eBook Encyclopedia Of Ecology, 1st Edition

  • S. E. Jorgensen
  • Brian Fath
  • Published By:
  • ISBN-10: 008091456X
  • ISBN-13: 9780080914565
  • DDC: 577.03
  • Grade Level Range: College Freshman - College Senior
  • 3120 Pages | eBook
  • Original Copyright 2008 | Published/Released September 2014
  • This publication's content originally published in print form: 2008
  • Price:  Sign in for price

About

Overview

The groundbreaking Encyclopedia of Ecology provides an authoritative and comprehensive coverage of the complete field of ecology, from general to applied. It includes over 500 detailed entries, structured to provide the user with complete coverage of the core knowledge, accessed as intuitively as possible, and heavily cross-referenced. Written by an international team of leading experts, this revolutionary encyclopedia will serve as a one-stop-shop to concise, stand-alone articles to be used as a point of entry for undergraduate students, or as a tool for active researchers looking for the latest information in the field.

Table of Contents

Front Cover.
Half Title Page.
Editorial Board.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Dedication Page.
Contents.
Contents by Subject Area.
Preface.
Guide to the Encyclopedia.
1: Abiotic and Biotic Diversity in the Biosphere.
2: Abundance.
3: Abundance Biomass Comparison Method.
4: Acclimation.
5: Acidification.
6: Acute and Chronic Toxicity.
7: Adaptation.
8: Adaptive Agents.
9: Adaptive Cycle.
10: Adaptive Management and Integrative Assessments.
11: Adsorption.
12: Age Structure and Population Dynamics.
13: Age-Class Models.
14: Agriculture.
15: Agriculture Models.
16: Agriculture Systems.
17: Agroforestry.
18: Air Quality Modeling.
19: Allee Effects.
20: Allometric Principles.
21: Allopatry.
22: Alpine Ecosystems and the High-Elevation Treeline.
23: Alpine Forest.
24: Altruism.
25: Amensalism.
26: Ammonification.
27: Animal Defense Strategies.
28: Animal Home Ranges.
29: Animal Physiology.
30: Animal Prey Defenses.
31: Antagonistic and Synergistic Effects of Antifouling Chemicals in Mixture.
32: Anthropospheric and Anthropogenic Impact on the Biosphere.
33: Antibiotics in Aquatic and Terrestrial Ecosystems.
34: Antipredation Behavior.
35: Application of Ecological Informatics.
36: Applied Ecology.
37: Aquatic Organisms.
38: Artificial Neural Networks.
39: Artificial Neural Networks: Temporal Networks.
40: Ascendency.
41: Assimilative Capacity.
42: Association.
43: Astrobiology.
44: Atmospheric Deposition.
45: Autecology.
46: Autocatalysis.
47: Autotrophs.
48: Average Taxonomic Diversity and Distinctness.
49: Bayesian Networks.
50: Behavioral and Ecological Genetics.
51: Benthic Response Index.
52: Benzene.
53: Berger–Parker Index.
54: Bifurcation.
55: Bioaccumulation.
56: Bioavailability.
57: Biodegradability.
58: Biodegradation.
59: Biodiversity.
60: Biogeochemical Approaches to Environmental Risk Assessment.
61: Biogeochemical Models.
62: Biogeocoenosis as an Elementary Unit of Biogeochemical Work in the Biosphere.
63: Biological Control Models.
64: Biological Integrity.
65: Biological Nitrogen Fixation.
66: Biological Rhythms.
67: Biological Wastewater Treatment Systems.
68: Biomagnification.
69: Biomass.
70: Biomass, Gross Production, and Net Production.
71: Biophilia.
72: Biosphere: Vernadsky’s Concept.
73: Biotopes.
74: Body Residues.
75: Body Size, Energetics, and Evolution.
76: Body-Size Patterns.
77: Boltzmann Learning.
78: Boreal Forest.
79: Botanical Gardens.
80: Buffer Zones.
81: Calcium Cycle.
82: Cannibalism.
83: Carbon Cycle.
84: Carrying Capacity.
85: Catastrophe Theory.
86: Caves.
87: Cellular Automata.
88: Chaos.
89: Chaparral.
90: Chemical Communication.
91: Classical and Augmentative Biological Control.
92: Classification and Regression Trees.
93: Climate Change 1: Short-Term Dynamics.
94: Climate Change 2: Long-Term Dynamics.
95: Climate Change 3: History and Current State.
96: Climate Change Models.
97: Clines.
98: Coastal and Estuarine Environments.
99: Coastal Zone Management.
100: Coastal Zone Restoration.
101: Coevolution.
102: Coevolution of the Biosphere and Climate.
103: Coevolutionary Research.
104: Coexistence.
105: Cognition and Behavioral Ecology.
106: Colonization.
107: Commensalisms.
108: Communication.
109: Community.
110: Competition and Behavior.
111: Competition and Coexistence in Model Populations.
112: Competition and Competition Models.
113: Composting and Formation of Humic Substances.
114: Computer Languages.
115: Conceptual Diagrams and Flow Diagrams.
116: Connectance and Connectivity.
117: Conservation Biological Control and Biopesticides in Agricultural.
118: Constructed Wetlands, Subsurface Flow.
119: Constructed Wetlands, Surface Flow.
120: Cooperation.
121: Copper.
122: Coral Reefs.
123: Crude Oil, Oil, Gasoline and Petrol.
124: Cybernetics.
125: Cycling and Cycling Indices.
1: Half Title Page.
2: Editorial Board.
3: Title Page.
4: Copyright Page.
5: Dedication Page.
6: Contents.
7: Contents by Subject Area.
8: Preface.
9: Guide to the Encyclopedia.
10: Data Mining.
11: Death.
12: Decomposition and Mineralization.
13: Defense Strategies of Marine and Aquatic Organisms.
14: Deforestation.
15: Demography.
16: Denitrification.
17: Desert Streams.
18: Deserts.
19: Design Principles.
20: Detritus.
21: Development Capacity.
22: Dioxin.
23: Dispersal–Migration.
24: Dominance.
25: Dominance and Its Evolution.
26: Dormancy.
27: Dose–Response.
28: Driver–Pressure–State–Impact–Response.
29: Dunes.
30: Eco-Exergy as an Ecosystem Health Indicator.
31: Eco-Exergy to Emergy Flow Ratio.
32: Ecological Catastrophe.
33: Ecological Complexity.
34: Ecological Economics: Part 1.
35: Ecological Economics: Part 2.
36: Ecological Effects of Acidic Deposition.
37: Ecological Efficiency.
38: Ecological Engineering: Overview.
39: Ecological Feminism.
40: Ecological Footprint.
41: Ecological Health Indicators.
42: Ecological Informatics: Overview.
43: Ecological Models, Optimization.
44: Ecological Network Analysis, Ascendency.
45: Ecological Network Analysis, Energy Analysis.
46: Ecological Network Analysis, Environ Analysis.
47: Ecological Niche.
48: Ecological Risk Assessment.
49: Ecological Stoichiometry: Overview.
50: Ecological Systems Thinking.
51: Ecophysiology.
52: Ecosystem Ecology.
53: Ecosystem Health Indicators.
54: Ecosystem Patterns and Processes.
55: Ecosystem Services.
56: Ecosystems.
57: Ecotoxicological Model of Populations, Ecosystems, and Landscapes.
58: Ecotoxicology Nomenclature: LC, LD, LOC, LOEC, MAC.
59: Ecotoxicology: The Focal Topics.
60: Ecotoxicology: The History and Present Directions.
61: Edaphic Factor.
62: Edge Effect.
63: Emergent Properties.
64: Emergy.
65: Emergy and Network Analysis.
66: Empirical Models.
67: Endangered Species.
68: Endemism.
69: Endocrine Disruptors.
70: Endocrine Disruptors: Effect in Wildlife and Laboratory Animals.
71: Endocrine Disruptor Chemicals: Overview.
72: Endotherm.
73: Energy Balance.
74: Energy Flows in the Biosphere.
75: Entropy.
76: Entropy and Entropy Flows in the Biosphere.
77: Environmental and Biospheric Impacts of Nuclear War.
78: Environmental Impact Assessment and Application – Part 1.
79: Environmental Impact Assessment and Application – Part 2.
80: Environmental Impact of Sludge Treatment and Recycling in Reed Bed Systems.
81: Environmental Protection and Ecology.
82: Environmental Security.
83: Environmental Space.
84: Environmental Stress and Evolutionary Change.
85: Environmental Tolerance.
86: Enzymatic Processes.
87: Epidemiological Studies of Reproductive Effects in Humans.
88: Epifauna and Epiflora.
89: Equilibrium Concept in Phytoplankton Communities.
90: Erosion.
91: Estuaries.
92: Estuarine Ecohydrology.
93: Estuary Restoration.
94: Eukaryotes, Origin of.
95: Evapotranspiration.
96: Evolution of Defense Strategies.
97: Evolution of Oceans.
98: Evolution of ‘Prey–Predator’ Systems.
99: Evolutionary Algorithms.
100: Evolutionary and Biochemical Aspects.
101: Evolutionary Ecology: Overview.
102: Excretion.
103: Exergy.
104: Exergy Destruction as an Ecological Indicator.
105: Exploitation.
106: Exposure and Exposure Assessment.
107: Fecundity.
108: Feldmann Index.
109: Fermentation.
110: Fire.
111: Fish Growth.
112: Fisheries Management.
113: Fishery Models.
114: Fishes as Indicators of Estuarine Health and Estuarine Importance.
115: Fitness.
116: Fitness Landscapes.
117: Floodplains.
118: Food Chains and Food Webs.
119: Food Specialization.
120: Food-Web Bioaccumulation Models.
121: Forest Management.
122: Forest Models.
123: Forest Plantations.
124: Forestry Management.
125: Freshwater Lakes.
126: Freshwater Marshes.
127: Fundamental Laws in Ecology.
128: Fungal Defense Strategies.
129: Fungi and Their Role in the Biosphere.
130: Fuzzy Models.
1: Half Title Page.
2: Editorial Board.
3: Title Page.
4: Copyright Page.
5: Dedication Page.
6: Contents.
7: Contents by Subject Area.
8: Preface.
9: Guide to the Encyclopedia.
10: Gaia Hypothesis.
11: Gause’s Competitive Exclusion Principle.
12: Generation Time.
13: Global Change Impacts on the Biosphere.
14: Global Warming Potential and the Net Carbon Balance.
15: Goal Functions and Orientors.
16: Grassland Models.
17: Grazing.
18: Grazing Models.
19: Greenhouses, Microcosms, and Mesocosms.
20: Growth Constraints: Michaelis–Menten Equation and Liebig’s Law.
21: Growth Models.
22: Habitat.
23: Habitat Selection and Habitat Suitability Preferences.
24: Halogenated Hydrocarbons.
25: Hardy–Weinberg Equilibrium.
26: Herbivore-Predator Cycles.
27: Hierarchy Theory in Ecology.
28: Hill’s Postulates.
29: History of Ecology.
30: Homeostasis.
31: Homeotherms.
32: Hopfield Network.
33: Human Ecology: Overview.
34: Human Population Growth.
35: Hunting.
36: Hydrodynamic Models.
37: Hydrosphere.
38: Hysteresis.
39: Impoundments.
40: Imprinting.
41: Indirect Effects in Ecology.
42: Individual-Based Models.
43: Industrial Ecology.
44: Information and Information Flows in the Biosphere.
45: Insect Pest Models and Insecticide Application.
46: Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis.
47: Internet.
48: Intertidal Zonation.
49: Invasive Plants.
50: Invasive Species.
51: Iron Cycle.
52: Irrigation in Agriculture.
53: Island Biogeography.
54: Isolation.
55: k-Dominance Curves.
56: Kin Selection.
57: Lagoons.
58: Lake Models.
59: Lake Restoration.
60: Lake Restoration Methods.
61: Landfills.
62: Landscape Ecology.
63: Landscape Modeling.
64: Landscape Planning.
65: Land-Use Modeling.
66: Lead.
67: Leaf Area Index Models.
68: Leaf Area Index.
69: Learning.
70: Life Forms, Plants.
71: Life-Cycle Assessment.
72: Life-History Patterns.
73: Light Extinction.
74: Limiting Factors and Liebig’s Principle.
75: Limits to Growth.
76: Macroevolution.
77: Mangrove Wetlands.
78: Margalef’s Index.
79: Mariculture Waste Management.
80: Marine Models.
81: Mass Cultivation of Freshwater Microalgae.
82: Mass Production of Marine Macroalgae.
83: Material and Metal Ecology.
84: Mathematical Ecology.
85: Mating Systems.
86: Matrix Models.
87: Matter and Matter Flows in the Biosphere.
88: Maximum Sustainable Yield.
89: Mediterranean.
90: Mesocosm Management.
91: Metacommunities.
92: Metapopulation Models.
93: Methane in the Atmosphere.
94: Microbial Communities.
95: Microbial Cycles.
96: Marine and Aquatic Defense Strategies.
97: Microbial Ecological Processes: Aerobic/Anaerobic.
98: Microbial Ecology.
99: Microbial Models.
100: Microclimate.
101: Microcosms.
102: Mine Area Remediation.
103: Model Development and Analysis.
104: Model Types: Overview.
105: Modules in Modeling.
106: Monitoring, Observations, and Remote Sensing – Global Dimensions.
107: Monocultures versus Polycultures.
108: Mortality.
109: Multilayer Perceptron.
110: Multitrophic Integration for Sustainable Marine Aquaculture.
111: Mutagenesis.
112: Mutualism.
113: Natural Wetlands.
114: Neutral Theory.
115: Nitrification.
116: Nitrogen.
117: Nitrogen Cycle.
118: Noosphere.
119: Numerical Methods for Distributed Models.
120: Numerical Methods for Local Models.
121: Ocean Currents and Their Role in the Biosphere.
122: Optimal Foraging.
123: Optimal Foraging Theory.
124: Optimal Reproductive Tactics.
125: Ordination.
126: Organic Farming.
127: Organismal Ecophysiology.
128: Orientation, Navigation, and Searching.
129: Oxygen Cycle.
130: Ozone Layer.
1: Half Title Page.
2: Editorial Board.
3: Title Page.
4: Copyright Page.
5: Dedication Page.
6: Contents.
7: Contents by Subject Area.
8: Preface.
9: Guide to the Encyclopedia.
10: Paleoecology.
11: Panarchy.
12: Parameters.
13: Parasites.
14: Parasitism.
15: Participatory Modeling.
16: Peatlands.
17: Pedosphere.
18: Pelagic Predators.
19: Persistent Organic Pollutants.
20: Phenols.
21: Phenomenon of Life: General Aspects.
22: Phenotypic Plasticity.
23: Pheromones.
24: Philosophy of Ecology: Overview.
25: Phosphorus Cycle.
26: Photolysis.
27: Phthalates.
28: Physical Transport Processes in Ecology: Advection, Diffusion, and Dispersion.
29: Physiological Ecology.
30: Phytoremediation.
31: Phytosociology.
32: Pioneer Species.
33: Plant Competition.
34: Plant Defense.
35: Plant Defense Strategies.
36: Plant Demography.
37: Plant Ecology.
38: Plant Growth Models.
39: Plant Physiology.
40: Plutonium.
41: Poikilotherms.
42: Polar Terrestrial Ecology.
43: Pollination.
44: Pollution Indices.
45: Polychaetes/Amphipode Index.
46: Polychlorinated Biphenyls.
47: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons.
48: Population and Community Interactions.
49: Population Viability Analysis.
50: Populations: r- and K-Selection.
51: Precaution and Ecological Risk.
52: Precipitation Pattern.
53: Predation.
54: Prey–Predator Models.
55: Principal Components Analysis.
56: Radiation Balance and Solar Radiation Spectrum.
57: Radiation Ecology.
58: Radioactivity.
59: Radionuclides: Their Biogeochemical Cycles and the Impacts on the Biosphere.
60: Reaeration.
61: Recruitment.
62: Remote Sensing.
63: Reproductive Toxicity.
64: Resilience.
65: Resistance and Buffer Capacity.
66: Respiration.
67: Retrospective Analysis.
68: Rhizosphere Ecology.
69: Riparian Wetlands.
70: Riparian Zone Management and Restoration.
71: Risk Management Safety Factor.
72: River Models.
73: Rivers and Streams: Ecosystem Dynamics and Integrating Paradigms.
74: Rivers and Streams: Physical Setting and Adapted Biota.
75: Rocky Intertidal Zone.
76: r-Strategist/K-Strategists.
77: Saline and Soda Lakes.
78: Salinity.
79: Salt Marshes.
80: Saprobic System.
81: Savanna.
82: Scale.
83: Scavengers.
84: Schrödinger’s Ratio.
85: Seasonality.
86: Sediment Retention and Release.
87: Sediments: Setting, Transport, Mineralization, and Modeling.
88: Seed Dispersal.
89: Self-Organization.
90: Self-Organizing Map.
91: Semiotic Ecology.
92: Sensitivity and Uncertainty.
93: Sensitivity, Calibration, Validation, Verification.
94: Sewage Sludge Technologies.
95: Sex Ratio.
96: Shannon–Wiener Index.
97: Simpson Index.
98: Simulated Annealing.
99: Social Behavior.
100: Socioecological Systems.
101: Software.
102: Soil Ecology.
103: Soil Erosion by Water.
104: Soil Formation.
105: Soil Movement by Tillage and Other Agricultural Activities.
106: Spatial Distribution.
107: Spatial Distribution Models.
108: Spatial Models and Geographic Information Systems.
109: Spatial Subsidy.
110: Specific Exergy as Ecosystem Health Indicator.
111: Stability.
112: Stability versus Complexity.
113: Statistical Methods.
114: Statistical Prediction.
115: Steppes and Prairies.
116: Stream Management.
117: Stream Restoration.
118: Structural Dynamic Models.
119: Structure and History of Life.
120: Succession.
121: Sulfur Cycle.
122: Support Vector Machines.
123: Suspension Feeders.
124: Sustainable Development.
125: Swamps.
126: Sympatry.
127: Synecology.
128: Synthetic Polymers.
129: System Omnivory Index.
130: Systems Ecology.
1: Half Title Page.
2: Editorial Board.
3: Title Page.
4: Copyright Page.
5: Dedication Page.
6: Contents.
7: Contents by Subject Area.
8: Preface.
9: Guide to the Encyclopedia.
10: Taxis.
11: Technology for Sustainability.
12: Temperate Forest.
13: Temperature Patterns.
14: Temperature Regulation.
15: Temporary Waters.
16: Teratogenesis.
17: Terrestrial Arthropods.
18: The Significance of O2 for Biology.
19: Thermoregulation in Animals.
20: Tolerance Range.
21: Trace Elements.
22: Tragedy of the Ecological Commons.
23: Transport in Porous Media.
24: Transport over Membranes.
25: Tree Growth.
26: Trophic Classification for Lakes.
27: Trophic Index and Efficiency.
28: Trophic Structure.
29: Tropical Ecology.
30: Tropical Rainforest.
31: Tropical Seasonal Forest.
32: Tundra.
33: Turnover Time.
34: Units of Selection.
35: Upwelling Ecosystems.
36: Uranium.
37: Urban Systems.
38: Urbanization as a Global Ecological Process.
39: Veterinary Medicines.
40: Visualization and Interaction Design for Ecosystem Modeling.
41: Vitalism versus Physical–Chemical Explanations.
42: Volatalization.
43: Wastewater Treatment Models.
44: Water Availability.
45: Water Cycle.
46: Water Cycle Management.
47: Watershed Management.
48: Watershed Models.
49: Wavelet Network.
50: Waves as an Ecological Process.
51: Weathering.
52: Weed Control Models.
53: Wetland Models.
54: Wildlife Ecology.
55: Wind Effects.
56: Wind Shelterbelts.
57: Wireless Sensor Networks Enabling Ecoinformatics.
58: Xenobiotic (Pesticides, PCB, Dioxins) Cycles.
Appendix – Useful Tables of Ecological Properties.
List of Contributors.
Index.