eBook Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences, 2nd Edition

  • Published By:
  • ISBN-10: 0123821665
  • ISBN-13: 9780123821669
  • DDC: 363.2503
  • Grade Level Range: College Freshman - College Senior
  • 2250 Pages | eBook
  • Original Copyright 2013 | Published/Released February 2014
  • This publication's content originally published in print form: 2013
  • Price:  Sign in for price

About

Overview

Forensic science includes all aspects of investigating a crime, including: chemistry, biology and physics, and also incorporates countless other specialties. Today, the service offered under the guise of "forensic science' includes specialties from virtually all aspects of modern science, medicine, engineering, mathematics and technology. The Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences, Second Edition is a reference source that will inform both the crime scene worker and the laboratory worker of each other's protocols, procedures and limitations.

Written by leading scientists in each area, every article is peer reviewed to establish clarity, accuracy, and comprehensiveness. As reflected in the specialties of its Editorial Board, the contents covers the core theories, methods and techniques employed by forensic scientists - and applications of these that are used in forensic analysis.

Table of Contents

Front Cover.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Editors-in-Chief: Biographies.
Senior Editor: Biography.
Section Editors.
Contributors.
Guide to Use of the Encyclopedia.
Preface to the Second Edition.
Introduction.
Contents.
1: Anthropology/Odontology.
2: Animal Effects on Bones.
3: History of Forensic Anthropology.
4: Forensic Anthropology: An Introduction.
5: Forensic Taphonomy.
6: Archeology.
7: Postmortem Interval.
8: Species: Human versus Nonhuman.
9: Sexing.
10: Aging the Dead and the Living.
11: Stature and Build.
12: Ancestry.
13: Facial Approximation.
14: Personal Identification in Forensic Anthropology.
15: Bone Pathology and Antemortem Trauma.
16: Biomechanics of Bone Trauma.
17: Bone Trauma.
18: Identification of the Living.
19: Odontology.
20: Behavioral.
21: Autoerotic Death.
22: Criminal Profiling.
23: Detection of Deception.
24: Interpretation.
25: Investigative Psychology.
26: Lie Detection.
27: Modus Operandi.
28: Offender Signature.
29: Behavioral Forensic Science: An Overview.
30: Forensic Phonetics.
31: Forensic Linguistics.
32: Psychological Autopsies.
33: Forensic Psychology and Psychiatry.
34: Forensic Psychiatry.
35: Forensic Psychology.
36: Serial Killing.
37: Stalking.
38: Biology/DNA.
39: Forensic Genetics: History.
40: Basic Principles.
41: DNA Extraction and Quantification.
42: Short Tandem Repeats.
43: Accreditation in Forensic DNA Analysis.
44: Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms.
45: MiniSTRs.
46: Mixture Interpretation (Interpretation of Mixed DNA Profiles with STRs Only).
47: Low-Template DNA Testing.
48: X-Chromosome Markers.
49: Mitochondrial DNA.
50: Introduction to Nonhuman DNA Typing.
51: Next-Generation Sequencing Technologies.
52: DNA – Statistical Probability.
53: Parentage Testing and Kinship Analysis.
54: Significance.
55: Future Analytical Techniques: DNA Mass Spectrometry.
56: DNA Databases.
57: Laboratory Automation and LIMS in Forensics.
58: Ancestry Informative Markers.
59: Disaster Victim Identification.
60: Forensic DNA Advisory Groups: DAB, SWGDAM, ENFSI, and BSAG.
61: Forensic Laboratory Efficiency and Funding.
62: Bayesian Networks.
63: Internet Accessible Population Databases: YHRD and EMPOP.
64: History of the International Society for Forensic Genetics – ISFG.
65: Forensic DNA Phenotyping: DNA Testing for Externally Visible Characteristics.
66: The National Missing and Unidentified Persons System (NamUs).
67: Microbiology and Bioterrorism.
68: Biology/DNA/Botany.
69: Cannabis DNA Typing Methods.
70: Biology/DNA/Entomology.
71: Overview.
72: Biology/DNA/Methods/Analytical Techniques.
73: Capillary Electrophoresis in Forensic Genetics.
74: Biology/DNA/RNA.
75: mRNA and MicroRNA for Body Fluid Identification.
76: Biology/DNA/Wildlife.
77: DNA and Endangered Species.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
1: Chemistry/Trace.
2: Stomach Contents Analysis.
3: Chemistry/Trace/Adhesive Tapes.
4: Adhesive Tapes.
5: Chemistry/Trace/Decomposition Chemistry.
6: Decomposition Chemistry: Overview, Analysis, and Interpretation.
7: Chemistry/Trace/Drugs of Abuse.
8: Clandestine Laboratories.
9: Analysis of Controlled Substances.
10: Classification.
11: Designer Drugs.
12: Chemistry/Trace/Environmental Analysis.
13: Overview, Analysis, and Interpretation of Environmental Forensic Evidence.
14: Chemistry/Trace/Explosives.
15: Clandestine Explosive Laboratories.
16: Improvised Explosive Devices.
17: Explosives: Analysis.
18: Commercial.
19: Military.
20: Improvised Explosives.
21: Explosions.
22: Chemistry/Trace/Fibers.
23: Fibers: Overview.
24: Transfer.
25: Persistence and Recovery.
26: Fiber: Protocols for Examination.
27: Identification and Comparison.
28: Textile and Fiber Damage.
29: Fiber Microscopy.
30: Color Analysis.
31: Interpretation of Fiber Evidence.
32: Chemistry/Trace/Fire Investigation.
33: Chemistry of Fire.
34: Physics/Thermodynamics.
35: Thermal Degradation.
36: Analysis of Fire Debris.
37: Interpretation of Fire Debris Analysis.
38: Chemistry/Trace/Firearm Discharge Residues.
39: Overview, Analysis, and Interpretation.
40: Chemistry/Trace/Forensic Geosciences.
41: Crime Scene Considerations.
42: Soils.
43: Forensic Geoscience.
44: Botany.
45: Chemistry/Trace/Glass.
46: Overview (Glass).
47: Glass Analysis.
48: Interpretation of Glass Evidence.
49: Chemistry/Trace/Miscellaneous Unknowns.
50: The Forensic Analysis of Chemical Unknowns.
51: Chemistry/Trace/Paint and Coating.
52: Overview.
53: Architectural Paint.
54: Automotive Paint.
55: Forensic Paint Analysis.
56: Interpretation of Paint Evidence.
57: Chemistry/Trace/Trace Evidence.
58: Trace Evidence Overview.
59: Microchemistry.
60: Digital Evidence.
61: Child Pornography.
62: Cellular Phones.
63: Digital Imaging: Enhancement and Authentication.
64: Digital Evidence/Audio Forensics.
65: Audio Enhancement and Authentication.
66: Digital Evidence/Black Boxes and Security Cameras.
67: Aircraft Flight Data Recorders.
68: Digital Evidence/Photography and Digital Imaging.
69: Digital Imaging and Photography: An Overview.
70: Documents.
71: Analytical Methods.
72: Document Dating.
73: Forgery/Counterfeits.
74: Handwriting.
75: Ink Analysis.
76: Paper Analysis.
77: History of the Forensic Examination of Documents.
78: Overview of Forensic Document Examination.
79: Engineering.
80: Forensic Engineering/Accident Reconstruction/Biomechanics of Injury/Philosophy, Basic Theory, and Fundamentals.
81: Accident Investigation – Determination of Cause.
82: Airbag Related Injuries and Deaths.
83: Electronic Data Recorders (EDRs, Black Boxes).
84: Analog Tachograph Chart Analysis.
85: Human Factors Investigation and Analysis of Accidents and Incidents.
86: Railroad Accident Investigation and Reconstruction.
87: Analysis of Digital Evidence.
88: Investigation and Analysis of Structural Collapses.
89: Biomechanics of Human Gait – Slip and Fall Analysis.
90: Forensic Chemical Engineering Investigation and Analysis.
91: Materials Analysis and Failure Analysis.
92: Investigation and Analysis of Electrical Accidents.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
1: Forensic Medicine/Causes of Death.
2: Blunt Injury.
3: Burns and Scalds.
4: Asphyctic Deaths – Overview and Pathophysiology.
5: Strangulation.
6: Traumatic and Postural Asphyxia, Physical Restraint.
7: Immersion Deaths.
8: Sharp Trauma.
9: Systemic Response to Trauma.
10: Sudden Natural Death.
11: Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS).
12: Gunshot Wounds.
13: Forensic Medicine/Clinical.
14: Clinical Forensic Medicine – Overview.
15: Domestic Violence.
16: Sexual Violence.
17: Child Abuse.
18: Defense Wounds.
19: Self-Inflicted Injury.
20: Elder Abuse.
21: Torture.
22: Forensic Age Estimation.
23: Hyperthermia and Hypothermia.
24: Electrocution and Lightning Strike.
25: Neonaticide.
26: Identification.
27: Deaths in Custody.
28: Suicide.
29: Traffic Injuries and Deaths.
30: Airplane Crashes and Other Mass Disasters.
31: Forensic Medicine/Pathology.
32: Forensic Pathology – Principles and Overview.
33: External Postmortem Examination.
34: Autopsy.
35: Histopathology.
36: Early and Late Postmortem Changes.
37: Estimation of the Time Since Death.
38: Vital Reactions and Wound Healing.
39: Postmortem Imaging.
40: Deaths Associated with Medical Procedures.
41: Foundations.
42: History of Forensic Sciences.
43: Principles of Forensic Science.
44: Evidence/Classification.
45: The Frequentist Approach to Forensic Evidence Interpretation.
46: Statistical Interpretation of Evidence: Bayesian Analysis.
47: Forensic Intelligence.
48: Overview and Meaning of Identification/Individualization.
49: Semiotics, Heuristics, and Inferences Used by Forensic Scientists.
50: Interpretation/The Comparative Method.
51: Forensic Classification of Evidence.
52: Foundations/Fundamentals.
53: Measurement Uncertainty.
54: Investigations.
55: Collection and Chain of Evidence.
56: Contamination.
57: Forensic Intelligence Analysis.
58: Fingerprints.
59: Major Incident Scene Management.
60: Packaging.
61: Preservation.
62: Recording.
63: Recovery of Human Remains.
64: Crime Scene Analysis and Reconstruction.
65: Suspicious Deaths.
66: Evidence Collection at Fire Scenes.
67: Fire Scene Inspection Methodology.
68: Fire Patterns and Their Interpretation.
69: Types of Fires.
70: Counterfeit Goods.
71: Counterfeit Currency.
72: Identity Theft.
73: Forensic Accounting.
74: Payment Cards.
75: Crime Scene to Court.
76: Explosions.
77: Legal.
78: The Innocence Project.
79: DNA Exonerations.
80: Expert Witness Qualifications and Testimony.
81: Forensic Laboratory Reports.
82: Legal Aspects of Forensic Science.
83: Legal Systems: Adversarial and Inquisitorial.
84: When Science Changes, How does Law Respond.
85: History of the Law’s Reception of Forensic Science.
86: International Courts and Forensic Science.
87: Management/Administration of Forensic Science.
88: International Organizations and Cooperation.
89: Principles for the Organization of Forensic Support.
90: Management/Quality in Forensic Science.
91: Principles of Quality Assurance.
92: Accreditation.
93: Certification.
94: Standard Methods.
95: Risk Management.
96: Effectiveness.
97: Health and Safety.
98: Sequential Unmasking: Minimizing Observer Effects in Forensic Science.
99: Methods.
100: Capillary Electrophoresis: Basic Principles.
101: Capillary Electrophoresis in Forensic Biology.
102: Capillary Electrophoresis in Forensic Chemistry.
103: Chromatography: Basic Principles.
104: Gas Chromatography.
105: Liquid and Thin-Layer Chromatography.
106: Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry.
107: Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry.
108: Mass Spectrometry.
109: Analytical Light Microscopy.
110: Microscopy (Electron).
111: Presumptive Chemical Tests.
112: Nonchromatographic Separation Techniques.
113: Spectroscopic Techniques.
114: Spectroscopy: Basic Principles.
115: Field-Deployable Devices.
116: Chemometrics.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
1: Pattern Evidence.
2: Vehicle Tire Marks and Tire Track Measurement.
3: Plastic Bag Striations.
4: Bare Footprint Marks.
5: The Friction Ridge Skin of the Feet.
6: Palm Prints.
7: Footwear Marks.
8: Serial Number.
9: Shotgun Ammunition on a Target.
10: Physical Match.
11: Tools.
12: Analysis, Comparison, Evaluation, and Verification (ACE-V).
13: Pattern Evidence/Fingerprints (Dactyloscopy).
14: Friction Ridge Print Examination – Interpretation and the Comparative Method.
15: Automated Methods, Including Criminal Records Administration.
16: Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS).
17: Chemistry of Print Residue.
18: Identification and Classification.
19: Sequential Treatment and Enhancement.
20: Friction Ridge Skin Impression Evidence – Standards of Proof.
21: Visualization or Development of Crime Scene Fingerprints.
22: Pattern Evidence/Firearms.
23: Humane Killing Tools.
24: Laboratory Analysis.
25: Range.
26: Residues.
27: Pattern Evidence/History.
28: Fingerprint Sciences.
29: Professional.
30: Accreditation of Educational Programs.
31: Certification and Licensing.
32: Continuing Professional Development.
33: Education and Accreditation in Forensic Science.
34: Ethics.
35: Research and Publishing.
36: Training to Competence.
37: National Academy of Sciences (NAS).
38: American Academy of Forensic Sciences (AAFS).
39: Australian and New Zealand Forensic Science Society (ANZFSS).
40: American Society of Crime Laboratory Directors (ASCLD).
41: European Network of Forensic Science Institutes (ENFSI).
42: International Association for Identification (IAI).
43: National Association of Medical Examiners (NAME).
44: Senior Managers of Australian and New Zealand Forensic Laboratories (SMANZFL).
45: Toxicology.
46: Toxicology: History.
47: Pharmacology and Mechanism of Action of Drugs.
48: Toxicology: Overview and Applications.
49: Drug Screening in Sport.
50: Volatile Substances and Inhalants.
51: Interpretation of Results.
52: Methods of Analysis – Initial Testing.
53: Methods of Analysis – Confirmatory Testing.
54: Postmortem Specimens.
55: Herbal Psychoactive Substances.
56: Herbal Medicines and Phytopharmaceuticals – Contaminations.
57: Behavioral Toxicology.
58: Postmortem Toxicology: Artifacts.
59: Toxicology/Alcohol.
60: Blood.
61: Urine and Other Body Fluids.
62: Breath Alcohol.
63: Alcohol Congeners and the Source of Ethanol.
64: Alcohol: Interpretation.
65: Alcohol: Postmortem.
66: Metabolites of Ethanol.
67: Toxicology/Drugs of Abuse.
68: Blood.
69: Oral Fluid.
70: Drug-Facilitated Crimes.
71: Drug-Impaired Driving.
72: Drugs in Hair.
73: Postmortem Blood.
74: Urine.
75: Validation of Twelve Chemical Spot Tests for the Detection of Drugs of Abuse.
Index.