812.
29: Henry Clay, Letter in Support of the War of 1812, April 14, 1812.
30: James Madison, War Message, June 1, 1812 [Excerpt].
31: Act to Prohibit American Vessels from Proceeding to or Trading with the Enemies, July 6, 1812.
32: Declaration of War, June 18, 1812.
33: John Rodgers, Letter Outlining U.S. Naval Strategy during the War of 1812, June 3, 1812.
34: Stephen Decatur, Letter Outlining U.S. Naval Strategy during the War of 1812, June 8, 1812.
35: Robert Fulton, Letter on the Use of Torpedoes, June 22, 1812.
36: Gouverneur Morris, Letter Predicting the Effects of War, June 30, 1812.
37: Paul Hamilton, U.S. Secretary of the Navy’s Letter Reprimanding Captain David Porter, June 30, 1812.
38: William Coleman, New York Evening Post Editorial Arguing against the War of 1812, April 21, 1812 [Excerpt].
39: Federalist Protest to the War of 1812, 1812 [Excerpt].
40: An Act for the Safe Keeping and Accommodation of Prisoners of War, July 6, 1812.
41: William Bainbridge, Letter Describing the Return of Seamen Taken from the Chesapeake, July 11, 1812.
42: William Hull, Proclamation to Inhabitants of Canada, July 12, 1812.
43: Isaac Brock, Canadian Proclamation on the U.S. Declaration of War, July 22, 1812.
44: Isaac Brock, Address to the Canadian Legislature on the Suspension of Civil Rights During Wartime, July 29, 1812.
45: Daniel Webster, the Rockingham Memorial, August 5, 1812.
46: William Hull, General Orders for the Surrender of Detroit, August 16, 1812.
47: Isaac Brock, Official Dispatch No. 7, Giving a Canadian Opinion of Tecumseh, August 29, 1812 [Excerpt].
48: Jane Stinger, Letter Requesting her Husband’s Discharge from the U.S. Navy, August 31, 1812.
49: George Washington Parke Custis, An Address Occasioned by the Death of General Lingan; who was Murdered by the Mob at Baltimore, September 1, 1812.
50: James R. Dacres, Letter Describing the Capture of the Guerriere by the Constitution, September 7, 1812.
51: James Lynch, Letter to the U.S. Secretary of the Navy Offering to Sell Iron, September 25, 1812.
52: Stephen Van Rensselaer, Excerpts from the Official U.S. Report and Letter About the Action at Queenston, October 14 and 20, 1812.
53: Three Condolence Letters on the Death of General Isaac Brock at Queenston, October 16 and November 12, 1812.
54: Nathan Heald, Report on the Fort Dearborn Massacre, October 23, 1812 [Excerpt].
55: The Reverend John Black, “Ode to the Sons of Britain and America,” November 1, 1812.
56: John Lowell, Antiwar Pamphlets: Mr. Madison’s War and Perpetual War, 1812 [Excerpts].
57: An Act to Encourage the Destruction of the Armed Vessels of War of the Enemy, March 3, 1813.
58: Three Letters Reporting Civilian Actions Against British Ships, June and July 1813.
59: Mutineers’ Declaration to the Captain of an American Privateer, March 18, 1813.
60: Address of the Six Nations to the President of the United States, September 28, 1812, and the President’s Response, April 8, 1813; Red Jacket’s Speech at a Council in Buffalo, October 21, 1813.
61: Statement of the Magistrates of York Regarding Maintenance of Order after Its Capture by U.S. Forces, April 1813.
62: John Johnston, a British Midshipman’s Letters to his Mother, April 28 and June 23, 1813.
63: Two Canadian Indictments for Sedition, May and June 1813.
64: Philip Broke, Personal Challenge Letter Leading to the Naval Battle of the Shannon versus the Chesapeake, Late May or Early June 1813.
65: Two Letters to the Governor of Virginia about Quakers and Military Service, March 21, 1813, and May 18, 1814.
66: Benjamin Bates, Memorial and Petition of the Religious Society of Friends Asking for Relief from Militia Law, May 31, 1813.
67: Laura Secord, Narrative of a Canadian Heroine’s Exploits of June 1813, First Published 1853.
68: Margaret Bayard Smith, a Letter on the Fear of a Slave Revolt, July 20, 1813 [Excerpt].
69: Canadian Letter in Cipher about the Effect of Imprisonment on the American will to Fight, July 20, 1813.
70: Lord Henry Bathurst, Two Letters about Threats to Execute Prisoners of War, August 12, 1813, and March 5, 1814.
71: Depositions of Two American Deserters, September 3, 1813.
72: Oliver H. Perry, Two Reports of U.S. Victories on Lake Erie, September 10 and 13, 1813.
73: Robert H. Barclay, British Report of the Battle on Lake Erie, September 12, 1813 [Excerpt].
74: Davy Crockett, Serving with General Jackson [Excerpt].
75: Entry from a British Officer’s Journal Describing the Battle of the Thames, October 3–5, 1813.
76: Robert Breckenridge McAfee, Account of the Thames Campaign by a U.S. Participant, 1816 [Excerpt].
77: Martin Chittenden, Proclamation on the Role of the Vermont Militia in the War of 1812, November 10, 1813.
78: John W. Croker, Letter on British Naval Disposition During the War of 1812, March 20, 1813 [Excerpt].
79: Edward Cutbush, Letter on the Situation of Naval Surgeons, February 13, 1813.
80: William Jones, U.S. Secretary of the Navy’s Orders Regarding the Secret Mission of the John Adams, April 16, 1813.
81: Tecumseh, Speech to Henry Proctor at Amherstburg during War of 1812, September 18, 1813.
82: William Jones, U.S. Secretary of the Navy’s General Order on Curtailing Smuggling, July 29, 1813.
83: William Wordsworth, “November, 1813”.
84: James Gallatin, Diary Entries on the Peace Negotiations, 1813–1814 [Excerpts].
85: William Dunlop, British Account of Americans Selling to the Enemy, 1847 [Excerpt].
86: Winfield Scott, American Account of the Battle of Lundy’s Lane, 1864 [Excerpt].
87: John Le Couteur, British Account of the Battle of Lundy’s Lane, July 1814 [Excerpt].
88: Fort Jackson Treaty, August 9, 1814.
89: George Robert Gleig, A British Account of the Action at Bladensburg, 1826 [Excerpt].
90: James and Dolley Madison, Two Letters Describing the Evacuation of Washington, D.C., August 23, 1814.
91: Margaret Bayard Smith, Letter Describing the Evacuation of Washington, D.C., August 1814 [Excerpt].
92: Francis Scott Key, “Star-Spangled Banner,” September 13–14, 1814.
93: A Letter from Hannah Jenoway, a British Soldier’s Wife in Canada, September 14, 1814.
94: Letters Between Lieutenant General Sir John Sherbrooke and Secretary of State for War Lord Henry Bathurst Regarding New England’s Secret Overtures to the British, November–December 1814.
95: Hartford Convention, Resolutions, 1815.
96: John Quincy Adams, Speech Attacking the Hartford Convention, 1815 [Excerpt].
97: Edward Nicholls, British Proclamation to Americans in Louisiana, August 29, 1814.
98: James Monroe, the Secretary of State’s Orders to Andrew Jackson Regarding Defense of the Gulf Coast, September 27, 1814.
99: Jean Lafitte, Three Letters Regarding the Loyalties of the Baratarian Pirates, September 4, 1814.
100: Andrew Jackson, Anti-British Proclamations to Louisianians, September 21, 1814.
101: Arsene Latour, Situation in Louisiana Before the Battle of New Orleans, 1816 [Excerpt].
102: Andrew Jackson, Address Rebuking U.S. Troops on the Right Bank of the Mississippi River, January 8, 1815.
103: Andrew Jackson, Letter to British Admiral Alexander Cochrane About the Return of Slaves to Their Owners, February 20, 1815 [Excerpt].
104: James Madison, Presidential Proclamation Granting Pardon of Baratarians, February 6, 1815.
105: Treaty of Ghent, December 24, 1814.
106: Andrew Jackson and John Lambert, Correspondence Between the U.S. and British Commanders after the Battle of New Orleans, January and March 1815.
107: Joseph Valpey Jr., Journal Excerpts and Poems Describing His Capture at Sea and Imprisonment, 1813–1815.
108: An Act Fixing the Military Peace Establishment of the United States, March 3, 1815.
109: Barbary Treaty, June 30, 1815.
110: Andrew Jackson, Farewell Address to the Army, 1815.
111: Adams-Onís Treaty, February 22, 1819.
112: George Robert Gleig, Remarks on How Britain Lost the War, 1826 [Excerpt].
113: Shadrach Byfield, the Postwar Life of a Wounded British Private, 1828 [Excerpt].
114: Oliver Wendell Holmes, “Old Ironsides,” September 16, 1830.
Medals, Decorations, and Military Honors.
Military Ranks.
Glossary.
Chronology.
Bibliography.
List of Editors and Contributors.
Categorical Index.
Index.