eBook The International Encyclopedia of Revolution and Protest: 1500 to the Present, 1st Edition

  • Editor: Immanuel Ness
  • Published By:
  • ISBN-10: 1405198079
  • ISBN-13: 9781405198073
  • DDC: 303.6
  • Grade Level Range: College Freshman - College Senior
  • 4280 Pages | eBook
  • Original Copyright 2009 | Published/Released August 2013
  • This publication's content originally published in print form: 2009
  • Price:  Sign in for price

About

Overview

This definitive 8-volume reference is a comprehensive print and electronic resource covering the history of protest and revolution over the past 500 years throughout the modern era of mass movements. From the rebellion against the Peasant's Revolt in Germany to the Taiping Uprising in China, and from the Enlightenment-inspired revolutions in Europe and America to the anti-colonial revolts of Pancho Villa and the Mau Mau, it covers every major revolution that has altered societies or changed the course of history on a local, regional, national, and international scale. It presents major uprisings and protest movements, and the ideas, ideologies and activists that propelled them, chronicles the manner in which they unfolded, traces their roots, goals, tactics, and influence, and evaluates their successes and failures. No other reference examines in such detail or with such breadth the revolts and popular uprisings, large and small, that have transformed our world.

Contributors

Contributors

  • Immanuel Ness

Table of Contents

Front Cover.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Contents.
Notes on the Editors.
Notes on Contributors.
Introduction.
Acknowledgments.
Chronology of Significant Events in Revolution and Protest.
Lexicon.
Maps.
1: Abalone Alliance.
2: Abdurahman, Abdullah (1872–1940).
3: Aboriginal/Left Struggle for Land Rights.
4: Abraham Lincoln Brigade.
5: Abu-Jamal, Mumia (b. 1954).
6: Act Up.
7: Addams, Jane (1860–1935).
8: Adorno, Theodor W. (1903–1969).
9: Afghanistan, 1978 Revolution and Islamic Civil War.
10: Afghanistan, Resistance to 19th-century British Invasion.
11: African American Resistance, Jim Crow Era.
12: African American Resistance, Reconstruction Era.
13: African Blood Brotherhood.
14: Agbekoya Peasant Uprising and Rebellion, 1968–1969.
15: Aggett, Neil (1953–1982).
16: Agitprop.
17: Agüeybaná I (d. 1510) and Agüeybaná II (d. 1511).
18: Albania, Socialism.
19: Albanian Nationalism.
20: Albizu Campos, Pedro (1891–1965).
21: Alcatraz Uprising and the American Indian Movement.
22: Algerian Islamic Salvation Front.
23: Algerian National Revolution, 1954–1962.
24: Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana.
25: Alinsky, Saul (1909–1972) and the Industrial Areas Foundation.
26: Allende Gossens, Salvador (1908–1973).
27: Al-Sanusi, Muhammad Ibn Ali (ca. 1787–1859).
28: Alves, Margarida Maria (1943–1983).
29: Amana Inspirationist Utopians.
30: Ambedkar, B. R. (1891–1956).
31: American Civil War (1861–1864).
32: American Civil War Draft Riots.
33: American Civil War and Slavery.
34: American Left and Howard Zinn (b. 1922).
35: American Revolution of 1776.
36: American Slave Rebellions.
37: Amo, Anton Wilhelm (1703–1759) and Afro-Germans.
38: Anabaptist Movement.
39: Anarchism.
40: Anarchism, Argentina.
41: Anarchism, Australia.
42: Anarchism, Britain.
43: Anarchism, Canada.
44: Anarchism, Chile.
45: Anarchism, China.
46: Anarchism and Culture, 1840–1939.
47: Anarchism and Education.
48: Anarchism, Finland.
49: Anarchism, France.
50: Anarchism and Gender.
51: Anarchism, Greece.
52: Anarchism, Hungary.
53: Anarchism, Italy.
54: Anarchism, Japan.
55: Anarchism, Korea.
56: Anarchism, Mexico.
57: Anarchism, New Zealand.
58: Anarchism, Poland.
59: Anarchism, Puerto Rico.
60: Anarchism, Russia.
61: Anarchism and Sabotage.
62: Anarchism, Spain.
63: Anarchism and Syndicalism, Southern Africa.
64: Anarchism in the United States to 1945.
65: Anarchism in the United States, 1946–Present.
66: Anarchocommunism.
67: Anarchosyndicalism.
68: Andresote and the Revolt Against the Guipuzcaona (1731–1733).
69: Angolan National Liberation, 1961–1974.
70: Anthony, Susan B. (1820–1906).
71: Anti-Apartheid Movement, South Africa.
72: Anti-Corn Law Agitation, Britain, 19th Century.
73: Anti-Fascist People's Front.
74: Anti-Franco Worker Struggles, 1939–1975.
75: Anti-Japanese Boycotts, Early 20th Century.
76: Anti-Monarchy Protests, Portugal.
77: Anti-Napoleonic Wars of Liberation (1813–1815).
78: Anti-Nuclear Campaign, Britain.
79: Anti-Nuclear Movement, Japan.
80: Anti-Nuclear Protest Movements.
81: Anti-Nuclear Protests, Marshall Islands.
82: Anti-Racist Action (ARA).
83: Anti-Slavery Movement, Britain.
84: Anti-Slavery Movement, British, and the Black Response to Colonization.
85: Anti-Slavery Movement, British, and the Founding of Sierra Leone.
86: Anti-Slavery Movement, United States, 1700–1870.
87: Anti-Vietnam War Movement, Britain.
88: Anti-Vietnam War Movement, United States.
89: Anti-War Activism, Yugoslavia, 1990s.
90: Anti-War Movement, France, 20th Century.
91: Anti-War Movement, Iraq.
92: April Revolution, Nepal, 2006.
93: Aptheker, Herbert (1915–2003).
94: Arab Left and Socialist Movements, 1861–1930.
95: Aracaré (d. 1542).
96: Arafat, Yasser (1929–2004), Fatah, and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO).
97: Arbenz, Jacobo Guzmán (1913–1971).
98: Arch, Joseph (1826–1919).
99: Arendt, Hannah (1906–1975).
100: Argentina, Armed Struggle and Guerilla Organizations, 1960s–1970s.
101: Argentina, General Strike (Semana Trágica), 1919.
102: Argentina, General Strike, 1975.
103: Argentina, Grassroots Workers' Movement: Villa Constitución, 1975.
104: Argentina, Grito de Alcorta Peasant Rebellion, 1912.
105: Argentina, Human Rights Movement.
106: Argentina, Indigenous Popular Protests.
107: Argentina, Labor Strikes of 1890 and 1902.
108: Argentina, Labor Unions and Protests of the Unemployed, 1990s.
109: Argentina, Piquetero Movement.
110: Argentina, Semana Roja, 1909.
111: Argentina, Social and Political Protest, 2001–2007.
112: Argentina, Socialist and Communist Workers' Movement.
113: Argentina, University Reform, 1918.
114: Argentina, Worker Actions, October 17, 1945.
115: Argentina, Worker Strikes in Patagonia, 1920–1921.
116: Aristide, Jean-Bertrand (b. 1953).
117: Armenia, Mass Protest and Popular Mobilization, 1980s to Present.
118: Armenian Resistance, 1915.
119: Artigas, Gervasio José (1764–1850).
120: Arundel, Lady Blanche (1583–1649).
121: Assembly of the Poor.
122: Asturias Uprising, October 1934.
123: Atatürk, Mustafa Kemal (1881–1938).
124: Atlantic Port Seaman Resistance, American Revolutionary Era.
125: Attac (Association for the Taxation of Financial Transactions for the Aid Of Citizens).
126: Aung San (1915–1947).
127: Australia, Anti-War Movement.
128: Australia, New Social Movements.
129: Australian Aboriginal Protests.
130: Australian Labor Movement.
131: Australian Left.
132: Austria, 20th-Century Protests.
133: Austro-Marxism.
134: Autonomism.
135: Ayim, May (1960–1996).
136: Babel, Isaac (1894–1941).
137: Babeuf, François-Noël (1760–1797) and the Conspiracy of Equals.
138: Bacha-i Sakkao's Movement.
139: Bacon's Rebellion.
140: Bain, J. T. (1860–1919).
141: Baker, Ella Josephine (1903–1986).
142: Bakunin, Mikhail Alexandrovich (1814–1876).
143: Balkan Socialist Confederation, 1910–1948.
144: Baltic Protests in the 20th Century.
145: Banana Plantation Worker Rebellion, 1928.
146: Bangladesh, Struggle for Liberation, 1971.
147: Baraka, Imanu Amiri (b. 1934).
148: Barayi, Elijah (1930–1994).
149: Barbados and the Windward Islands, Protest and Revolt.
150: Barcelona General Strike, 1919.
151: Barzani, Mulla Mustafa (1903–1979).
152: Bastille.
153: Bauer, Otto (1881–1938).
154: Beauvoir, Simone de (1908–1986).
155: Beethoven, Ludwig Van (1770–1827).
156: Begin, Menachem (1913–1992) and the Irgun.
157: Belgium, 1959 Coal Strike.
158: Belgium, Strike of the Century, 1960–1961.
159: Belgium, 20th-Century Political Conflict.
160: Belize, General Strikes, 1952.
161: Belize, National Independence Movement.
162: Ben Bella, Ahmad (b. 1918).
163: Benezet, Anthony (1713–1784).
164: Bengal, Popular Uprisings and Movements in the Colonial Era.
165: Ben-Gurion, David (1886–1973) and the Haganah.
166: Benjamin, Walter (1892–1940).
167: Berkeley Free Speech Movement.
168: Berkman, Alexander (1870–1936).
169: Berlinguer, Enrico (1922–1984).
170: Bernstein, Eduard (1850–1932).
171: Betances, Ramón Emeterio (1827–1898).
172: Bethune, Henry Norman (1890–1939).
173: Bezerra, Gregório (1900–1983).
174: Biennio Rosso (1919–1920).
175: Biermann, Wolf (b. 1936).
176: Bin Laden, Osama (b. 1957) and Al-Qaeda.
177: Bishop, Maurice (1944–1983).
178: Black Nationalism, 19th and 20th Centuries.
179: Black Panthers.
180: Black September.
181: Blake, William (1757–1827).
182: Blanc, Louis (1811–1882).
183: Blanqui, Louis Auguste (1805–1881).
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
1: Bloch, Marc (1886–1944).
2: Bloody Sunday Demonstration, 1887.
3: Boal, Augusto (b. 1931).
4: Bogotazo and la Violencia.
5: Böhm, Hans (Also Hans Behem) (1458?–1476).
6: Bolívar, Simón (1783–1830).
7: Bolivarianism, Venezuela.
8: Bolivia, Protest and Repression, 1964–2000.
9: Bolivia, Struggle for Independence, 1809–1825.
10: Bolivia, War of the Pacific to the National Revolution, 1879–1952.
11: Bolivian Neoliberalism, Social Mobilization, and Revolution from Below, 2003 and 2005.
12: Bolotnikov's Rebellion, 1606–1607.
13: Bolsheviks.
14: Bonaparte, Louis-Napoleon (1808–1873).
15: Bonaparte, Napoleon (1769–1821).
16: Bonifacio, Andres (1863–1897).
17: Bonus Army Unemployed Movement, 1932.
18: Bordiga, Amadeo (1889–1970) and the Italian Communist Party.
19: Borge, Tomás (b. 1936).
20: Bose, Subhas Chandra (1897–1945).
21: Boston Tea Party.
22: Botswana, Protest and Nationalism.
23: Bourses Du Travail.
24: Brand, Adolf (1874–1945).
25: Brandreth, Jeremiah (1790–1817) and the Pentrich Rising.
26: Brazil, Guerilla Movements, 20th Century.
27: Brazil, Labor Struggles.
28: Brazil, Peasant Movements and Liberation Theology.
29: Brazil, Rebellions from Independence to the Republic (1700s–1889).
30: Brazil, Workers, and the Left: Partido Dos Trabalhadores and Central Única Dos Trabalhadores.
31: Bread and Puppet Theater.
32: Bread Riots, Britain, 1795.
33: Bread and Roses Strike.
34: Brecht, Bertolt (1898–1956).
35: Brissot, Jacques Pierre (1754–1793).
36: Bristol Riots, 1831.
37: Britain, Anti-War Movement, 1775–1783.
38: Britain, Peasant Uprisings, 16th Century.
39: Britain, Post-World War I Army Mutinies and Revolutionary Threats.
40: Britain, Post-World War II Political Protest.
41: Britain, Renaissanceera Conflict.
42: Britain, Strikes, 1905–1926.
43: Britain, Trade Union Movement.
44: Britain, Women's Suffrage Campaign.
45: British Miners' Strike, 1984–1985.
46: Brixton Riots, 1981.
47: Brown, H. Rap (b. 1943).
48: Brown, John (1800–1859).
49: Bukharin, Nikolai Ivanovich (1888–1938).
50: Bulavin's Rebellion, 1707–1708.
51: Bulgaria, Anti-Soviet Movements.
52: Bulgaria, Independence Movement, 1830–1835.
53: Bulgaria, Protests Against Economic Hardships, 1990s.
54: Bulgaria 20th-Century Leftist and Workers' Movements.
55: Bulgaria, World War II Resistance and the Rise of Communism.
56: Buonarroti, Philippe (1761–1837).
57: Burdett, Sir Francis (1770–1844).
58: Burkina Faso, Revolution, 1983.
59: Burma, Democracy Movement.
60: Burma, National Movement Against British Colonial Rule.
61: Burschenschaften.
62: Bussa (d. 1816) and the Barbados Slave Insurrection.
63: Cabanagem of Grão-Pará, Brazil, 1835–1840.
64: Cabañas, Lucio (1938–1974).
65: Cabral, Amilcar (1924–1973).
66: Calvin, John (1509–1564).
67: Cambodia, Anti-Colonial Protests, 1863–1945.
68: Cambodia, Communist Protests and Revolution.
69: Cambodia, Rebellion Against France.
70: Camejo, Pedro or Negro Primero (1790–1821).
71: Cameroon, Popular Anti-Colonial Protest.
72: Camus, Albert (1913–1960).
73: Canada, Indigenous Resistance.
74: Canada, Labor Protests.
75: Canada, Law and Public Protest: History.
76: Canada, Rebellion of 1837–1838.
77: Cannon, James P. (1890–1974) and American Trotskyism.
78: Canudos, Religion and Rebellion in 19th-Century Brazil.
79: Caonabo (d. 1496).
80: Cape Verde, Independence Struggle.
81: Caracazo, 1989.
82: Cardenal, Ernesto (b. 1925).
83: Cárdenas, Lázaro (1895–1970).
84: Caribbean Islands, Protests Against IMF.
85: Caribbean Protest Music.
86: Carmichael, Stokely/Kwame Turé (1941–1998).
87: Carney, James Francis “Guadalupe” (1925–1983?).
88: Carson, Rachel (1907–1964).
89: Casa Del Obrero Mundial.
90: Casement, Roger (1864–1916).
91: Caste War of Yucatan (Guerra de Castas En Yucatán).
92: Castoriadis, Cornelius (1922–1997).
93: Castro, Fidel (b. 1926).
94: Catalan Protests Against Centralism.
95: Catholic Emancipation.
96: Catholic Worker Movement.
97: Cedar Revolution, Lebanon.
98: Central America, Music and Resistance.
99: Central Asian Protest Movements.
100: Césaire, Aimé (1913–2008).
101: Chakravartty, Renu (1917–1994).
102: Charismatic Leadership and Revolution.
103: Charter 77.
104: Chartists.
105: Charusathira, Prapas (1912–1997).
106: Chávez, César (1927–1993) and the United Farm Workers.
107: Chávez, Hugo (b. 1954).
108: Chávez, Hugo and the Bolivarian Revolution, 1998–Present.
109: Chen Duxiu (1879–1942).
110: Chernov, Victor (1873–1952).
111: Chernyshevsky, Nikolai G. (1828–1889).
112: Chile and the Peaceful Road to Socialism.
113: Chile, People's Power.
114: Chile, Popular Resistance Against Pinochet.
115: Chile, Protests and Military Coup, 1973.
116: Chile, Social and Political Struggles, 1850–1970.
117: Chilembwe, John (1871–1915).
118: Chiluba, Frederick (b. 1943).
119: Chimurenga Armed Struggles.
120: China, Maoism and Popular Power, 1949–1969.
121: China, May 4th Movement.
122: China, Peasant Revolts in the Empire.
123: China, Protest and Revolution, 1800–1911.
124: China, Student Protests, 20th Century.
125: Chinese Communist Revolution, 1925–1949.
126: Chinese Nationalist Revolution, 1911.
127: Chipko Movement.
128: Chirinos, José Leonardo (d. 1796).
129: Chissano, Juaquim (b. 1939).
130: Chomsky, Noam (b. 1928).
131: Civil Rights Movement, United States, 1960–1965.
132: Civil Rights, United States, Black Power and Backlash, 1965–1978.
133: Civil Rights, United States: Overview.
134: Clarkson, Thomas (1760–1846).
135: Class Identity and Protest.
136: Class, Poverty, and Revolution.
137: Class Struggle.
138: Clayoquot Sound.
139: Cobbett, William (1763–1835).
140: Cocaleros Peasant Uprising.
141: Cochabamba Water Wars.
142: Cohn-Bendit, Daniel (b. 1945).
143: Collins, Michael (1890–1922).
144: Colombia, Afro-Colombian Movements and Anti-Racist Protests.
145: Colombia, Anti-War Movements, 1990–2008.
146: Colombia, Armed Insurgency, Peasant Self-Defense, and Radical Popular Movements, 1960s–1970s.
147: Colombia, Armed Insurgency, Peasant Self-Defense, and Radical Popular Movements, 1970s–1990s.
148: Colombia, Indigenous Mobilization.
149: Colombia, Labor Insurrection and the Socialist Revolutionary Party, 1920s–1930s.
150: Colombia, Thousand Days' War, 1899–1902.
151: Colombia, Unions, Strikes, and Anti-Neoliberal Opposition, 1990–2005.
152: Color Revolutions.
153: Columbia University Civil Rights Protests.
154: Combination Laws and Revolutionary Trade Unionism.
155: Commoner, Barry (b. 1917).
156: Communist Manifesto.
157: Communist Party of Australia.
158: Communist Party, France.
159: Communist Party, Germany.
160: Communist Party NZ and the New Zealand Revolutionary Left.
161: Communist Party of South Africa, 1921–1950.
162: Communist Party of the United States of America (CPUSA).
163: Comte, Auguste (1798–1857).
164: Comunero Movement.
165: Concordia University Student Protests.
166: Condorcet, Marquis de (1743–1794).
167: Confederación Nacional Del Trabajo (CNT).
168: Confédération Générale Du Travail and Syndicaliste Révolutionnaire.
169: Congo Armed Insurgency, Mobutu Decamps.
170: Congo, Brazzaville Protest and Revolt.
171: Congo Crisis, 1960–1965.
172: Congo, Kinshasa Protest and Revolt.
173: Congo, Protest and Uprisings, 1998–2002.
174: Connolly, James (1868–1916).
175: Cooperative Commonwealth.
176: Cop Watch Los Angeles.
177: Cordobazo and Rosariazo Uprising, 1969.
178: CORE (Congress of Racial Equality).
179: Cornelissen, Christianus Gerardus (1864–1942).
180: Correa, Rafael (b. 1963).
181: Corsican Independence Movement.
182: COSATU (Congress of South African Trade Unions).
183: Costa, Afonso Augusto da (1871–1937).
184: Costa Rican Civil War and Uprising, 1948.
185: Côte d'Ivoire, Post-Independence Protest.
186: Côte D'Ivoire, Pre-Independence Protest and Liberation.
187: Counterrecruitment.
188: Counterrevolution.
189: Counterrevolution, France, 1789–1830.
190: Courbet, Gustave (1819–1877).
191: Coxey's Army and the Unemployed Movement.
192: Crazy Horse (1849–1877), Sitting Bull (1831–1890), and Native American Resistance at the Battle of Little Bighorn.
193: Cristero Uprising, Mexico, 1928.
194: Critical Mass.
195: Critical Theory.
196: Cromwell, Oliver (1599–1658).
197: Cuauhtémoc (1502–1525).
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
1: Davitt, Michael (1846–1906).
2: Day, Dorothy (1897–1980).
3: De Silva, Colvin Reginald (1907–1989).
4: De Valera, Eamon (1882–1975).
5: Debord, Guy (1931–1994) and the Spectacle.
6: Debs, Eugene (1855–1926).
7: Decembrists to the Rise of Russian Marxism.
8: Deleuze, Gilles (1925–1995), Guattari, Félix (1930–1992), and the Global Justice Movement.
9: Demerara Slave Rebellion, 1823.
10: Democracy Wall Movement, 1979.
11: Deng Xiaoping (1904–1997).
12: Denmark, Insurrection and Revolt.
13: Despard, Colonel Edward Marcus (1751–1803) and the Despard Conspiracy.
14: Dessalines, Jean-Jacques (1758–1806).
15: Deutscher, Isaac (1907–1967).
16: Di Vittorio, Giuseppe (1892–1957).
17: Díaz Soto y Gama, Antonio (1880–1967).
18: Dictatorship of the Proletariat.
19: Diderot, Denis (1713–1784).
20: Dimitrov, Georgi (1882–1949).
21: Directory, France, 1795–1799.
22: Diriangén (1496 or 1497–1530s).
23: Disobbedienti/Tute Bianche.
24: Dix, Dorothea (1802–1887).
25: Djilas, Milovan (1911–1995).
26: Dominican Republic, Protest and Resistance to US Imperialism, 1916–1962.
27: Dominican Republic, Protests, 1844–1915.
28: Dominican Republic, Resistance to Military and US Invasion, 1963–1965.
29: Douglass, Frederick (1817–1895).
30: Dreyfus Affair.
31: Du Bois, W. E. B. (1868–1963).
32: Dubček, Alexander (1921–1992).
33: Dublin General Strike, 1913.
34: Dunayevskaya, Raya (1910–1987).
35: Dunbar, Andrew (1879–1964).
36: Durrani Empire, Popular Protests, 1747–1823.
37: Durruti, Buenaventura (1896–1936).
38: Dutch Caribbean, Protest and Revolution, 1815–2000.
39: Dutch Revolt, 1568–1648.
40: Dutschke, Rudi (1940–1979).
41: Earth First!.
42: East Anglian Wheat County Riots, 1816.
43: East Timor, Anticolonial Struggle, 1974 to Independence.
44: Easter Rising and the Irish Civil War.
45: Eastman, Max (1883–1969).
46: Eco-Anarchism.
47: Ecological Protest Movements.
48: Ecuador, Indigenous and Popular Struggles.
49: Ecuador, Left and Popular Movements, 1940s to Present.
50: Ecuador, Popular and Indigenous Uprisings under the Correa Government.
51: Ecuador, Protest and Revolution.
52: Edict of Nantes.
53: Egypt and Arab Socialism.
54: Egypt, Peasant Rebellion of 1824.
55: Egypt, Revolution of 1952.
56: Eighteenth Brumaire.
57: Eisenstein, Sergei (1898–1948).
58: Ejército de Liberación Nacional, Colombia.
59: El Argentinazo, December 19 and 20, 2001.
60: Ellis, Daniel Edward “Daan” (1904–1963).
61: Emmet, Robert (1778–1803) and Emmet's Rebellion.
62: Enclosure Movement, Protests Against.
63: Engels, Friedrich (1820–1895).
64: English Reformation.
65: English Revolution, 17th Century.
66: English Revolution, Radical Sects.
67: English Revolution, Women and.
68: Enlightenment, France, 18th Century.
69: Enriquillo and the Taíno Revolt (1519–1533).
70: Environmental Protest, United States, 19th Century.
71: EPL Maoist Guerilla Movement.
72: EPR (Ejército Popular Revolucionario).
73: Equiano, Olaudah (1745–1797).
74: Escuela Moderna Movement (the Modern School).
75: Estates General, France.
76: ETA Liberation Front (Euzkadi Ta Askatasuna) and Basque Nationalism.
77: Ethiopia, Revolution of 194.
78: Ethnic and Nationalist Revolts in the Hapsburg Empire, 1500–1848.
79: Eureka Stockade.
80: Eurocommunism.
81: EuroMayDay.
82: European Revolutions of 1848.
83: European Union Summit Protests, Gothenburg, 2001.
84: Evers, Medgar (1925–1963).
85: Ezeiza Protest and Massacre, 1973.
86: Fahd, Yusuf Salman Yusuf (1901–1949).
87: Faiz Ahmed Faiz (1911–1984).
88: Fanelli, Giuseppe (1826–1877).
89: Fanon, Frantz (1925–1961).
90: Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front (FMLN).
91: FARC (Revolutionary Armed Forces and Popular Liberation Army).
92: Farm Labor Organizing Committee.
93: Fascism, Protest and Revolution.
94: Father Rapp (1757–1847) and Harmony.
95: Fawkes, Guy (1570–1606) and the Gunpowder Plot.
96: Federación Anarquista Ibérica (FAI).
97: Federation of Salvadoran Workers (FENASTRAS).
98: Fell, Margaret (1614–1702).
99: Feminist Performance.
100: Fenian Movement.
101: Feuchtwanger, Lion (1884–1958).
102: Fifth Monarchist Women.
103: Fiji, Parliamentary Insurrection.
104: Finland, Civil War and Revolution, 1914–1918.
105: Fitzgerald, Lord Edward (1763–1798).
106: Flynn, Elizabeth Gurley (1890–1964).
107: Fo, Dario (b. 1926).
108: Fonseca, Carlos (1936–1976).
109: Food Not Bombs, United States.
110: Food Riots.
111: Food Sovereignty and Protest.
112: Foreign Intervention and Revolution.
113: Foster, William Z. (1881–1961).
114: Foucault, Michel (1926–1984).
115: Fourier, Charles François Marie (1772–1837) and the Phalanx Utopians.
116: Fox, Charles James (1749–1806).
117: Fox, George (1624–1691).
118: FPMR (Frente Patriotico Manuel Rodriguez).
119: France, 1830 Revolution.
120: France, June Days, 1848.
121: France, Post-World War II Labor Protests.
122: France, Resistance to Nazism.
123: France, Revolution of 1848.
124: Francophone Africa, Protest and Independence.
125: Frankfurt School (Jewish Émigrés).
126: Freedom Rides.
127: Freedom Summer.
128: Freire, Paulo (1921–1997).
129: Frelimo (Frente de Libertação de Moçambique).
130: French Caribbean in the Age of Revolution.
131: French Guiana, Ecological Movements Against the Guiana Space Center in Kourou.
132: French Guiana, Indigenous Rebellions.
133: French Guiana, Political Movements Against Departmentalization.
134: French Polynesia, Protest Movements.
135: French Revolution, 1789–1794.
136: French Revolution, Historians' Interpretations.
137: French Revolution, Radical Factions and Organizations.
138: French Revolution, Women and.
139: French Revolutionary Theater.
140: Friedan, Betty (1921–2006).
141: Friedländer, Benedikt (1866–1908).
142: Fries's Rebellion.
143: Fromm, Erich (1900–1980).
144: Fronde, France, 1648–1653.
145: Fuller, Margaret (1810–1850).
146: G8 Protests, Genoa, 2001.
147: G8 Protests, Gleneagles, 2005.
148: G8 Protests, Heiligendamm, June 2007.
149: Gabriel's Rebellion.
150: Gaitán, Jorge Eliécer (1898–1948), Unir, and Revolutionary Populism in Colombia.
151: Galleani, Luigi (1861–1931).
152: Gambetta, Léon (1838–1882).
153: Gandhi, Mohandas Karamchand (1869–1948).
154: Garibaldi, Giuseppe (1807–1882).
155: Garrison, William Lloyd (1805–1879).
156: Garvey, Marcus (1887–1940) and Garveyism.
157: German Democratic Republic Protests, 1945–1989.
158: German Nationalism and Workers' Movements, 19th Century.
159: German Peasant Rebellion, 1525.
160: German Reformation.
161: German Revolution, 1918–1923.
162: Germany, Green Movement.
163: Germany, Red Army Faction (Baader-Meinhof Group).
164: Germany, Resistance to Nazism.
165: Germany, Socialism and Nationalism.
166: Ghana, Nationalism and Socialist Transition.
167: Giustizia e Libertà, Partito d'Azione.
168: Glasgow General Strike, 1820.
169: Glencoe Massacre, 1692.
170: Global Day of Action Against Capitalism, June 18 (J18), 1999.
171: Global Day of Action Against the IMF and World Bank, Prague, September 26 (S26), 2000.
172: Global Justice Movement and Resistance.
173: Glorious Revolution, Britain, 1688.
174: Godwin, William (1756–1836).
175: Goldman, Emma (1869–1940).
176: Gomas, Johnny (1901–1979).
177: Gonne, Maud (1866–1953).
178: Gorbachev, Mikhail (b. 1931).
179: Gordon “No Popery” Riots, Britain, 1780.
180: Gori, Pietro (1865–1911).
181: Gorz, André (1923–2007).
182: Gouges, Olympe de (1745–1793).
183: Gramsci, Antonio (1891–1937).
184: Grandmothers of the Plaza de Mayo.
185: Grass, Günter (b. 1927).
186: Grassroots Resistance to Corporate Globalization.
187: Greece, Anti-Dictatorship Protests.
188: Greece, Partisan Resistance.
189: Greece, Socialism, Communism, and the Left, 1850–1974.
190: Greece, Socialism, Communism, and the Left, 1974–2008.
191: Greek Nationalism.
192: Green Bans Movement, Australia.
193: Greencorn Rebellion, Oklahoma, 1917.
194: Greenpeace.
195: Grenadian Revolution, 1979–1983.
196: Grimké, Angelina (1805–1879) and Sarah (1792–1873).
197: Grove Vallejo, Marmaduke (1879–1954).
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
1: Haiti, Revolutionary Revolts, 1790s.
2: Haiti, Revolutionary Struggles.
3: Haiti, Saint-Domingue Revolution, 1789–1804, Aftermath.
4: Haiti, Saint-Domingue and Revolutionary France.
5: Haitian Revolution and Independence, 1801–1804.
6: Hamas: Origins and Development.
7: Hampton, Fred (1948–1969).
8: Hani, Chris (1942–1993).
9: Hardy, Thomas (1752–1832).
10: Harlem Renaissance.
11: Harris, Charles (1896–1939).
12: Hasan al-Banna (1906–1949) and the Muslim Brotherhood.
13: Hatta Shūzō (1886–1934).
14: Hatuey (ca. 1400s–1512).
15: Hauptmann, Gerhart (1862–1946).
16: Havel, Václav (b. 1936).
17: Hawaii, Resistance to US Invasion and Occupation.
18: Haya de la Torre, Victor Raúl (1895–1979).
19: Haymarket Tragedy.
20: Haywood, Big Bill (1869–1828).
21: Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich (1770–1831).
22: Herzen, Alexander Ivanovich (1812–1870).
23: Hezbollah: Organization and Uprisings.
24: Hidalgo y Costilla, Miguel (1753–1811).
25: HIJOS Movement, Children of the Disappeared.
26: Hilferding, Rudolf (1877–1941).
27: Hindu Nationalism, Hindutva, and Women.
28: Hirschfeld, Magnus (1868–1935).
29: Hitler, Adolf (1889–1945) and German Nazism.
30: Hitler, Assassination Plot of July 20, 1944.
31: Hlinka, Andrej (1864–1938) and the Slovak People's Party.
32: Hô Chi Minh (Nguyen Tat Thanh) (1890–1969).
33: Hobbes, Thomas (1588–1679).
34: Holbach, Baron d' (1723–1789).
35: Hollywood Ten.
36: Honduran General Strike of 1954.
37: Hong Kong Democracy Protests.
38: Horne Tooke, John (1736–1812).
39: Hôtel de Ville, Paris.
40: House, Callie (1861–1928).
41: Hoy, Senna (1882–1914).
42: Huerta, Dolores (b. 1930).
43: Hugo, Victor (1802–1885).
44: Huk Rebellion, 1946–1954.
45: Hungary, Anti-Communist Protests, 1945–1989.
46: Hungary, Protests, 1815–1920.
47: Hungary, Revolution of 1848.
48: Hungary, Revolution of 1956.
49: Hungary, Women Radicals, 1848–1849.
50: Hunt, Henry “Orator” (1773–1835).
51: Hutchinson, Anne (1591–1643).
52: Hutterites.
53: Hyde, Evan Anthony (b. 1947).
54: Ibrahim, Mirza (ca. 1906–2000).
55: Ibrahim, Saad Eddin (b. 1938).
56: Icaria Utopian Community.
57: Ife–Modakeke Conflict.
58: Immigrant Protests, United States, 2000s.
59: Immigrant and Social Conflict, France.
60: Imperialism and Capitalist Development.
61: Imperialism, Historical Evolution.
62: Imperialism, Modernization to Globalization.
63: India, Armed Struggle in the Independence Movement.
64: India, Civil Disobedience Movement and Demand for Independence.
65: India, Great Rebellion of 1857 (the Sepoy Revolt).
66: India, Hindutva and Fascist Mobilizations, 1989–2002.
67: India, Nationalism, Extremist.
68: India, Non-Violent Non-Cooperation Movement, 1918–1929.
69: India, Post-World War II Upsurge.
70: Indian National Liberation.
71: Indigo Rebellion.
72: Indochina, World War II and Liberation in.
73: Indonesia, Colonial Protests, 16th Century to 1900.
74: Indonesian Pro-Democracy Protests.
75: Indonesian Protests Against Suharto Dictatorship.
76: Indonesian Revolution and Counterrevolution.
77: Industrial Workers of the World (IWW).
78: Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), Australia.
79: Indymedia Global Justice Campaign, 2000s.
80: Infoshops.
81: International Congress of Women at the Hague.
82: International Socialism: Mass Politics.
83: International Women's Day.
84: Industrial Workers of the World, Marine Transport Workers.
85: Internationals.
86: Intifada I and Intifada II.
87: Iqbal, Muhammad (1877–1938).
88: Iran, Kurdish National Autonomy Movement.
89: Iran, the Mossadegh Era: Democratic Socialists and the US-Backed Coup.
90: Iran, Political and Cultural Protests, 1844–1914.
91: Iranian Revolution, 1979.
92: Iraq, Anti-British Nationalists.
93: Iraq, Protest, Rebellion, and Revolution: Overview.
94: Iraq, Revolt of 1920.
95: Iraq, Revolution of 1958.
96: Iraqi Resistance, 1991–2007.
97: Ireland, Age of Revolutions, 1775–1803.
98: Ireland, Great Rebellion, 1798.
99: Ireland, the Troubles.
100: Irish Nationalism.
101: Irish Republican Army (IRA).
102: Irish Republican Army Resistance Campaign.
103: Irish Revolts, 1400–1790.
104: Ishikawa Sanshirō (1876–1956).
105: Islamic Political Currents.
106: Israeli Peace Movement.
107: Israeli Settlers Movement.
108: Italian Communist Party.
109: Italian Labor Movement.
110: Italian Risorgimento.
111: Italian Socialist Party.
112: Italy, Anti-Racist Movement.
113: Italy, Anti-War Movement, 1980–2005.
114: Italy, Centri Sociali.
115: Italy, from the Anti-Fascist Resistance to the New Left (1945–1960).
116: Italy, from the New Left to the Great Repression (1962–1981).
117: Italy, New Syndicalism, Cobas, and Precarious Workers' Organization.
118: Italy, Operaism and Post-Operaism.
119: Italy, Peasant Movements, 19th–20th Centuries.
120: Italy, 17th-Century Revolts in the South.
121: Itō Noe (1895–1923).
122: Jabotinsky, Vladimir (Ze'ev) (1880–1940) and Revisionist Zionism.
123: Jackson, Jesse (b. 1941).
124: Jacobite Risings, Britain, 1715 and 1745.
125: Jagan, Cheddi (1918–1997).
126: Jalib, Habib (1928–1993).
127: Jamaica, Independence Movement, 1950–present.
128: Jamaica, 1938 Labor Riots.
129: Jamaica, Peasant Uprisings, 19th Century.
130: Jamaica, Rebellion and Resistance, 1760–1834.
131: James, C. L. R. (1901–1989).
132: Japan, Community Labor Union Movement.
133: Japan, Labor Protest, 1945–Present.
134: Japan, Pacifist Movement, 1945–Present.
135: Japan, Post-World War II Protest Movements.
136: Japan, Protest and Revolt, 1800–1945.
137: Japan, Resistance to Construction of Narita Airport.
138: Japan Socialist Party (JSP).
139: Japanese Communist Party.
140: Jara, Víctor (1932–1973).
141: Jaurès, Jean (1859