eBook U.S. Justice System: An Encyclopedia, 1st Edition

  • Steven Harmon Wilson
  • Published By:
  • ISBN-10: 1598843052
  • ISBN-13: 9781598843057
  • DDC: 349.7303
  • Grade Level Range: 9th Grade - College Senior
  • 1100 Pages | eBook
  • Original Copyright 2012 | Published/Released February 2012
  • This publication's content originally published in print form: 2012
  • Price:  Sign in for price

About

Overview

The U.S. JUSTICE SYSTEM: AN ENCYCLOPEDIA is a one-stop resource, uniquely structured to include both introductory information as well as more in-depth and detailed resources. It explains not only how the American civil and criminal justice system affects the parties to a particular case or other legal action, but also how the rights, benefits, and legal protections of our country impact virtually all people in America. The set comprises three volumes. The first volume provides chapter-length essays explaining the organization and functioning of federal, state, and local government, as well as the working of federal and state judiciaries, regulatory bodies, and penal systems. The second volume contains shorter, alphabetically arranged entries on hundreds of law-related topics, including case descriptions and biographies of major figures, federal and state court organizational charts, legal statistics, and other background information. The third volume contains original documents, statutes, and texts of important cases relevant to the functioning of the American justice system. Readers will understand the structures, concepts, and vocabulary of American law and legal institutions, and grasp how the U.S. legal system has evolved to meet the complex changing needs of the nation.

Table of Contents

Front Cover.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Dedication.
Contents.
Preface.
Acknowledgments.
Introduction.
1: Law and Constitution in Early America.
2: The Structure and Function of the Federal Government.
3: The Federal Judiciary.
4: The State Judiciary.
5: Judicial Procedure, Power, and Policy in America.
6: Administrative Law, Bureaucracies, and Regulatory Enforcement.
7: The Civil Justice System and Civil Procedure in the United States.
8: Public Law Litigation and Public Interest Law in the United States.
9: The Criminal Justice System in the United States.
10: Criminal Procedure in the United States.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
List of A–Z Entries.
1: Administrative Law Judge.
2: Administrative Office of the United States Courts.
3: Administrative Office of the United States Courts, Office of the Director.
4: Admiralty and Maritime Law.
5: Adversary System.
6: Adverse Litigants.
7: Advisory Opinion.
8: Affirmative Action.
9: Amendment Process.
10: American Veterans.
11: Appellate Courts.
12: Arab-American Anti-Discrimination Committee.
13: Bailey, Francis Lee, Jr..
14: Baker v. Carr.
15: Bill of Rights.
16: Bills of Attainder.
17: Bivens v. Six Unknown Named Federal Narcotics Agents.
18: Blackstone, William.
19: Border Searches.
20: Case-Flow Management.
21: Censorship.
22: Checks and Balances.
23: City of Akron v. Akron Center for Reproductive Health.
24: Civil Disobedience.
25: Civil Rights and Civil Liberties.
26: Common Law.
27: Constitutional Interpretation.
28: Cooley, Thomas McIntyre.
29: Court of Claims.
30: Courts-Martial.
31: Craig v. Boren.
32: Crime Victims, Rights of.
33: Cruel and Unusual Punishment Clause.
34: Death Penalty in the United States.
35: Disparate Impact.
36: District Attorney.
37: District Courts, U.S..
38: DNA Usage in Criminal Justice.
39: Domestic Violence.
40: Double Jeopardy, Prohibition of.
41: Douglas, William Orville.
42: Drug Courts.
43: Drugs, War on.
44: Drugs and Controlled Substances.
45: Elections.
46: Electronic Surveillance.
47: Ellsberg, Daniel.
48: Equal Protection Clause.
49: Equity.
50: Establishment Clause.
51: Ex Post Facto Laws.
52: Extradition, International.
53: Federal Bureau of Investigation.
54: Federal Judicial Center.
55: Fourth Amendment Exclusionary Rule.
56: García, Hector P..
57: Habeas Corpus.
58: Hand, Billings Learned.
59: Harlan, John Marshall.
60: Holmes, Oliver Wendell, Jr..
61: Hughes, Charles Evans.
62: Immunity, Judicial.
63: Implied Powers of the U.S. Constitution.
64: Indigent Defendant Representation.
65: Intellectual Property Rights.
66: Interest Groups and Lobbying.
67: Intermediate Scrutiny.
68: Jackson, Robert Houghwout.
69: Jefferson, Thomas.
70: Judicial Activism.
71: Judicial Review.
72: Jury System.
73: Juvenile Justice System.
74: Kennedy, Anthony McLeod.
75: Kunstler, William M..
76: Law Clerks.
77: Lawrence v. Texas.
78: MacKinnon, Catharine Alice.
79: Magistrate Courts, U.S..
80: Magistrate Judges.
81: Marbury v. Madison.
82: McCarthy, Joseph Raymond.
83: McCarthyism.
84: McCulloch v. Maryland.
85: Miranda v. Arizona.
86: Miranda Warnings.
87: National Rifle Association.
88: Natural Law and Natural Rights.
89: Nixon, Richard Milhous.
90: Obscenity and Pornography.
91: Parental Rights.
92: Plea Bargaining.
93: Police Power.
94: Precedent, Doctrine of.
95: Privacy.
96: Probation and Parole.
97: Public Defender System.
98: Rational Basis Scrutiny.
99: Red Scare.
100: Restitution.
101: Roe v. Wade.
102: Rosenberg, Julius and Ethel.
103: Search Warrants.
104: Separation of Church and State.
105: Shelley v. Kraemer.
106: Sierra Club.
107: Sirica, John Joseph.
108: Speedy Trial, Right to.
109: Starr, Kenneth Winston.
110: Story, Joseph.
111: Strict Scrutiny.
112: Sullivan, Kathleen Marie.
113: Surveillance, Technological.
114: Takings Clause, Fifth Amendment.
115: Tax Court.
116: Time, Place, and Manner Restrictions.
117: Tribal Court Criminal Jurisdiction.
118: Uniform Code of Military Justice.
119: United Auto Workers.
120: United Farm Workers of America.
121: Voting Rights Act of 1965.
122: Warren, Earl.
123: Watergate Scandal.
124: World Wildlife Fund.
125: Younger v. Harris.
126: Zenger, John Peter.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
List of Documents.
1: Magna Carta, 1215.
2: The Libel Case of John Peter Zenger, 1735.
3: Articles of Confederation, 1777.
4: An Act for the Gradual Abolition of Slavery, March 1, 1780.
5: Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom, 1786.
6: Article III of the Constitution of the United States of America, 1787.
7: Judiciary Act, 1789.
8: Alien and Sedition Acts, 1798.
9: Judiciary Act, 1801.
10: Judiciary Act, 1802.
11: Marbury v. Madison, 1803.
12: Establishment of the Seventh Circuit, 1807.
13: Establishment of the Eighth and Ninth Circuits, 1837.
14: Declaration of Sentiments, 1848.
15: New York Married Woman's Property Act, 1848 Introduction.
16: Compromise of 1850.
17: Fugitive Slave Act, 1850.
18: Establishment of the Circuit Court for California, 1855.
19: Homestead Act, 1862.
20: Abraham Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation, 1863.
21: Establishment of the Tenth Circuit, 1863.
22: Black Codes of Mississippi, 1865.
23: Civil Rights Act, 1866.
24: Reorganization of the Judicial Circuits, 1866.
25: The Judiciary Act of 1869 (Circuit Judges Act).
26: Minor v. Happersett, 1872.
27: Civil Rights Act [Excerpt], 1875.
28: The Jurisdiction and Removal Act of 1875.
29: Chinese Exclusion Act, 1882.
30: Dawes Act, 1887.
31: Interstate Commerce Act, 1887.
32: Sherman Antitrust Act, 1890.
33: Establishment of the U.S. Circuit Courts of Appeals (Evarts Act, 1891).
34: Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896.
35: Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock, 1903.
36: Lochner v. New York, 1905.
37: Muller v. Oregon, 1908.
38: The Judicial Code of 1911 [Excerpt].
39: Establishment of the Conference of Senior Circuit Judges, 1922.
40: The Judges' Bill, 1925.
41: Establishment of the Tenth Judicial Circuit, 1929.
42: Fireside Chat on Reorganization of the Judiciary, 1937.
43: Senate Judiciary Committee, Adverse Report on Roosevelt's Proposed Reorganization of the Federal Judiciary, 1937.
44: Establishment of the Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts, 1939.
45: Franklin D. Roosevelt: Executive Order 8802, 1941.
46: Executive Order 9066, 1942.
47: Hirabayashi v. United States, 1943.
48: Korematsu v. United States, 1944.
49: Harry Truman: Executive Order 9981, 1948.
50: Brown v. Board of Education, 1954.
51: Brown v. Board of Education, 1955.
52: Executive Order 10730, 1957.
53: Equal Pay Act, 1963.
54: Civil Rights Act, 1964.
55: Griswold v. Connecticut, 1965.
56: Voting Rights Act, 1965.
57: Establishment of the Federal Judicial Center, 1967.
58: Federal Magistrates Act, 1968.
59: Roe v. Wade, 1973.
60: “The Notion of a Living Constitution”* by William H. Rehnquist,** 1976.
61: Establishment of the U.S. Bankruptcy Courts [Excerpt], 1978.
62: Establishment of the Eleventh Judicial Circuit, 1980.
63: Establishment of the Federal Circuit, 1982.
64: Defense of Marriage Act, 1996.
65: Romer v. Evans, 1996.
66: Bush v. Gore, 2000.
67: Federal Courts Improvement Act, 2000.
68: An Act Relating to Civil Unions, 2000.
69: USA PATRIOT Act, 2001.
Glossary of Common Legal Terms.
General Bibliography.
Editor and Contributors.
Index.