eBook Antarctica and the Arctic Circle: A Geographic Encyclopedia of the Earth’s Polar Regions, 1st Edition

  • Published By:
  • ISBN-10: 1610693930
  • ISBN-13: 9781610693936
  • DDC: 910.911
  • Grade Level Range: 9th Grade - College Senior
  • 880 Pages | eBook
  • Original Copyright 2015 | Published/Released January 2015
  • This publication's content originally published in print form: 2015
  • Price:  Sign in for price

About

Overview

Global warming, a hot topic among scholars of geography and science, has led to increased interest in studying the earth’s polar ice caps, which seem to be melting at an alarming rate. This accessible, two-volume encyclopedia lays a foundation for understanding global warming and other issues related to the North and South Poles. Approximately 350 alphabetically arranged, user-friendly entries treat key terms and topics, important expeditions, major figures, territorial disputes, and much more. Readers will find information on the explorations of Cook, Scott, Amundsen, and Peary; articles on humpback whales, penguins, and polar bears; and explanations of natural phenomena like the Aurora Australis and the polar night. Expedition tourism is covered, as is climate change. Ideal for high school and undergraduate students studying geography, social studies, history, and earth science, the encyclopedia will provide a better understanding of these remote and unfamiliar lands and their place in today’s world.

Table of Contents

Front Cover.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Contents.
Preface.
Introduction.
Timeline.
1: Abandoned Arctic Islands.
2: Adélie Penguin.
3: Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels (ACAP).
4: Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA) (1971).
5: Aleuts/Unangax.
6: Alexander I Island.
7: Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI).
8: Amundsen, Roald Engebrecht Gravning (1872–1928).
9: Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station.
10: Amundsen Sea.
11: Antarctic Circle.
12: Antarctic Cruise Industry.
13: Antarctic Fur Seals.
14: Antarctic Ice Sheet.
15: Antarctic Peninsula.
16: Antarctic Programs and Research Stations/Bases.
17: Antarctic Territorial Claims.
18: Antarctic Treaty System (ATS).
19: Arctic, Definitions of.
20: Arctic Air Pollution.
21: Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI).
22: Arctic Basin.
23: Arctic Botany.
24: Arctic Camel.
25: Arctic Circle.
26: Arctic Council.
27: Arctic Fox.
28: Arctic Ground Squirrel.
29: Arctic Hare.
30: Arctic Haze.
31: Arctic Loon.
32: Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR).
33: Arctic Observatories.
34: Arctic Ocean.
35: Arctic Redpoll.
36: Arctic Salmon.
37: Arctic Seabirds.
38: Arctic Shipping.
39: Arctic Shrub Range Expansion.
40: Arctic Skua.
41: Arctic Tern.
42: Arctic Territorial Claims and Disputes.
43: Arctic Wolf.
44: Arctic Woolly Bear Caterpillar/Moth.
45: Arktisk Station.
46: Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS).
47: Atomic Detonations and Weapons in the Arctic.
48: Aurora Australis.
49: Aurora Borealis.
50: Auroral Substorm.
51: Australasian Antarctic Expedition (1911–1914).
52: Baffin Bay.
53: Barents Euro-Arctic Council (BEAC).
54: Barents Sea.
55: Bartlett, Robert “Bob” Abram (1875–1946).
56: Bearded Seal.
57: Bear Island (Bjørnøya).
58: Beaufort Sea.
59: Beaufort Sea Dispute.
60: Belgrano II Antarctic Station.
61: Bellingshausen Sea.
62: Beluga Whale.
63: Benthic Community.
64: Bering, Vitus Jonassen (1681–1741).
65: Bharati Research Station.
66: Blood Falls, Antarctica.
67: Bowhead Whale.
68: Bransfield, Edward (1785–1852).
69: British Antarctic Expedition (1910–1913).
70: British Arctic Expedition (1875–1876).
71: Canadian Arctic Archipelago.
72: Canadian Arctic Expedition (1913–1918).
73: Caribou.
74: Cartography of the Arctic.
75: Chamisso Wilderness.
76: Chinstrap Penguin.
77: Chukchi.
78: Chukchi Sea.
79: Climate, Long-Range Investigation, Mapping, and Prediction (CLIMAP) Project.
80: Climate Change and Invasive Species in the Arctic.
81: Climate Change and Permafrost.
82: Climate Change in the Arctic.
83: Coastal Erosion.
84: Colville River.
85: Common Raven.
86: Continental Shelf Claims in the Arctic.
87: Cook, James (1728–1779).
88: Cook, James, Voyages of.
89: Crabeater Seal.
90: Cryoconite Holes.
91: Cryoprotectorants.
92: Deception Island.
93: Dinosaurs of Antarctica.
94: Dirck Gerritsz Laboratory, the Netherlands.
95: Discovery Expedition (1901–1904).
96: Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line.
97: Dogs in the Arctic.
98: Dolgans.
99: Drifting Research Stations in the Arctic Ocean.
100: East Antarctica.
101: East Siberian Sea.
102: Economic Growth in the Changing Arctic.
103: Ellesmere Island Ice Shelves.
104: Emperor Penguin.
105: Enets.
106: Environmental Concerns, Arctic Mining Operations.
107: Eskimo Coast Disaster of 1885.
108: Eskimo/Inuit Communal Houses.
109: Eskimos.
110: Evenks.
111: Evens.
112: Eyak.
113: Farthest North.
114: Farthest South.
115: First German North Polar Expedition (1868).
116: Foxe Basin.
117: Franklin Search Expeditions.
118: Franz Josef Land.
119: Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve.
120: Gauss Expedition (1901–1903).
121: Gentoo Penguin.
122: Geomagnetic Poles.
123: Georg von Neumayer Station, Neumayer Station, Neumayer III Station.
124: Geospace.
125: German Antarctic Expedition (1938–1939).
126: Gerritsz, Dirck (a.k.a. Dirck Gerritszoon Pompor) (1544–1608).
127: Grasshopper Effect.
128: Gray’s Beaked Whale.
129: Gray Whale.
130: Great Auk.
131: Greenland.
132: Greenland, U.S. Bases in.
133: Greenland Ice Sheet.
134: Greenland Sea.
135: Greenland Shark.
136: Grytviken.
137: Gwich’in.
138: Gyrfalcon.
139: Hans Island Dispute.
140: Harp Seal.
141: Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration (ca. 1890s–1920s).
142: Herschel Island.
143: Hooded Seal.
144: Human Impacts and the Antarctic Wilderness.
145: Humpback Whale.
146: Iceberg Monitoring and Classification.
147: Ice Cap.
148: Ice Core Climatic Data Proxies.
149: Ice Core Collection and Preservation Issues.
150: Ice Curtain.
151: Ice Domes: Argus, Charlie, and Fuji (Valkyrie).
152: Ice Sheet.
153: Ice Shelf.
154: Ice Shelves of Antarctica.
155: Ice Worms.
156: Ilulissat Icefjord.
157: Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition (1914–1917).
158: Indigirka and Kolyma Rivers.
159: International Geophysical Year (IGY).
160: International Polar Years (IPYs).
161: Inuit.
162: Inuit and Yup’ik Concepts of “Ihuma” and “Qanruyutet”.
163: Inuit Arctic Relocation.
164: Inuit Concepts of “Naklik” and “Ilira”.
165: Inuit Contribution to Polar Exploration.
166: Inuit Language.
167: Inuit Lawsuits over Climate Change.
168: Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit.
169: Inuit Worldviews and Religious Beliefs.
170: Ionosphere, Polar.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
1: Japanese Antarctic Expedition (1910–1912).
2: Karakat.
3: Kara Sea.
4: Ket.
5: Khanty.
6: Khatanga, Lena, and Yana Rivers.
7: King Penguin.
8: King Sejong Antarctic Station.
9: Klënova, Mariya Vasilevna (1898–1976).
10: Koryak.
11: Kosterkin, Tubyaku (1921–1989).
12: Kotzebue, Otto von (1787–1846).
13: Lake Vostok.
14: Lambert Glacier.
15: Lapland Longspur.
16: Laponian Area.
17: Laptev Sea.
18: Lazarev, Mikhail Petrovich (1788–1851).
19: Lemmings.
20: Lena Massacre of 1912.
21: Leopard Seal.
22: Lincoln Sea Dispute.
23: Little Auk.
24: Lomonosov Ridge Claims.
25: Long-Finned Pilot Whale.
26: Lost Patrol.
27: Macaroni Penguin.
28: Mackenzie River.
29: Malitsa.
30: Mansi.
31: McMurdo Dry Valleys of East Antarctica.
32: McMurdo Dry Valleys of East Antarctica, Biology of.
33: Mesozoic Marine Reptiles of Antarctica.
34: Meteorites in Antarctica.
35: Microbial Survival.
36: Migration Waves of the Eskimo-Aleut.
37: Musk Oxen.
38: Narwhal.
39: Narwhal Tooth.
40: National Petroleum Reserve—Alaska (NPR-A).
41: Natural System of Wrangel Island Reserve.
42: Nenets.
43: New Siberian Islands.
44: Nganasan.
45: Nimrod Expedition (1907–1909).
46: Nordenskjold, Adolf Erik (1832–1901).
47: Northeast Greenland National Park.
48: Northeast Passage.
49: Northern Bottlenose Whale.
50: North Pole.
51: Northwest Passage.
52: Northwest Passage Claims and Disputes.
53: Norwegian Polar Institute (NPI).
54: Novaya Zemlya, Nuclear Tests.
55: Novaya Zemlya, Nuclear Tests, Environmental Legacy of.
56: Nuclear Power in the Arctic.
57: Nuclear Waste in the Arctic.
58: Nuuk (Godthaab).
59: Nuuk Ecological Research Operations (NERO).
60: Ob, Pechora, and Yenisey Rivers.
61: Operation Chrome Dome.
62: Operation Deep Freeze.
63: Operation Highjump.
64: Operation Nanook.
65: Operation Tabarin.
66: Operation Windmill.
67: Orca.
68: Pacific Sleeper Shark.
69: Paleoecology of Antarctica.
70: Paulet Island.
71: Peary, Robert Edwin (1856–1920).
72: Permafrost.
73: Pink Snow.
74: Pliocene Arctic Fossils.
75: Polar Bear.
76: Polar Research Institute of China (PRIC).
77: Polar Research Vessel Grönland.
78: Poles of Inaccessibility.
79: Project Iceworm.
80: Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty.
81: Putorana Plateau.
82: Pykrete.
83: Radioactive Iodine (I-131) Human Experiments in Alaska.
84: Radioactivity.
85: Radioactivity in the Arctic.
86: Rasmussen, Knud (1879–1933).
87: Red-Throated Loon.
88: Reindeer Herding.
89: Ribbon Seal.
90: Ringed Seal.
91: Rock Art of Alta.
92: Rocket Ranges in the Arctic.
93: Rockhopper Penguin.
94: Rock Ptarmigan.
95: Ross, Sir James Clark (1800–1862).
96: Ross Island.
97: Ross Island, Historic Huts of.
98: Ross Sea.
99: Ross Seal.
100: Ross Sea Party (1914–1917).
101: Russian Antarctic Expedition (1819–1821).
102: Salmon Shark.
103: Sami.
104: SANAE IV (South African National Antarctic Expedition).
105: Scottish National Antarctic Expedition (1902–1904).
106: Sea Ice.
107: Sealing and Antarctic Exploration.
108: Second German Antarctic Expedition (1911–1912).
109: Sector Principle in the Arctic.
110: Selkup.
111: Sermilik Station.
112: Shackleton, Ernest (1874–1922).
113: Shackleton–Rowett Expedition (1921–1922).
114: Siberian Yup’ik.
115: Smeerenburg.
116: Snow Bunting.
117: Snow Goose.
118: Snow Hill Island.
119: Snowy Owl.
120: Sooty Albatross.
121: Southern Bottlenose Whale.
122: Southern Elephant Seal.
123: Southern Right Whale.
124: South Pole.
125: South Sandwich Islands.
126: Space Weather.
127: Sperm Whale.
128: Spotted Seal.
129: Subglacial Lake.
130: Sunken Soviet/Russian Nuclear Submarines in Arctic.
131: Svalbard Archipelago.
132: Swedish Antarctic Expedition (1901–1903).
133: Swedish Polar Research Secretariat.
134: Terra Australis Incognita.
135: Three-Pole Concept.
136: Thule Air Base, Greenland, B52G Stratofortress Crash of 1968.
137: Thule Culture.
138: Toolik Field Station (TFS).
139: Transantarctic Mountains.
140: Troll Station.
141: Tuktut Nogait National Park.
142: Tundra.
143: United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS).
144: University of the Arctic (UARCTIC).
145: Unsupported Expeditions.
146: Victoria Island.
147: Vinson Massif.
148: Volcanoes in Antarctica.
149: Vostok Station.
150: Vuntut National Park of Canada.
151: Walrus.
152: Wandering Albatross.
153: Weddell #1 Antarctic Drifting Station.
154: Weddell Sea.
155: Weddell Seal.
156: West Antarctica.
157: Whaling and Antarctic Exploration.
158: Whaling and Arctic Exploration.
159: Whaling Fleet Disaster of 1871.
160: Wolverine.
161: Woolly Mammoths.
162: Woolly Mammoths, Baby.
163: Yukaghir.
164: Yukaghir Mammoth.
165: Yukon River.
166: Zackenberg Research Station.
167: Zhongshan (Sun Yat-sen) Station.
Appendix 1: Glaciers Around the World.
Appendix 2: Select Listing of Arctic Polar Expeditions.
Appendix 3: Select Listing of Antarctic Polar Expeditions.
Appendix 4: Northwest Passage Expeditions.
Select Bibliography.
Editor and Contributors.
Index.