eBook Asian Americans: An Encyclopedia of Social, Cultural, Economic, and Political History, 1st Edition

  • Editor: Xiaojian Zhao, Edward J.W. Park
  • Published By:
  • ISBN-10: 1598842404
  • ISBN-13: 9781598842401
  • DDC: 973.0495
  • 178 Pages | eBook
  • Original Copyright 2013 | Published/Released December 2014
  • This publication's content originally published in print form: 2013
  • Price:  Sign in for price

About

Overview

This three-volume work represents a leading reference resource for Asian American studies that gives students, researchers, librarians, teachers, and other interested readers the ability to easily locate accurate, up-to-date information about Asian ethnic groups, historical and contemporary events, important policies, and notable individuals. Written by leading scholars in their fields of expertise and authorities in diverse professions, the entries devote attention to diverse Asian and Pacific Islander American groups as well as the roles of women, distinct socioeconomic classes, Asian American political and social movements, and race relations involving Asian Americans.

Contributors

Contributors

  • Xiaojian Zhao
  • Edward J.W. Park

Table of Contents

Front Cover.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Contents.
List of Entries.
Preface.
Acknowledgments.
Introduction: Asian Americans in the Twenty-First Century.
Chronology.
1: Adopted Asian Americans.
2: Agbayani, Benny (1971–).
3: Aguila, Chris (1979–).
4: Ah Quin Diary.
5: Ah Yup, in Re (1878).
6: Ahn, Philip (1905–1978).
7: Ahn Chang Ho (1878–1938).
8: Aikido in America.
9: Akaka, Daniel K. (1924–).
10: Alexander, Meena (1951–).
11: Ali, Agha Shahid (1949–2001).
12: Ali, Saqib (1975–).
13: Alien Land Laws.
14: “Aliens Ineligible for Citizenship”.
15: Allen, Horace Newton (1858–1932).
16: American Coalition for Filipino Veterans (ACFV) Incorporated.
17: American Missionaries in Postwar Japan.
18: American-Style Concentration Camps.
19: Angel Island Immigration Station.
20: Anti-Asian Miscegenation Laws.
21: Anti-Asian Violence, History of.
22: Anti-Hate Crime Laws.
23: Anti-Japanese Movement in Hawaii.
24: Anti-Trafficking Movement.
25: Aoki, Richard (1938–2009).
26: Ariyoshi, George R. (1926–).
27: Artists in New York (1900–1940).
28: Asian American Campaign Finance Scandal of 1996.
29: Asian American Comparative Collection (AACC).
30: Asian American Labor in Alaska.
31: Asian American Legal Defense and Education Fund (AALDEF).
32: Asian American Movement (AAM).
33: Asian American Muslims.
34: Asian American Political Alliance (AAPA).
35: Asian American Sites and Museum Exhibits (Pacific Northwest and Great Basin).
36: Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) in Higher Education.
37: Asian Americans for Action (AAA).
38: Asian Ethnic Banks.
39: Asian Immigrant Women Advocates (AIWA).
40: Asian Law Caucus.
41: Asian Music in America.
42: Asian Pacific Heritage Month.
43: Asian Religions and Religious Practices in America.
44: Athletes and Christianity.
45: Authenticity in Asian American Identity.
46: Bacho, Peter (1950–).
47: Baek, Cha Seung (1980–).
48: Balcena, Bobby (1925-1990).
49: Bangladeshi Americans.
50: Barroga, Jeannie (1949–).
51: Bartlett, Jason (1979–).
52: Bellingham “Anti-Hindu Riot” (1907).
53: Who is Polly Bemis: Bemis, Polly (Lalu Nathoy) (1853–1933): Perspective 1.
54: Who is Polly Bemis: Bemis, Polly (Lalu Nathoy) (1853–1933): Perspective 2.
55: Bhutanese Americans.
56: Boat People.
57: Boggs, Grace Lee (1915–).
58: Buddhism in Asian America.
59: Buddhist Churches of America (BCA).
60: Bulosan, Carlos (1911–1956).
61: Bunker, Christopher Wren (1845–1932) and Bunker, Stephen Decatur (1847–1920).
62: Burlingame Treaty of 1868.
63: Cambodian Americans.
64: Cambodian Community in Lowell, Massachusetts.
65: Cameron House.
66: Campaign Strategy.
67: Cao, Lan (1961–).
68: Cao Zishi (1847–1902).
69: Cayetano, Benjamin (1939–).
70: Cha, Theresa Hak Kyung (1951–1982).
71: Cham in America.
72: Chan, Jeffery Paul (1942–).
73: Chan, Kenyon.
74: Chan, Sucheng (1941–).
75: Chandrasekhar, Subrahmanyan (1910–1995).
76: Chang, Diana (1934–2009).
77: Chang, Iris (1968–2004).
78: Chang, Michael (1972–).
79: Chang, Sarah (1980–).
80: Chang and Eng (The Siamese Twins).
81: Chang-Díaz, Franklin Ramón (1950–).
82: Chao, Elaine L. (1953–).
83: Charr, Easurk Emsen (1895–1986).
84: Chaudhary, Satveer (1969–).
85: Chawla, Kalpana (1961–2003).
86: Chay Yew (1965–).
87: Chen, Chin-Feng (1977–).
88: Chen, Joan (1961–).
89: Cheng, Lucie (1939–2010).
90: Chern, Shiing-Shen (1911–2004).
91: Cheung, King-Kok (1954–).
92: Chin, Frank (1940–).
93: Chin, Vincent (1955–1982).
94: China Daily News, The (CDN).
95: China Lobby.
96: Chinatown, New York.
97: Chinatown Gangs in the United States.
98: Chinese American Baseball.
99: Chinese American Childhood.
100: Chinese American Community Organizations.
101: Chinese American Funerary Rituals.
102: Chinese American Youth in Multiethnic Chicago.
103: Chinese Americans.
104: Chinese Americans and World War II.
105: Chinese Christians in America.
106: Chinese Confession Program.
107: Chinese Cuisine in the United States.
108: Chinese Exclusion Acts (1882–1943).
109: Chinese Exclusion, Repeal of (1943).
110: Chinese Fisheries in California.
111: Chinese Garment Workers in San Francisco.
112: Chinese Hand Laundry Alliance of New York (CHLA).
113: Chinese Herbal Medicine.
114: Chinese Immigrant Cemeteries.
115: Chinese Immigrant Workers in Multiethnic Chicago.
116: Chinese in the U.S. Civil War.
117: Chinese Language Schools in the United States.
118: Chinese Lion Dance in the United States.
119: Chinese Mining in America.
120: Chinese New Year Parade.
121: Chinese Railroad Workers.
122: Chinese Restaurants in the United States.
123: Chinese Students in the United States Since 1960.
124: Chinese War Brides.
125: Chinese World (Sai Gai Yat Po).
126: Chinese-Vietnamese Americans.
127: Ching, Fong (1864–1897).
128: Cho, Margaret (1968–).
129: Choi, Susan (1969–).
130: Chouinard, Bobby (1972–).
131: Chow, Amy (1978–).
132: Chu, Judy (1953–).
133: Chu, Steven (1948–).
134: Chung, Connie (1946–).
135: Chung, Eugene Yon (1969–).
136: Churches and Ethnic Identity.
137: Clay, Bryan (1980–).
138: Cohota, Edward Day (d. 1935).
139: College Students.
140: Comfort Women.
141: Committee of 100 (C-100).
142: Conger, Hank (1988–).
143: Dandekar, Swati (1951–).
144: Dardelle, Antonio (d. 1933).
145: Dawson, Toby (1978–).
146: Dear Wing Jung v. United States of America (1962).
147: Desoto, Hisaye Yamamoto (1921–2011).
148: Dinh, Linh (1963–).
149: Dıpa̅valı̅.
150: Divakaruni, Chitra Banerjee (1956–).
151: Draft Resistance in Internment Camps.
152: Draves, Victoria “Vicki” Taylor Manalo (1924–2010).
153: Du, Miranda (1969–).
154: Duong, Wendy N. (1959–).
155: 80/20.
156: Espineli, Geno (1982–).
157: Ethnic Communities in Hawaii.
158: Ethnoburb.
159: Eu, March Fong (1922–).
160: Evangelicals and Korean American Community Formation.
161: Evangelicals on the College Campus.
162: Evora, Amanda (1984–).
163: Ex Parte Mitsuye Endo (1944).
164: Filipina War Brides.
165: Filipino Agricultural Workers.
166: Filipino American Baseball.
167: Filipino American Communities (Contemporary).
168: Filipino American Communities (Historical).
169: Filipino American Community Organizations.
170: Filipino American Domestic Workers.
171: Filipino American National Historical Society (FANHS).
172: Filipino American Newspapers.
173: Filipino American Youth Cultures.
174: Filipino Americans.
175: Filipino Americans in World War II.
176: Filipino Cuisine in the United States.
177: Filipino Farm Labor Union (FFLU).
178: Filipino Federation of America (FFA).
179: Filipino Language Movement (FiLM).
180: Filipino Pensionados.
181: Filipino Piecemeal Sugar Strike (1924–1925).
182: Filipino Repatriation Act (1935).
183: Filipino Transnationalism.
184: Filipino Women and Global Migration, History of.
185: Filipino World War II Veterans.
186: Filipinos in Hawaii.
187: Fong, Hiram (1906–2004).
188: Fong Yue Ting v. United States (1893).
189: Fujita, Scott (1979–).
190: Fung, Edward (1922–).
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
1: Gabriel, Roman (1940–).
2: Geary Act (1892).
3: Gee, Margaret (Maggie) (1923–2013).
4: Gender, Race, and Class in Political Participation.
5: Ghadar.
6: Ghadar Party.
7: Glass Ceiling Debate.
8: Golf, Asian and Asian American.
9: Gong, Lue Gim (c. 1860–1925).
10: Gonzalez, N.V.M. (1915–1999).
11: Gotanda, Philip Kan (1951–).
12: Goyal, Jay (1980–).
13: Goyle, Raj (1975–).
14: Graphic Novelists.
15: Graves, Danny (1973–).
16: Guam, U.S. Presence in.
17: Guthrie, Jeremy (1979–).
18: H-1B Visa.
19: Ha Jin (1956–).
20: Hagedorn, Jessica (1949–).
21: Haley, Nikki Randhawa (1972–).
22: Harada, Tsuneo “Cappy” (1921–2010).
23: Harada House.
24: Hawaiian Cuisine.
25: Hayakawa, Samuel Ichiyé (1906–1992).
26: Hayakawa, Sessue (Kintaro) (1886–1973).
27: Hayslip, Le Ly (1949–).
28: Hells Canyon Massacre (1887).
29: Hindus in the United States.
30: Hirabayashi v. United States (1943).
31: Hirahara, Naomi (1962–).
32: Hirayama, Satoshi “Fibber” (1930–).
33: Hirono, Mazie K. (1947–).
34: Hmong American Women.
35: Hmong of Minnesota and California.
36: Ho, David (1952–).
37: Ho, Fred (Fred Wei-Han Houn) (1957–).
38: Hollywood, Asian Americans in.
39: Honda, Mike (1941–).
40: Houston, Velina Hasu (1957–).
41: Hsüan Hua (1918–1995).
42: Hu, Chin-Lung (1984–).
43: Huang, Guangcai (Wong Kong Chai or Chae) (1824–1886).
44: Hula.
45: Hwang, David Henry (1957–).
46: I Wor Kuen (IWK).
47: Ichioka, Yuji (1936–2002).
48: Iijima, Kazu Ikeda (1918–2007).
49: Iko, Momoko (1940–).
50: Immigration Act of 1917 and the “Barred Zone”.
51: Immigration Act of 1924.
52: Immigration Act of 1990.
53: Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986.
54: Inada, Lawson Fusao (1938–).
55: Independent Chinese Language Newspapers During the Cold War.
56: Indian American Community Organizations.
57: Indian Americans.
58: Indian Cuisine in the United States.
59: Indian Denaturalization Cases.
60: Indian Ethnic Economy.
61: Indian Exclusion.
62: Indian Women in America.
63: Indians in American TV and Film.
64: Indigenous Groups and the Asian American Experience.
65: Indochina Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1975.
66: Indonesian Americans.
67: Inouye, Daniel K. (1924–2012).
68: Itliong, Larry (1913–1977).
69: Jaisohn, Philip (1864–1951).
70: Jang, Jon (1954–).
71: Japan Bashing.
72: Japanese American Baseball.
73: Japanese American Christianity.
74: Japanese American Citizens League (JACL).
75: Japanese American Communities (Contemporary).
76: Japanese American Community Organizations (Historical).
77: Japanese American Transnational Families.
78: Japanese American Women in the 1930s.
79: Japanese Americans.
80: Japanese Americans in Hawaii.
81: Japanese Americans in Japan.
82: Japanese Exclusion.
83: Japanese Farm Workers in America.
84: Japanese Immigrant Press.
85: Japanese Immigrant Women.
86: Japanese Language in Asian American Studies.
87: Japanese Transnational Identity.
88: Japanese War Brides.
89: Jen, Gish (1955–).
90: Jindal, Piyush “Bobby” (1971–).
91: Judo in America.
92: Kahanamoku, Duke (1890–1968).
93: Kao, Charles K. (1933–).
94: Katipunan ng mga Democratikong Pilipinos (KDP).
95: Kawamoto, Evelyn Tokue (1933–).
96: Keller, Nora Okja (1965–).
97: Khorana, Har Gobind (1922–2011).
98: Kibei.
99: Kim, Elaine H..
100: Kim, Jay (1939–).
101: Kim, Richard Eun Kook (1932–2009).
102: Kim, Ronyoung (1926–1987).
103: Kim, Young Oak (1919–2005).
104: Kingston, Maxine Hong (1940–).
105: Kochiyama, Yuri (1921–).
106: Kogawa, Joy (1935–).
107: Konno, Ford Hiroshi (1933–).
108: Kono, Tommy (1930–).
109: Kooskia Internment Camp.
110: Korea, U.S. Punitive Action in (1871).
111: The Korea Times.
112: Koreagate.
113: Korean American Churches.
114: Korean American Community Foundation (KACF).
115: Korean American Ethnic Economy.
116: Korean American Farmers in the United States.
117: Korean American LGBT Movements in Los Angeles and New York.
118: Korean Americans.
119: Korean Americans and Transnationalism.
120: Korean Americans in Hawaii.
121: Korean Americans in the Cold War.
122: Korean and Korean American Golf.
123: Korean Aviation School in America (1920–1921).
124: Korean Central Intelligence Agency (KCIA) and the Korean American Community.
125: Korean Cuisine in the United States.
126: Korean Immigrant Women in America.
127: Korean Independence Movement in the United States.
128: Korean National Association (KNA).
129: Korean-Black Relations.
130: Koreatown.
131: Koreatown Immigrant Workers Alliance (KIWA).
132: Korematsu, Hirabayashi, and Yasui Coram Nobis Cases.
133: Korematsu v. United States (1945).
134: Kuo, Hong-Chih (1981–).
135: Kwan, Michelle (1980–).
136: Labor Movement.
137: Lahiri, Jhumpa (1967–).
138: Lai, Him Mark (1925–2009).
139: Lam, Tony (1937–).
140: Lang, Ping (1960–).
141: Lang Lang (1982–).
142: Lao American Ethnic Economy.
143: Lao Americans.
144: Lau v. Nichols (1974).
145: Law-Yone, Wendy (1947–).
146: Lee, Ang (1954–).
147: Lee, Bruce (1940–1973).
148: Lee, C. Y. (1938–).
149: Lee, Chang-Rae (1965–).
150: Lee, Dai-Ming (1904–1961).
151: Lee, Don (1959–).
152: Lee, Hazel (Ah Ying) (1912–1944).
153: Lee, Kyung Won (K.W.) (1928–).
154: Lee, Min Jin (1969–).
155: Lee, Robert G..
156: Lee, Rose Hum (1904–1964).
157: Lee, Sammy (1920–).
158: Lee, Tsung Dao (1926–).
159: Lee, Wen Ho (1939–).
160: Lee, Yan Phou (1861–1938).
161: Lee, Yuan Tseh (1936–).
162: Leong, Russell (1950–).
163: LGBT Activism.
164: Li, Choh Hao (1913–1987).
165: Li, Yi (1948–).
166: Lim, Genny (1946–).
167: Lim, Shirley Geok-Lin (1944–).
168: Lin, Jeremy (1988–).
169: Lin, Maya (1959–).
170: Lin, Tung-Yen (T. Y.) (1911–2003).
171: Lin, Yutang (1895–1976).
172: Lincecum, Tim (1984–).
173: Little India and South Asian Communities.
174: Little Saigon and Vietnamese American Communities.
175: Liu, Henry (1932–1984).
176: Lo, Lormong (1959–2011).
177: Locke, Gary (1950–).
178: Los Angeles Riots (1992).
179: Louganis, Greg (1960–).
180: Lowe, Pardee (1905–C. 1992).
181: Lu, Ed (1963–).
182: Luce-Celler Act of 1946.
183: Ma, Yo-Yo (1955–).
184: Maharishi Mahesh Yogi (c. 1917–2008).
185: Malaysian Americans.
186: Manlapit, Pablo (1891–1969).
187: Manzanar Children’s Village (1942–1945).
188: Manzanar Riot (1942).
189: Matsui, Doris O. (1944–).
190: Matsui, Robert T. (1941–2005).
191: Matsunaga, Masayuki “Spark” (1916–1990).
192: Mccarran-Walter Act of 1952.
193: Mccunn, Ruthanne Lum (1946–).
194: Mehta, Zubin (1936–).
195: Meng, Grace (1975–).
196: Minami, Dale (1946–).
197: Mineta, Norman (1931–).
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
1: Page Law (1875).
2: Paik, Nam June (1932–2006).
3: Pak, Gary (1952–).
4: Pakistani Americans.
5: Pan-Asian American Coalitions.
6: Parachute Kids.
7: Park, Richard (1976–).
8: Park, Tongsun (1935–).
9: Park Yong-Man (1881–1928).
10: Parque, Jim Vo (1976–).
11: Pei, I. M. (1917–).
12: People v. Hall (1854).
13: Phan, Aimee (1977–).
14: Pierce, Joseph (1842–1916).
15: Pilipino Cultural Night (PCN).
16: Plantation Workers in Hawaii.
17: Polamalu, Troy (1981–).
18: Political Representation.
19: Poon, Lim (1918–1991).
20: Prostitution in Late Nineteenth- and Early Twentieth-Century Asian Immigrant Communities.
21: Radical Organizations.
22: Ramakrishnan, Venkatraman (1952–).
23: Refugee Act of 1980.
24: Refugee Camps and Southeast Asian Migration.
25: Religion and Its Social Function in the Japanese American Community.
26: Rhee, Syngman (1875–1965).
27: Robles, Al (1930–2009).
28: Romulo, Carlos P. (1899–1985).
29: Saiki, Patricia F. (1930–).
30: Sakata, Harold (1920–1982).
31: Sam, Sam-Ang (1950–).
32: Santos, Bienvenido N. (1911–1996).
33: Sasaki, Sokei-an (1882–1945).
34: Saund, Dalip Singh (1889–1973).
35: Saxton, Alexander P. (1919–2012).
36: Science and Technology.
37: Scott, Robert (1947–).
38: Scott Act (1888).
39: Seattle Anti-Chinese Riot and Expulsion of 1886.
40: Seau, Junior (1969–2012).
41: Self-Employment.
42: Sexuality.
43: Shimomura, Osamu (1928–).
44: Shin, Paull (1935–).
45: Shin-Issei/Shin-Nisei Identity.
46: Sikh Temple Massacre (Oak Creek, WI) (2012).
47: Sikhism in the United States.
48: Singaporeans in America.
49: Siv, Sichan (1948–).
50: Son, Diana (1965–).
51: Sone, Monica (1919–2011).
52: Soong Mei-Ling (1898–2003).
53: South Asian American Transnational Politics.
54: South Asian Ethnic Identity.
55: Southeast Asian Academic Achievement.
56: Southeast Asian American Press.
57: Southeast Asian American Youth and Crime.
58: Southeast Asian Archive at the University of California, Irvine, Libraries.
59: Southeast Asian Refugee Resettlement, Organizational Leadership of.
60: Spickard, Paul Russell (1950–).
61: Sri Lankan Americans.
62: Suburbanization.
63: Sue, Stanley.
64: Sui, Anna (1955–).
65: Sui Sin Far (Edith Maude Eaton) (1865–1914).
66: Sumida, Stephen H..
67: Sun Yat-Sen (1866–1925).
68: Sung, Betty Lee (1924–).
69: Survey of Race Relations on the Pacific Coast.
70: Suzuki, Bob H..
71: Suzuki, Daisetz Teitarō (D. T.) (1870–1966).
72: Suzuki, Shunryū (1904–1971).
73: Swap Meet.
74: Sylvanus, Thomas (1845–1891).
75: Tacoma Anti-Chinese Riot of 1885.
76: Taekwondo in America.
77: Tahir, Saghir.
78: Taiwanese Americans.
79: Takagi, Dana Yasu.
80: Takaki, Ronald Toshiyuki (1939–2009).
81: Tan, Amy (1952–).
82: Tao, Terence (1975–).
83: Tape v. Hurley (1885).
84: Tarak Nath Das (1884–1958).
85: Tatupu, Mosiula Faasuka (1955–2010).
86: Tenzin Gyatso (14th Dalai Lama) (1935–).
87: Têt.
88: Thai American Organizations.
89: Thai Americans.
90: Thai Cuisine in the United States.
91: Thai Temples.
92: Thai Town.
93: Thao, Cy (1972–).
94: Third World Strikes.
95: Third World Unity.
96: thúy, lê thi diem (1972–).
97: Tibetan Americans.
98: Tien, Chang-Lin (1935–2002).
99: Ting, Samuel Chao Chung (1936–).
100: Tokyo Rose.
101: Tomney, John (d. 1863).
102: Tongs and Tong War.
103: Tourist Industries.
104: Townsend, Raymond Anthony (1955–).
105: Toyota v. United States (1925).
106: Tran, Ham (c. 1974–).
107: Transnational Political Behavior.
108: Trungpa, Chögyam (1939–1987).
109: Truong, Monique (1968–).
110: Tsao, Chin-Hui (1981–).
111: Tsiang, H. T. (1899–1971).
112: Tsien, Roger Y. (1952–).
113: Tsoi Sim v. the United States (1902).
114: Tsunoda, Joyce S. (1938–).
115: Ung, Chinary (1942–).
116: United States v. Gue Lim (1900).
117: United States v. Thind (1923).
118: United States v. Wong Kim Ark (1898).
119: University of California (Berkeley) Asian American Studies Collections.
120: U.S.-Korea Treaty of 1882.
121: Ut, Huynh Cong “Nick” (1951–).
122: Vera Cruz, Philip (1904–1994).
123: Victorino, Shane (1980–).
124: Vietnamese American Anticommunism.
125: Vietnamese Americans.
126: Vietnamese Cuisine in the United States.
127: Vietnamese Ethnic Economy.
128: Vietnamese Nail Salons.
129: Vietnamese Women in America.
130: Villa, José García (1908–1997).
131: Villafuerte, Brandon (1975–).
132: Vivekananda (1863–1902).
133: Voting Patterns.
134: Wang, An (1920–1990).
135: Wang, Chien-Ming (1980–).
136: Wang, Vera (1949–).
137: Wang, Wayne (1949–).
138: War Brides Act (1945).
139: Ward, Hines (1976–).
140: Watsonville Riots (1930).
141: Wei Min She (WMS).
142: Williams, Sunita L. (1965–).
143: Wong, Anna May (1905–1961).
144: Wong, Elizabeth (1958–).
145: Wong, Jade Snow (1922–2006).
146: Wong, Kailee (1976–).
147: Wong, Sau-Ling.
148: Wong, Shawn (1949–).
149: Woo, Hong Neok (1834–1919).
150: Woo, Shien Biau (S. B.) (1937–).
151: Woods, Tiger (1975–).
152: Workingmen’s Parties.
153: Wu, Chien-Shiung (1912–1997).
154: Wu, David (1955–).
155: Xiong, Joe Bee (1961–2007).
156: Yamaguchi, Kristi (1971–).
157: Yamanaka, Lois-Ann (1961–).
158: Yamasaki, Minoru (1912–1986).
159: Yamashita, Karen Tei (1951–).
160: Yamato Colony of California.
161: Yamauchi, Wakako (1924–).
162: Yang, Chen Ning (1922–).
163: Yang, Henry T..
164: Yang, Qing (Yong Seen Sarng) (1811–1882).
165: Yao Ming (1980–).
166: Yasui v. United States (1943).
167: Yau, Shing-Tong (1949–).
168: Yee Chiang (1903–1977).
169: Yellow Brotherhood (YB).
170: Yep, Laurence (1948–).
171: Yick Wo v. Hopkins (1886).
172: Yoneda, Karl G. (1906–1999).
173: Yoon, Sam (1970–).
174: Yu Lihua (Helen Yu) (1931–).
175: Yung, Judy (1946–).
176: Yung Wing (1828–1912).
177: Zenimura, Kenichi (1900–1968).
178: Zhang, Caroline (1993–).
179: Zhang, Yitang (1955–).
180: Zia, Helen (1952–).
Primary Documents*.
1. Excerpts from Naturalization Laws (1790, 1870).
2. Excerpts from the Foreign Miners Tax (1850).
3. An Analysis of the Chinese Question (1852).
4. Excerpt from People v. Hall (1854).
5. Excerpt from Derivative Citizenship and Married Women Law (1855).
6. Excerpt from the Burlingame Treaty (1868).
7. Excerpt from the Page Law (1875).
8. Excerpts from the Chinese Exclusion Act (1882) and Amendments (1888, 1892, 1902, 1904).
9. Excerpt from the Case of the Chinese Wife: In re Ah Moy (1884).
10. Excerpt from Yick Wo v. Hopkins (1886).
11. Excerpt from United States v. Wong Kim Ark (1898).
12. Excerpt from Tsoi Sim v. United States (1902).
13. Excerpt from the Expatriate Act of 1907.
14. Excerpt from the Gentlemen’s Agreement (1907).
15. Poems from Angel Island (1910–1940).
16. Excerpt from the Alien Land Law (1913).