Records of the U.S. State Department: India and Pakistan, Political Affairs and Relations, February 1963-1966, Subject-Numeric File POL

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Overview

Since Partition of British India in 1947, Pakistan and India remained in contention over several issues, particularly the Kashmir conflict. Throughout out the 1950s and1960s, Pakistan argued Kashmir should be allowed to exercise the right to self-determination via plebiscite, as promised by Nehru and required by UN Security Council resolutions in 1948 and 1949.

During the summer and fall of 1965, skirmishes between Indian and Pakistani troops increased and finally erupted into full conflict. A UN Security Council ceasefire on September 23 was observed by both sides leading to a restoration of the status quo ante and to resolve outstanding issues by negotiation.

The aftermath of the 1965 war saw a dramatic shift in Pakistan’s security, particularly with the establishment of Ayub Khan’s "triangular tightrope"--a tricky endeavor to maintain good ties with the U.S. while cultivating China and the USSR.

Over 16,000 pages of State Department Central Files for the 1963-1966 period--arranged chronologically on crucial subjects: political parties and elections, unrest and revolution, human rights, government administration, fiscal and monetary issues, national defense, foreign policy-making, wars and alliances, religion, culture, trade, industry, natural resources, and more-- make this collection a standard documentary resource for the study of a crucial period in the Cold War and the shifting alliances and alignments in South Asia