eBook Encyclopedia of Biodiversity 2nd edition, 2nd Edition

  • Published By:
  • ISBN-10: 0123847206
  • ISBN-13: 9780123847201
  • DDC: 577.03
  • Grade Level Range: College Freshman - College Senior
  • 5504 Pages | eBook
  • Original Copyright 2013 | Published/Released February 2014
  • This publication's content originally published in print form: 2013
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The 7-volume Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, Second Edition maintains the reputation of the highly regarded original, presenting the most current information available in this globally crucial area of research and study. It brings together the dimensions of biodiversity and examines both the services it provides and the measures to protect it. Major themes of the work include the evolution of biodiversity, systems for classifying and defining biodiversity, ecological patterns and theories of biodiversity, and an assessment of contemporary patterns and trends in biodiversity. The science of biodiversity has become the science of our future.  It is an interdisciplinary field spanning areas of both physical and life sciences. Our awareness of the loss of biodiversity has brought a long overdue appreciation of the magnitude of this loss and a determination to develop the tools to protect our future.Second edition includes over 100 new articles and 226 updated articles covering this multidisciplinary field- from evolution to habits to economics, in 7 volumes.

Table of Contents

Front Cover.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Editor-in-Chief Biography.
Section Editors List.
Contents of All Volumes.
Subject Classification.
Contributors to Volume 1.
Foreword to the First Edition.
Preface to the First Edition.
Preface to the Second Edition.
Guide to Use of the Encyclopedia.
1: Acid and Mercury Deposition Effects on Forest and Freshwater Aquatic Ecosystems.
2: Adaptation.
3: Adaptive Radiation.
4: Aesthetic Factors.
5: Africa, Ecosystems of.
6: African and Asian Savannas.
7: Agricultural Invasions.
8: Agriculture, Industrialized.
9: Agriculture, Nutrient Management, and Water Quality.
10: Agriculture, Sustainable.
11: Agriculture, Traditional.
12: Agrobiodiversity.
13: Air Pollution.
14: Alpine Ecosystems.
15: Amazon Ecosystems.
16: Amphibians, Biodiversity of.
17: Antarctic Ecosystems.
18: Aquaculture.
19: Arachnids.
20: Archaea, Origin of.
21: Arctic Terrestrial Ecosystems.
22: Arthropods (Terrestrial), Amazonian.
23: Asia, Ecosystems of.
24: Atmospheric Gases.
25: Australia, Biodiversity of Ecosystems.
26: Bacterial Biodiversity.
27: Bacterial Genetics.
28: Beetles.
29: Biodiversity and Cultural Ecosystem Services.
30: Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services.
31: Biodiversity and Human Health.
32: Biodiversity and Pest Control Services.
33: Biodiversity as a Commodity.
34: Biodiversity, Definition of.
35: Biodiversity, Evolution and.
36: Biodiversity-Friendly Farming.
37: Biodiversity Generation, Overview.
38: Biodiversity, Human Well-Being, and Markets.
39: Biodiversity Informatics.
40: Biodiversity in Logged and Managed Forests.
41: Biodiversity in Plant Breeding.
42: Biodiversity of Harmful Marine Algae.
43: Biodiversity of the Succulent Karoo.
44: Biodiversity, Origin of.
45: Biodiversity-Rich Countries.
46: Biodiversity State and Trends in Southeast Asia.
47: Biofuels and Biodiversity: The Implications of Energy Sprawl.
48: Biofuels and Biodiversity, Wildlife Habitat Restoration.
49: Biogeochemical Cycles.
50: Biogeographical Models.
51: Biogeography, Overview.
52: Bioprospecting.
53: Birds, Biodiversity of.
54: Boreal Forest Ecosystems.
55: Breeding of Animals.
56: Butterflies.
57: Captive Breeding and Reintroduction.
58: Captive Breeding and the Evolutionarily Significant Unit.
59: Carbon Cycle.
60: Carnivores.
61: Carrying Capacity, Concept of.
62: Cattle, Sheep, and Goats, Ecological Role of.
Title Page.
Contributors to Volume 2.
1: Census of Marine Life.
2: Central America, Ecosystems of.
3: Cladistics.
4: Cladogenesis.
5: Climate Change and Ecology, Synergism of.
6: Climate Change and Extinctions.
7: Climate Change and Wild Species.
8: Climate Change: Anticipating and Adapting to the Impacts on Terrestrial Species.
9: Climate, Effects of.
10: Coastal Beach Ecosystems.
11: Coevolution.
12: Commons, Concept and Theory of.
13: Commons, Institutional Diversity of.
14: Comparing Extinction Rates: Past, Present, and Future.
15: Competition, Interspecific.
16: Complementarity.
17: Complexity Versus Diversity.
18: Computer Systems and Models, Use of.
19: Conservation and People.
20: Conservation and the World's Poorest of the Poor.
21: Conservation Biology, Discipline of.
22: Conservation Efforts, Contemporary.
23: Conservation Genetics.
24: Conservation Movement, Historical.
25: Conserving Biodiversity Outside Protected Areas.
26: Convention on Biological Diversity.
27: Cooperation, Evolution of.
28: Corals and Coral Reefs.
29: Countryside Biogeography.
30: C4 Plants.
31: Crop Mixtures and the Mechanisms of Overyielding.
32: Crustaceans.
33: Darwin, Charles (Darwinism).
34: Defenses, Ecology of.
35: Defining, Measuring, and Partitioning Species Diversity.
36: Deforestation and Land Clearing.
37: Desert Ecosystems.
38: Desertification.
39: Development by Design: Using a Revisionist History to Guide a Sustainable Future.
40: Differentiation.
41: Dinosaurs, Extinction Theories for.
42: Diseases, Conservation and.
43: Dispersal Biogeography.
44: Disturbance, Mechanisms of.
45: Disturbance Regimes and the Historical Range of Variation in Terrestrial Ecosystems.
46: Diversity and Conservation of Neotropical Mammals.
47: Diversity, Community/Regional Level.
48: Diversity, Ecology, and Biogeochemical Influence of N2-Fixing Microorganisms in the Sea.
49: Diversity, Molecular Level.
50: Diversity, Organism Level.
51: Diversity, Taxonomic versus Functional.
52: Domestication of Crop Plants.
53: Dormancy and Diapause.
54: Dynamic Global Vegetation Models.
55: Ecogenomic Sensors.
56: Ecological Footprint, Concept of.
57: Ecological Genetics.
Title Page.
Contributors to Volume 3.
1: Ecology, Concept and Theories in.
2: Ecology of Agriculture.
3: Economic Control of Invasive Species.
4: Economic Growth and the Environment.
5: Economics of Agrobiodiversity.
6: Economics of the Regulating Services.
7: Economic Value of Biodiversity, Measurements of.
8: Ecosystem, Concept of.
9: Ecosystem Function Measurement, Aquatic and Marine Communities.
10: Ecosystem Function Measurement, Terrestrial Communities.
11: Ecosystem Function, Principles of.
12: Ecosystem Services.
13: Ecosystems of South America.
14: Ecotoxicology.
15: Edible Plants.
16: Education and Biodiversity.
17: Effects of Ecotones on Biodiversity.
18: Elevational Trends in Biodiversity.
19: El Niño and Biodiversity.
20: Endangered Amphibians.
21: Endangered Ecosystems.
22: Endangered Freshwater Invertebrates.
23: Endangered Mammals.
24: Endangered Marine Invertebrates.
25: Endangered Plants.
26: Endangered Reptiles.
27: Endangered Terrestrial Invertebrates.
28: Endemism.
29: Energy Flow and Ecosystems.
30: Energy Use, Human.
31: Environmental Ethics.
32: Environmental Impact, Concept and Measurement of.
33: Estuarine Ecosystems.
34: Ethical Issues in Biodiversity Protection.
35: Ethnobiology and Ethnoecology.
36: Eukaryotes, Origin of.
37: Europe, Ecosystems of.
38: Eutrophication and Oligotrophication.
39: Evaluation of Ecosystem Service Policies from Biophysical and Social Perspectives: The Case of China.
40: Evolution in Response to Climate Change.
41: Evolution, Theory of.
42: Extinction, Causes of.
43: Extinction in the Fossil Record.
44: Feeding the World and Protecting Biodiversity.
45: Fires, Ecological Effects of.
46: Fish Conservation.
47: Fishes, Biodiversity of.
48: Fish Stocks.
49: Flies, Gnats, and Mosquitoes.
50: Food Webs.
51: Forest Canopies, Animal Diversity.
52: Forest Canopies, Plant Diversity.
53: Forest Ecology.
54: Fossil Record.
55: Framework for Assessment and Monitoring of Biodiversity.
56: Freshwater Ecosystems.
57: Freshwater Ecosystems, Human Impact on.
58: Functional Diversity.
59: Functional Diversity Measures.
60: Functional Groups.
61: Fungi.
62: Gene Banks.
63: Genes, Description of.
64: Genetic Diversity.
65: Geologic Time, History of Biodiversity in.
66: Global Declines of Amphibians.
67: Globalization Effects on Common Plant Species.
68: Global Species Richness.
69: Government Legislation and Regulations in the United States.
70: Grasshoppers and their Relatives.
Title Page.
Contributors to Volume 4.
1: Grassland Ecosystems.
2: Grazing, Effects of.
3: Greenhouse Effect.
4: Guilds.
5: Habitat and Niche, Concept of.
6: Habitat Loss and Fragmentation.
7: Habitat Selection.
8: Hemiparasitism.
9: Herbaceous Vegetation, Species Richness in.
10: Herbicides.
11: High-Elevation Andean Ecosystems.
12: High-Temperature Ecosystems.
13: Historical Awareness of Biodiversity.
14: Hotspots.
15: Human Impact on Biodiversity, Overview.
16: Human Impacts on Ecosystems: An Overview.
17: Hunter-Gatherer Societies, Ecological Impact of.
18: Hybridization in Plants.
19: Hymenoptera.
20: Identifying Conservation Priorities using a Return on Investment Analysis.
21: Impact of Ecological Restoration on Ecosystem Services.
22: Impact of Extreme and Infrequent Events on Terrestrial Ecosystems and Biodiversity.
23: Impact of Past Global Warming on Biodiversity.
24: Implications of Urbanization for Conservation and Biodiversity Protection.
25: Inbreeding and Outbreeding.
26: Indicator Species.
27: Indicator Species: Computation.
28: Indigenous Peoples and Biodiversity.
29: Indigenous Strategies Used to Domesticate Plants in Brazilian Amazon.
30: Indirect Land Use and Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Biofuels.
31: Insecticide Resistance.
32: Insects, Overview.
33: In Situ, Ex Situ Conservation.
34: International Organizations and Biodiversity.
35: Intertidal Ecosystems.
36: Introduced Plants, Negative Effects of.
37: Introduced Species, Impacts and Distribution of.
38: Invertebrates, Freshwater, Overview.
39: Invertebrates, Marine, Overview.
40: Invertebrates, Terrestrial, Overview.
41: Island Biogeography.
42: Isoptera.
43: Justice, Equity and Biodiversity.
44: Keystone Species.
45: Lake and Pond Ecosystems.
46: Landscape Corridors.
47: Landscape Diversity.
48: Landscape Ecology and Population Dynamics.
49: Landscape Epidemiology.
50: Landscape Genetics.
51: Landscape Legacies.
52: Landscape Modeling.
53: Land-Use Changes and CO2 Emissions Due to US Corn Ethanol Production.
54: Land-Use Issues.
55: Land-Use Patterns, Historic.
56: Large-Scale Biodiversity Experiments.
57: Latent Extinction—The Living Dead.
58: Latitudinal and Elevational Range Shifts under Contemporary Climate Change.
59: Latitudinal Gradients of Biodiversity.
60: Life Cycle Analysis of Biofuels.
61: Life History, Evolution of.
62: Limits to Biodiversity (Species Packing).
63: Literary Perspectives on Biodiversity.
64: Loss of Biodiversity, Overview.
65: Macroscopic Patterns in Marine Plankton.
66: Mammals, Biodiversity of.
67: Mammals, Conservation Efforts for.
68: Mammals (Late Quaternary), Extinctions of.
Title Page.
Contributors to Volume 5.
1: Mammals (Pre-Quaternary), Extinctions of.
2: Mangrove Ecosystems.
3: Marine and Aquatic Communities, Stress from Eutrophication.
4: Marine Conservation in a Changing Climate.
5: Marine Ecosystems.
6: Marine Ecosystems, Human Impacts on.
7: Marine Mammals, Extinctions of.
8: Marine Protected Areas: Static Boundaries in a Changing World.
9: Marine Sediments.
10: Marine Symbioses: Metazoans and Microbes.
11: Marine Viruses.
12: Market Economy and Biodiversity.
13: Mass Extinctions, Concept of.
14: Mass Extinctions, Notable Examples of.
15: Measurement and Analysis of Biodiversity.
16: Measuring and Estimating Species Richness, Species Diversity, and Biotic Similarity from Sampling Data.
17: Mediterranean-Climate Ecosystems.
18: Megaherbivores.
19: Metapopulations.
20: Microbial Biodiversity.
21: Microbial Biodiversity, Measurement of.
22: Microbial Biogeography.
23: Microbial Diversity.
24: Microbial Diversity of the Oceanic Surface Picoplankton: Insights from the Global Ocean Sampling (GOS) Program.
25: Microorganisms (Microbes), Role of.
26: Migration.
27: Modeling Biodiversity Dynamics in Countryside and Native Habitats.
28: Modeling Marine Ecosystem Services.
29: Modeling Terrestrial Ecosystem Services.
30: Modern Examples of Extinctions.
31: Molluscs.
32: Moths.
33: Museums and Institutions, Role of.
34: Myriapods.
35: Natural Extinctions (Not Human Influenced).
36: Natural Reserves and Preserves.
37: Nature-Based Coastal Defenses: Can Biodiversity Help?.
38: Near East Ecosystems, Animal Diversity.
39: Near East Ecosystems, Plant Diversity.
40: Neotropical Seasonally Dry Forests.
41: Nest Parasitism.
42: Neutral Theory and Beyond.
43: Nitrogen Deposition and Terrestrial Biodiversity.
44: Nitrogen, Nitrogen Cycle.
45: Nomenclature, Systems of.
46: North America, Patterns of Biodiversity in.
47: Nucleic Acid Biodiversity: Rewriting DNA and RNA in Diverse Organisms.
48: Ocean Ecosystems.
49: Oceanic Islands: Models of Diversity.
50: Oil-Palm Plantations in the Context of Biodiversity Conservation.
51: Origin and Diversification of Angiosperms.
52: Origin of Life, Theories of.
53: Origins, Evolution, and Breakdown of Bacterial Symbiosis.
54: Paleoecology.
55: Parasitism.
56: Parasitoids.
57: Pelagic Ecosystems.
58: Pesticides, Uses and Effects of.
59: Pharmacology, Biodiversity and.
60: Phenological Shifts in Animals Under Contemporary Climate Change.
Title Page.
Contributors to Volume 6.
1: Phenotype, a Historical Perspective.
2: Photosynthesis, Mechanisms of.
3: Phylogeny.
4: Plankton, Status and Role of.
5: Plant–Animal Interactions.
6: Plant Biodiversity, Overview.
7: Plant Communities, Evolution of.
8: Plant Conservation.
9: Plant Invasions.
10: Plant Phenology Changes and Climate Change.
11: Plant–Soil Interactions.
12: Plant Sources of Drugs and Chemicals.
13: Pollinators, Role of.
14: Pollution, Overview.
15: Population Density.
16: Population Diversity, Overview.
17: Population Dynamics.
18: Population Genetics.
19: Population Stabilization, Human.
20: Population Viability Analysis.
21: Poverty and Biodiversity.
22: Predators, Ecological Role of.
23: Primate Populations, Conservation of.
24: Priority Setting for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services.
25: Property Rights and Biodiversity.
26: Proteorhodopsins: Widespread Microbial Light-Driven Proton Pumps.
27: Protozoa.
28: Psychrophiles.
29: Rainforest Ecosystems, Animal Diversity.
30: Rainforest Ecosystems, Plant Diversity.
31: Rainforest Loss and Change.
32: Range Ecology, Global Livestock Influences.
33: Rare Biosphere.
34: Recombination.
35: Reforestation.
36: Religious Traditions and Biodiversity.
37: Remote Sensing and Image Processing.
38: Reptiles, Biodiversity of.
39: Residents and Transients in the Fossil Record.
40: Resource Exploitation, Fisheries.
41: Resource Partitioning.
42: Restoration of Animal, Plant, and Microbial Diversity.
43: Restoration of Biodiversity, Overview.
44: Riparian Landscapes.
45: River Ecosystems.
46: Role and Trends of Protected Areas in Conservation.
47: Role of Botanic Gardens.
48: Salmon.
49: Scale, Concept and Effects of.
50: Seagrasses.
51: Slash-and-Burn Agriculture, Effects of.
52: Social and Cultural Factors.
53: Social Behavior.
54: Soil Biota, Soil Systems, and Processes.
55: Soil Conservation.
56: South American Natural Ecosystems, Status of.
57: Southern (Austral) Ecosystems.
58: Speciation, Process of.
59: Speciation, Theories of.
60: Species–Area Relationships.
61: Species Assemblages, Macroecology, and Global Change.
62: Species Coexistence.
63: Species, Concepts of.
64: Species Distribution Modeling.
65: Species Diversity, Overview.
66: Species Interactions.
Title Page.
Contributors to Volume 7.
1: Stability, Concept of.
2: Stewardship, Concept of.
3: Storage, Ecology of.
4: Stress, Environmental.
5: Subspecies, Semispecies, Superspecies.
6: Subterranean Ecosystems.
7: Succession, Phenomenon of.
8: Sustainability and Biodiversity.
9: Systematics, Overview.
10: Taxonomy, Methods of.
11: Temperate Forests.
12: Terrestrial Ecosystems.
13: The Global Environment Facility: Financing the Stewardship of Global Biodiversity.
14: The Multiple Benefits of River–Floodplain Connectivity for People and Biodiversity.
15: Thermophiles, Origin of.
16: The Value of Biodiversity.
17: Threatened Birds.
18: Threatened Species: Classification Systems and Their Applications.
19: Timber Industry.
20: Tourism, Role of.
21: Traditional Conservation Practices.
22: Translocation as a Conservation Strategy.
23: Trends in Nature Recreation: Causes and Consequences.
24: Trophic Cascades.
25: Trophic Levels.
26: Tropical Forest Ecosystems.
27: Tropical Forest Regeneration.
28: True Bugs and Their Relatives, Diversity of.
29: Ultraviolet Radiation.
30: Urban–Suburban Biodiversity.
31: Valuing Ecosystem Services.
32: Vents.
33: Vertebrates, Overview.
34: Vicariance Biogeography.
35: Water Funds: A New Ecosystem Service and Biodiversity Conservation Strategy.
36: Wetland Creation and Restoration.
37: Wetlands Ecosystems.
38: Wildlife Management.
39: Worms, Annelida.
40: Worms, Nematoda.
41: Worms, Platyhelminthes.
42: Zoos and Zoological Parks.