eBook Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning, 1st Edition

  • Norbert M. Seel
  • Published By:
  • ISBN-10: 1441914285
  • ISBN-13: 9781441914286
  • DDC: 370.15
  • Grade Level Range: College Freshman - College Senior
  • 4300 Pages | eBook
  • Original Copyright 2012 | Published/Released September 2013
  • This publication's content originally published in print form: 2012
  • Price:  Sign in for price

About

Overview

As the learning sciences became more specialized and complex, the various fields of interest were widely spread and separated from each other; as a consequence, even presently, there is no comprehensive overview of the sciences of learning or the central theoretical concepts and vocabulary on which researchers rely. The Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning provides an up-to-date, broad and authoritative coverage of the specific terms mostly used in the sciences of learning and its related fields, including relevant areas of instruction, pedagogy, cognitive sciences, and especially machine learning and knowledge engineering. This modern compendium will be an indispensable source of information for scientists, educators, engineers, and technical staff active in all fields of learning. More specifically, the Encyclopedia provides fast access to the most relevant theoretical terms provides up-to-date, broad and authoritative coverage of the most important theories within the various fields of the learning sciences and adjacent sciences and communication technologies; supplies clear and precise explanations of the theoretical terms, cross-references to related entries and up-to-date references to important research and publications. The Encyclopedia also contains biographical entries of individuals who have substantially contributed to the sciences of learning; the entries are written by a distinguished panel of researchers in the various fields of the learning sciences.

Features and Benefits

  • The first encyclopedia covering all sectors, paradigms and movements of the sciences of learning from their origins through the present.
  • Contributions from a wide variety of leading researchers in a wide variety of fields.
  • Provides up-to-date, broad and authoritative coverage of the specific terms used in the sciences of learning and its related fields, including relevant areas of education and computer science.
  • An indispensable reference for scientists, educators, students, and researchers active in understanding learning and the learning sciences.

Table of Contents

Front Cover.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Preface.
Editor-in-Chief.
Associate Editors.
Fundamental Chapters.
List of Contributors.
1: A Salience Theory of Learning.
2: A Stability Bias in Human Memory.
3: A Tripartite Learning Conceptualization of Psychotherapy.
4: Abductive Learning.
5: Abductive Reasoning.
6: Abilities and Learning: Physical Abilities.
7: Abilities to Learn: Cognitive Abilities.
8: Ability Determinants of Complex Skill Acquisition.
9: Abnormal Avoidance Learning.
10: Absolute Judgment.
11: Absorptive Capacity and Organizational Learning.
12: Abstract Concept Learning in Animals.
13: Abstraction in Mathematics Learning.
14: Academic Learning Time.
15: Academic Motivation.
16: Academic Procrastination.
17: Accelerated Learning.
18: Acceptance.
19: Accommodation.
20: Accounting and Arithmetic Competence in Animals.
21: Achievement Deficits of Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disabilities.
22: Achievement Goal Theory.
23: Achievement Motivation.
24: Achievement Motivation and Learning.
25: Acoustic and Phonological Learning.
26: Acquired-Drive Experiment.
27: Acquiring Organizational Learning Norms.
28: Acquisitive Learning.
29: ACT - Adaptive Control of Thought.
30: Action Learning.
31: Action Regulation Theory.
32: Action Research on Learning.
33: Action Schemas.
34: Action-Based Learning.
35: Active Avoidance.
36: Active Learning.
37: Activity- and Taxonomy-Based Knowledge Representation.
38: Activity Theories of Learning.
39: Activity-Based Learning.
40: Actor Network Theory and Learning.
41: Actor-Critic.
42: Actualized Affordance.
43: Actualized Interest.
44: Actualizing Tendency.
45: Adaptability and Learning.
46: Adaptation and Anticipation: Learning from Experience.
47: Adaptation and Learning.
48: Adaptation to Learning Styles.
49: Adaptation to Weightlessnes.
50: Adaptive Evaluation Systems.
51: Adaptive Game-Based Learning.
52: Adaptive Instruction Systems and Learning.
53: Adaptive Learning Systems.
54: Adaptive Learning through Variation and Selection.
55: Adaptive Memory and Learning.
56: Adaptive Proactive Learning with Cost-Reliability Trade-Off.
57: Adjunct Questions: Effects on Learning.
58: Adler, Alfred (1870–1937).
59: Adolescent Learners' Characteristics.
60: Adult Learners' Characteristics.
61: Adult Learning Styles.
62: Adult Learning Theory.
63: Adult Learning/Andragogy.
64: Adult Literacy.
65: Adult Teaching and Learning.
66: Advance Organizer.
67: Advanced Distributed Learning.
68: Advanced Learning Technologies.
69: Adventure Learning.
70: Aesthetic Learning.
71: Affective and Cognitive Learning in the Online Classroom.
72: Affective and Emotional Dispositions of/for Learning.
73: Affective Dimensions of Learning.
74: Affective Priming and Learning.
75: Affective Value.
76: Affordance and Second Language Learning.
77: Affordance.
78: Affordances in AI.
79: Agent-Based Modeling.
80: Agents.
81: Age-Related Differences in Achievement Goal Differentiation.
82: Aging Effects on Motor Learning.
83: Agreeableness.
84: AIME - Amount of Invested Mental Effort.
85: Alertness and Learning of Individuals with PIMD.
86: Aligning the Curriculum to Promote Learning.
87: Alignment of Learning, Teaching, and Assessment.
88: Altruism and Health.
89: Altruistic Behavior and Cognitive Specialization in Animal Communities.
90: Altruistic Learning.
91: Amnesia and Learning.
92: Amphetamine, Arousal, and Learning.
93: Amygdala.
94: Analogical Coherence/Correspondence.
95: Analogical Models.
96: Analogical Modeling of Language.
97: Analogical Reasoning.
98: Analogical Reasoning by Young Children.
99: Analogical Reasoning in Animals.
100: Analogy Therapy.
101: Analogy/Analogies: Structure and Process.
102: Analogy-Based Learning.
103: Analytic Learning.
104: Analytical Psychology and Learning.
105: Animal Culture.
106: Animal Intelligence: Schemata for Ordering Learning Classes.
107: Animal Perceptual Learning.
108: Animation and Learning.
109: Anthropology of Learning and Cognition.
110: Anticipation and Learning.
111: Anticipatory Learning.
112: Anticipatory Learning Mechanisms.
113: Anticipatory Schemas.
114: Anxiety Disorders in People with Learning Disabilities.
115: Apathy in Learning.
116: Application of Family Therapy on Complex Social Issues.
117: Apprehension and Communication.
118: Apprenticeship Learning in Machines.
119: Apprenticeship-Based Learning in Production Schools.
120: Approach and Avoidance Motivation.
121: Approaches to Learning and Studying.
122: Approximate Learning of Dynamic Models/Systems.
123: Approximative Learning Vs. Inductive Learning.
124: Aptitude.
125: Aptitude-Treatment Interaction.
126: AQ Learning.
127: Aquinas, Thomas (1225–1274).
128: ARCS Model of Motivation.
129: Argumentation and Learning.
130: Argumentation and Learning in Science Education.
131: Aristotle (384–322 B.C.).
132: Aristotle on Pleasure and Learning.
133: Arousal and Paired-Associate Learning.
134: Arousal Level.
135: Artificial intelligence.
136: Assessment in Learning.
137: Assessment of Academic Motivation.
138: Assimilation.
139: Assimilation Theory of Learning.
140: Associationism.
141: Associative Learning.
142: Associative Learning in Early Vision.
143: Associative Learning of Pictures and Words.
144: Associative Memory and Learning.
145: Associative Strength.
146: Asynchronous Learning.
147: Asynchronous Learning Networks.
148: At-Risk Learners.
149: Attention.
150: Attention and Implicit Learning.
151: Attention and Pavlovian Conditioning.
152: Attention and the Processing of Visual Scenes.
153: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.
154: Attention, Memory, and Meditation.
155: Attentional Modulation of Spread of Activation.
156: Attitude Change through Learning.
157: Attitudes – Formation and Change.
158: Attribution Theory.
159: Attribution Theory in Communication Research.
160: Attribution Theory of Motivation.
161: Audiation.
162: Audio-Video-Redundancy in Learning.
163: Audio-visual (AV) Aids.
164: Audiovisual Learning.
165: Aural Learning.
166: Ausubel, David P. (1918–2008).
167: Authenticity in Learning Activities and Settings.
168: Authenticity in Music.
169: Authoring Tool.
170: Autism Spectrum Disorder.
171: Autobiographical Memory.
172: Automated Learning Assessment and Feedback.
173: Automatic Information Processing.
174: Automaticity.
175: Automaticity in Memory.
176: Autonoesis.
177: Autonomous Agent Architectures.
178: Autonomous Learning and Effective Engagement.
179: Autopoiesis.
180: Aversive Learning in Drosophila melanogaster.
181: Avoidance Learning.
182: Axiom Schema.
183: Balance Theory.
184: Barriers to Organizational Learning.
185: Basal Ganglia.
186: Basal Ganglia Learning.
187: Base Domain.
188: Bateson, Gregory (1904–1980): Anthropology of Learning.
189: Bayesian Learning.
190: Bee Learning and Communication.
191: Behavior Modification, Behavior Therapy, Applied Behavior Analysis and Learning.
1: Calibration.
2: Capacity Limitations of Memory and Learning.
3: Care Ethics.
4: Carroll's Model of School Learning.
5: Case-Based Learning.
6: Case-Based Learning on the Web.
7: Categorical Learning.
8: Categorical Learning in Pigeons.
9: Categorical Perception.
10: Categorical Representation.
11: Categorization.
12: Catharsis Theory.
13: Causal Learning.
14: Causal Learning and Illusions of Control.
15: Change of Values Through Learning in Organizations.
16: Character Education.
17: Children's Critical Assessment of the Reliability of Others.
18: Children's Learning from Television.
19: Choice Reaction Time and Learning.
20: Choreographies of School Learning.
21: Chrest.
22: Chunks.
23: Chunking Mechanisms and Learning.
24: Chunking Theory.
25: Circumscribed Interests.
26: Classical Conditioning.
27: Classification of Learning Objects.
28: Classroom Management and Motivation.
29: “Clever Hans”: Involuntary and Unconscious Cueing.
30: Climate of Learning.
31: Closed-Loop Process.
32: Coaching and Mentoring.
33: Cognition.
34: Cognitive Aging.
35: Cognitive and Affective Learning Strategies.
36: Cognitive Apprenticeship Learning.
37: Cognitive Architecture.
38: Cognitive Artifacts and Developmental Learning in a Humanoid Robot.
39: Cognitive Artifacts, Technology, and Physics Learning.
40: Cognitive Aspects of Deception.
41: Cognitive Aspects of Natural Communication in Primates.
42: Cognitive Aspects of Prosocial Behavior in Nonhuman Primates.
43: Cognitive Automatisms and Routinized Learning.
44: Cognitive Conflict and Learning.
45: Cognitive Dissonance.
46: Cognitive Dissonance in the Learning Processes.
47: Cognitive Efficiency.
48: Cognitive Instruction.
49: Cognitive Learning.
50: Cognitive Learning Strategies for Digital Media.
51: Cognitive Learning Strategy.
52: Cognitive Load Measurement.
53: Cognitive Load Theory.
54: Cognitive Map.
55: Cognitive Modeling with Multiagent Systems.
56: Cognitive Models of Learning.
57: Cognitive Neuroscience.
58: Cognitive Psychology.
59: Cognitive Psychology of Music Learning.
60: Cognitive Robotics.
61: Cognitive Skill Acquisition.
62: Cognitive Structure.
63: Cognitive Tasks and Learning.
64: Cognitive-Behavioral Family Therapy.
65: Cognitive-Code Learning.
66: Cognitive-Economy Assumptions for Learning.
67: Cognitivism.
68: Collaboration.
69: Collaboration Scripts.
70: Collaborative Learning.
71: Collaborative Learning and Critical Thinking.
72: Collaborative Learning Strategies.
73: Collaborative Learning Supported by Digital Media.
74: Collective Development and the Learning Paradox.
75: Collective Learning.
76: Communication and Learning in the Context of Instructional Design.
77: Communication Theory.
78: Communities of Practice.
79: Community of Learners.
80: Comparative Psychology and Ethology.
81: Comparator Hypothesis of Associative Learning.
82: Comparison Task.
83: Compartmentalization in Learning.
84: Competence-Based Knowledge Space Theory.
85: Competency-Based Learning.
86: Competitive Learning.
87: Complex Declarative Learning.
88: Complex Learning.
89: Complex Problem Solving.
90: Composition Learning in Music Education.
91: Composition of Learning Groups.
92: Comprehension Monitoring.
93: Comprehensive Learning.
94: Compulsory Education and Learning.
95: Computational Models of Classical Conditioning.
96: Computational Models of Human Learning.
97: Computer Simulation Model.
98: Computer-Based Learning.
99: Computer-Based Learning Environments.
100: Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning.
101: Computer-Task Paradigm.
102: Concept Formation: Characteristics and Functions.
103: Concept Learning.
104: Concept Mapping.
105: Concept Maps.
106: Concept Similarity in Multidisciplinary Learning.
107: Conceptual Change.
108: Conceptual Clustering.
109: Conceptual Dependency Structure.
110: Conclusion by Analogy.
111: Conditional Discrimination.
112: Conditional Effects.
113: Conditional Knowledge.
114: Conditional Reasoning by Nonhuman Animals.
115: Conditioned Inhibition.
116: Conditioned Response.
117: Conditioned Stimulus (CS).
118: Conditioned Suppression.
119: Conditions of Learning.
120: Confidence Judgments in Learning.
121: Configural Cues in Associative Learning.
122: Confucian Educational Philosophy and Its Implication for Lifelong Learning.
123: Confusion's Impact on Learning.
124: Congruence.
125: Connectionism.
126: Connectionist Theories of Learning.
127: Conscientiousness.
128: Consciousness and Emotion: Attentive vs. Pre-attentive Elaboration of Face Processing.
129: Consolidation.
130: Constraint Networks.
131: Constraint Satisfaction for Learning Hypotheses in Inductive Logic Programming.
132: Constructive Alignment.
133: Constructive Induction.
134: Constructivism.
135: Constructivist Learning.
136: Constructivist Learning Theory.
137: Content-Area Learning.
138: Context and Semantic Sensitivity in Learning.
139: Context Conditioning.
140: Context Fear Learning.
141: Context-Based Learning.
142: Contextual / Context Stimuli.
143: Contiguity.
144: Contingency in Learning.
145: Contradictions in Expansive Learning.
146: Control Processes.
147: Controlled Information Processing.
148: Convergent Evolution.
149: Convergent Thinking and Learning.
150: Conversation Analysis.
151: Co-Ontogenic Structural Drift.
152: Cooperative Learning.
153: Cooperative Learning Groups and Streaming.
154: Coping with Stress.
155: Corpus Callosum.
156: Courseware Learning.
157: Covert Pronunciation and Rehearsal.
158: Covert Reorganization / Spatial Learning.
159: Creative Inquiry.
160: Creativity and Its Nature.
161: Creativity and Learning Resources.
162: Creativity, Problem Solving, and Feeling.
163: Criterion-Referenced Assessment.
164: Critical Discourse.
165: Critical Discourse Analysis.
166: Critical Learning Incidents.
167: Critical Reflection.
168: Critical Self-Reflection.
169: Critical Thinking.
170: Cronbach, Lee J. (1916–2001).
171: Cross Talk between Stored Memories.
172: Cross-Cultural Factors in Learning and Motivation.
173: Cross-Cultural Learning Styles.
174: Cross-Cultural Training.
175: Cross-Disciplinary Learning.
176: Cross-Linguistic Influence and Transfer of Learning.
177: Cross-Modal Learning.
178: Cross-Situational Learning.
179: Crystallized Intelligence.
180: Cue Summation and Learning.
181: Cued Recall.
182: Cueing.
183: Cultural Activities.
184: Cultural Influences on Personalized e-learning Systems.
185: Cultural Learning.
186: Cultural-Historical Theory of Development.
187: Culturally Responsive Teaching.
188: Culture.
189: Culture in Second Language Learning.
190: Culture of Learning.
191: Culture-Bearer.
192: Cumulative Learning.
193: Curiosity.
194: Curiosity and Exploration.
195: Curriculum and Learning.
196: Cybernetic Principles of Learning.
197: Dancing: A Nonverbal Language for Imagining and Learning.
198: Decision.
199: Declarative Knowledge.
200: Declarative Memory.
1: Early Maladaptive Schemas.
2: Early Maladaptive Schemas: The Moderating Effects of Optimism.
3: Ebbinghaus, Hermann (1850–1909).
4: Ecology of Learning.
5: Education of Teacher Educators.
6: Educational Data Mining.
7: Edutainment and Learning.
8: Effects of Anxiety on Affective Learning.
9: Effects of Exercising During Learning.
10: Effects of Multimedia Redundancy in History Learning.
11: Effects of Physical Context Change and Perceptual Learning on Generalization.
12: Effects of Remedial Mathematics on the Learning of Economics.
13: Effects of Task Difficulty in Listening Comprehension.
14: Effects of Testing on Learning.
15: Effects of Tracking and Ability Grouping on Learning.
16: Ego State Theory: Utilization of Dreams.
17: Elaboration.
18: Elaboration Effects on Learning.
19: Elaboration Strategies and Human Resources Development.
20: Elaborative Interrogation.
21: E-Learning and Digital Learning.
22: E-Learning Authoring Tools.
23: Embodied Cognition.
24: Emotion.
25: Emotion Regulation.
26: Emotional Intelligence and Learning.
27: Emotional Intelligence in Animals.
28: Emotional Learning.
29: Emotional Memory.
30: Emotional Mental Models.
31: Emotional Schema.
32: Emotion-Based Machine Learning.
33: Emotions in Cognitive Conflicts.
34: Emotions: Functions and Effects on Learning.
35: Empathic Understanding.
36: Empowering Health Learning for the Elderly (EHLE).
37: Enculturation and Acculturation.
38: Endogenous Opioids in Fear Learning.
39: Engagement in Learning.
40: Entity Theory.
41: Entropy.
42: Environmental Awareness.
43: EPAM.
44: Episodic Learning.
45: Episodic Memory.
46: Episodic-Like Memory in Food-Caching Birds.
47: Epistemic Curiosity.
48: Epistemological Development and Learning.
49: Epistemology.
50: Epistemology and Learning in Medieval Philosophy.
51: Equilibration.
52: Erotic/Sexual Learning.
53: Essentialism.
54: Evaluation of Management, Leadership, and Organizational Development.
55: Evaluation of Student Progress in Learning.
56: Evaluative Conditioning.
57: Everyday Learning: Instruction and Technology Designs.
58: Evidence-Based Learning.
59: Evolution of Learning.
60: Evolutionary Computation.
61: Evolutionary Learning and Stochastic Process Algebra.
62: Examination Stress and Components of Working Memory.
63: Example-Based Learning.
64: Executive Attention.
65: Exemplar.
66: Exemplar Learning and Schematization in Language Development.
67: Expectancy Learning and Evaluative Learning.
68: Expectancy-Value Theory.
69: Experience (Noun).
70: Experience (verb).
71: Experience-weighted Attraction Learning.
72: Experiencing Wisdom Across the Lifespan.
73: Experiential Learning Spaces.
74: Experiential Learning Spiral.
75: Experiential Learning Theory.
76: Experiential Methodology.
77: Experiential/Significant Learning.
78: Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs for Research on Learning.
79: Experimental Learning Environments.
80: Experimentation.
81: Expert Cognitive Modeling and Problem-Based Learning.
82: Expert Perceptual and Decision-Making Skills: Effects of Structured Activities and Play.
83: Expertise.
84: Explanatory Support for Learning.
85: Explicit and Implicit Learning.
86: Explicit and Procedural-Learning-Based Systems of Perceptual Category Learning.
87: Exploitation.
88: Exploration.
89: Exposure-Based Perceptual Learning.
90: Extinction.
91: Extinction Learning.
92: Extraversion.
93: Extraversion, Social Interaction, and Affect Repair.
94: Eyeblink Conditioning.
95: Facial Expression Learning.
96: Facial Expressions While Performing Problems.
97: Fact Learning.
98: Factor Analytic Approach.
99: Fading.
100: False Dilemma Fallacy.
101: Family.
102: Family Background and Effects on Learning.
103: Family Learning.
104: Family Literacy.
105: Fear Conditioning in Animals and Humans.
106: Fear of Failure in Learning.
107: Feature Classes.
108: Feature Selection in Unsupervised Learning.
109: Feature Space.
110: Feedback and Learning.
111: Feedback in Instructional Contexts.
112: Feedback Strategies.
113: Feeling.
114: Field Dependence.
115: Field Experiments in Learning Research.
116: Field Research on Learning.
117: Field Theory of Learning.
118: Flexibility in Problem Solving: Analysis and Improvement.
119: Flow Experience and Learning.
120: Fluid Intelligence Ability.
121: Folk Knowledge and Academic Learning.
122: Folk Psychology about Others' Learning.
123: Forgetting.
124: Formal Learning.
125: Formal Learning Theory.
126: Formative Assessment and Improving Learning.
127: Four-Component Instructional Design.
128: Fowler Faith Stages.
129: Frames.
130: Frames of Reference.
131: Freud, Anna (1895–1982).
132: Freud, Sigmund (1856–1939).
133: Functional Classes.
134: Functional Context Theory of Learning.
135: Functional Fixedness.
136: Functional Learning.
137: Fundamentalism.
138: Gagné, Robert Mills (1916–2002).
139: Games-Based Learning.
140: Gaming System.
141: Gender, Learning, and Social Practice.
142: Gendered Perceptions of Learning.
143: Gene Set Enrichment Meta-Learning Analysis.
144: Genealogical Critique.
145: General Literacy in a Digital World.
146: General Music Education.
147: Generalization versus Discrimination.
148: Generalization versus Discrimination in Machine Learning.
149: Generalized Motor Program.
150: Generative Learning.
151: Generative Teaching: Improvement of Generative Learning.
152: Generic Architectures for Cooperative Learning Environments.
153: Genetic Programming.
154: Gestalt.
155: Gestalt Psychology of Learning.
156: Global Rationality.
157: Goal Structures.
158: Goal Theory/Goal Setting.
159: Goal-Directed Learning.
160: Goal-Free Effect.
161: Goals and Goalsetting: Prevention and Treatment of Depression.
162: Goodall, Jane (1934–).
163: Graduate Attributes.
164: Grammar Learning.
165: Greedy Q-Learning.
166: Grounded Theory.
167: Group Dynamics and Learning.
168: Group Learning.
169: Group Schema Therapy.
170: Guessing and Learning.
171: Guessing Model.
172: Guidance-Fading Effect.
173: Guided Discovery Learning.
174: Guided Learning.
175: Habit Formation.
176: Habit Learning in Animals.
177: Habit of Mind.
178: Habitual Actions.
179: Habituation.
180: Habituation and Sensitization.
181: Habituation in Infant Cognition.
182: Hebbian Learning.
183: Hebbian Synaptic Plasticity.
184: Herbart, Johann Friedrich (1776–1841).
185: Heuristics and Problem Solving.
186: Hierarchical Network Models for Memory and Learning.
187: High Performance Learning Spaces.
188: Hippocampus.
189: Historical Thinking.
190: History of the Sciences of Learning.
191: Home Literacy.
192: Home Signers.
193: Homeschooling and Teaching.
194: Hope Theory and Hope Therapy.
195: Human Causal Learning.
196: Human Cognitive Architecture.
197: Human Contingency Learning.
198: Human Feature Learning.
199: Human Information Processing.
200: Human Resource Development and Performance Improvement.
1: Jack Mezirow on Transformative Learning.
2: James, William (1842–1910).
3: Jigsaw Method.
4: Joint Attention in Humans and Animals.
5: Joyful Learning.
6: Judgment Frequency Effects in Causal Learning.
7: Jung, Carl Gustav (1875–1961).
8: Jungian Learning Styles.
9: Knowledge Acquisition: Constructing Meaning from Multiple Information Sources.
10: Knowledge and Learning in Natural Language.
11: Knowledge Creation Metaphor, The.
12: Knowledge Embodiment.
13: Knowledge Improvement.
14: Knowledge Integration.
15: Knowledge Organization.
16: Knowledge Representation.
17: Knowledge Transfer.
18: Koffka, Kurt (1887–1941).
19: Kohlberg, Lawrence (1927–1987).
20: Köhler, Wolfgang (1887–1967).
21: Kolb's Learning Styles.
22: Laboratory Learning.
23: Ladygina-Kohts N. (1890–1963).
24: Language/Discourse Comprehension and Understanding.
25: Language Acquisition and Development.
26: Language Affordance.
27: Language and Emotioning.
28: Language and Learning.
29: Language Aptitude.
30: Language Learning Strategies.
31: Language-Based Learning Disabilities.
32: Latent Inhibition.
33: Latent Learning.
34: Lateral Temporal Cortex.
35: Law of Effect.
36: Learnability.
37: Learned Aggression in Humans.
38: Learned Helplessness.
39: Learner Characteristics.
40: Learner Characteristics and Online Learning.
41: Learner Control.
42: Learner Preferences and Achievement.
43: Learner-Centered Teaching.
44: Learning Action Affordances and Action Schemas.
45: Learning Activity.
46: Learning Adjustment Speeds and the Cycle of Discovery.
47: Learning Agent and Agent-Based Modeling.
48: Learning Algorithms.
49: Learning and Argumentation in Neural-Symbolic Computation.
50: Learning and Consolidation in Autism.
51: Learning and Development After School.
52: Learning and Education in Migration Settings.
53: Learning and Evolution of Social Norms*.
54: Learning and Evolutionary Game Theory.
55: Learning and Fluid Intelligence Across the Life Span.
56: Learning and Instinct.
57: Learning and Recall Under Hypnosis.
58: Learning and Thinking.
59: Learning and Training: Activity Approach.
60: Learning and Understanding.
61: Learning as a Side Effect.
62: Learning as Meaning Making.
63: Learning at Play.
64: Learning by Acquaintance.
65: Learning by Chunking.
66: Learning by Design.
67: Learning by Doing.
68: Learning by Doing versus Learning by Thinking.
69: Learning by Eliminating.
70: Learning by Erasing.
71: Learning by Feeling.
72: Learning by Teaching.
73: Learning Criteria, Learning Outcomes, and Assessment Criteria.
74: Learning Cycles.
75: Learning Defense.
76: Learning Dynamics in Social Dilemmas.
77: Learning Edge Momentum.
78: Learning Environment.
79: Learning for Health.
80: Learning from Animals.
81: Learning from Counseling.
82: Learning from Failure.
83: Learning from Imperfect Data.
84: Learning from Questions.
85: Learning from Television During Early Childhood.
86: Learning from Text.
87: Learning from Video Experiences.
88: Learning Hierarchies of Sparse Features.
89: Learning Hierarchy Technique.
90: Learning Human Emotion from Body Gesture.
91: Learning Identity.
92: Learning in Artificial Neural Networks.
93: Learning in Conflictual Practice.
94: Learning in Honeybees: Associative Processes.
95: Learning in Informal Settings.
96: Learning in Information-Rich Environments.
97: Learning in Invertebrates.
98: Learning in Practice (Heidegger and Schoön).
99: Learning in Practice and by Experience.
100: Learning in the CHREST Cognitive Architecture.
101: Learning in the Social Context.
102: Learning Management System.
103: Learning Mechanisms of Depression.
104: Learning Metaphors.
105: Learning Motivation of Disadvantaged Students.
106: Learning Mutants.
107: Learning Nonadjacent Dependencies.
108: Learning Not to Fear.
109: Learning Numerical Symbols.
110: Learning Objectives.
111: Learning of Equivalence Classes.
112: Learning of Obedience to Authority.
113: Learning Organization.
114: Learning Resistance.
115: Learning Retention.
116: Learning Set Formation and Conceptualization.
117: Learning Spatial Orientation.
118: Learning Strategies.
119: Learning Styles.
120: Learning Tasks.
121: Learning Technology.
122: Learning the Affective Value of Others.
123: Learning Through Artifacts in Engineering Education.
124: Learning Through Social Media.
125: Learning Through the Breach: Language Socialization.
126: Learning to Learn.
127: Learning to Sing Like a Bird: Computational Developmental Mimicry.
128: Learning to Write.
129: Learning to Write in a Second Language.
130: Learning via Linear Operators.
131: Learning with and from Blogs.
132: Learning with Collaborative Mobile Technologies.
133: Learning with Expert Advice.
134: Learning with External Representations.
135: Learning with Games.
136: Learning with Monte Carlo Methods.
137: Learning with Multiple Representations.
138: Learning: A Process of Enculturation.
139: Learning-Dependent Progression of Mental Models.
140: Learning-Related Changes of β-Activity in Motor Areas.
141: Learning-Related Motives and Motivational Quality of the Learning Environment.
142: Lesion.
143: Lewin, Kurt (1890–1947).
144: Lexicalization.
145: Lifelong and Worklife Learning.
146: Lifelong Learning.
147: Linguistic and Cognitive Capacities of Apes.
148: Linguistic Factors in Learning.
149: Linking Fear Learning to Memory Consolidation.
150: List Memory and Change-Detection Memory in Animals.
151: Literacy and Learning.
152: Locke, John (1632–1704).
153: Locus of Control.
154: Logical Reasoning and Learning.
155: Longitudinal Learning Research on Changes in Learning of University Students.
156: Long-Term Depression.
157: Long-Term Expertise Development in Complex Domains and Individual Differences.
158: Long-Term Learning in Soar.
159: Long-Term Memory.
160: Long-Term Potentiation.
161: Lorenz, Konrad (1903–1989).
1: Machiavellian Intelligence Hypothesis.
2: Machine Learning.
3: Machine Learning of Natural Language.
4: Magical Thinking and Learning.
5: Maladaptive Schemas in Patients with or Without Personality Disorders.
6: Management Learning.
7: Many Aspects of Anticipation.
8: Marx, Karl (1818–1883).
9: Mastery Goal.
10: Mastery Learning.
11: Matching.
12: Matching to Sample Experimental Paradigm.
13: Material Appropriate Processing.
14: Material Specificity.
15: Mathematical Learning.
16: Mathematical Linguistics and Learning Theory.
17: Mathematical Models/Modeling in Math Learning.
18: Mathematical Models/Theories of Learning.
19: Mathematics Learning Disability.
20: Mean-Field Theory of Meta-Learning.
21: Meaning Development in Child Language: A Constructivist Approach.
22: Meaning Perspective.
23: Meaning Scheme.
24: Meaningful Learning in Economic Games.
25: Meaningful Verbal Learning.
26: Measurement of Change in Learning.
27: Measurement of Creativity.
28: Measurement of Student Engagement in Learning.
29: Measures of Association.
30: Measures of Similarity.
31: Media.
32: Media and Learning.
33: Media Violence Effects on Learning.
34: Medial Temporal Lobe.
35: Mediated Learning Experience (MLE) and Cognitive Modifiability.
36: Mediators of Learning.
37: Memory.
38: Memory Capacity.
39: Memory Code.
40: Memory Consolidation and Reconsolidation.
41: Memory Dynamics.
42: Memory for “What,” “Where,” and “When” Information in Animals.
43: Memory Persistence.
44: Memory Span.
45: Memory Trade-Off.
46: Memristor.
47: Mental Activities of Learning.
48: Mental Arithmetic.
49: Mental Chronometry.
50: Mental Effort.
51: Mental Graphemic Representations.
52: Mental Imagery.
53: Mental Imagery and Learning.
54: Mental Leap.
55: Mental Model of Dynamic Systems.
56: Mental Models.
57: Mental Models and Lifelong Learning.
58: Mental Models in Discourse Processing.
59: Mental Models in Improving Learning.
60: Mental Models of Environmental Problems.
61: Mental Representations.
62: Mental Rotation and Functional Learning.
63: Mental Set.
64: Mentalist Theory of Language Learning.
65: Message Transmitters.
66: Metacognition.
67: Metacognition and Hypermedia Learning: How Do They Relate?.
68: Metacognition and Learning.
69: Metacognitive Control Over the Distribution of Practice: When is Spacing Preferred?.
70: Metacognitive Experiential Learning.
71: Metacognitive Learning Strategies.
72: Metacognitive Processes in Change and Therapy.
73: Meta-Learning.
74: Metapatterns for Research into Complex Systems of Learning.
75: Metaphor Therapy.
76: Metatheories of Learning.
77: Methodologies of Research on Learning (Overview Article).
78: Methodology of Learning Research: Meta-Analyses.
79: Microculture of Learning Environments.
80: Microgenetic Method.
81: Microgenetic Studies.
82: Microlearning.
83: Milgram, Stanley (1933–1984).
84: Mill, John Stuart (1806–1873).
85: Mimicry in Social Interaction: Its Effect on Learning.
86: Mindfulness and Meditation.
87: Mirror Neuron.
88: Mixed Methods Research on Learning.
89: Mixed Reality Learning.
90: Mnemonic Learning.
91: Mnemotechnics and Learning.
92: Mnemotechnics in Second-Language Learning.
93: Mobile Learning.
94: Modality Effect on Learning.
95: Model-Based Imitation Learning.
96: Model-Based Learning.
97: Model-Based Learning with System Dynamics.
98: Model-Based Reasoning.
99: Model-Based Scene Interpretation by Multilayered Context Information.
100: Model-Based Teaching.
101: Model-Facilitated Learning.
102: Modeling Microgenetic Data.
103: Models and Modeling in Science Learning.
104: Models of Latent State-Trait Theory.
105: Models of Measurement of Persons in Situations.
106: Monitoring Affective Trajectories During Complex Learning.
107: Mood and Learning.
108: Mood-Dependent Learning.
109: Mood-Dependent Memory.
110: Moore's Law.
111: Moral Education.
112: Moral Learning.
113: Motivation and Learning: Modern Theories.
114: Motivation Enhancement.
115: Motivation, Learning, and Performance.
116: Motivational Variables in Learning.
117: Motor Learning.
118: Motor Schema.
119: Motor Schemas in Robot Learning.
120: Motor Simulation.
121: Müller-Lyer Illusion.
122: Multiagent Q-Learning Dynamics.
123: Multicast.
124: Multicultural Issues in Music Instruction and Learning.
125: Multiculturalism.
126: Multidisciplinary Research on Learning.
127: Multifaceted Model of Intrinsic Motivation.
128: Multilayer Investigations.
129: Multilayered Context.
130: Multimedia.
131: Multimedia CALL.
132: Multimedia Learning.
133: Multimodal Learning.
134: Multimodal Learning through Media.
135: Multiple Intelligences and Learning Styles.
136: Multiple Resource Theory.
137: Multiple-Cue Probability Learning.
138: Multiplicative Thinking and Learning.
139: Multi-robot Concurrent Learning.
140: Multi-sensory Neurons.
141: Multistrategy Learning.
142: Music and Language Learning.
143: Music and Learning.
144: Music Instructional Methods.
145: Music Therapy.
146: Naïve Learning in Networks.
147: Na&#x