eBook Atrocities, Massacres, and War Crimes: An Encyclopedia, 1st Edition

  • Published By:
  • ISBN-10: 1598849263
  • ISBN-13: 9781598849264
  • DDC: 364.1
  • Grade Level Range: 9th Grade - College Senior
  • 822 Pages | eBook
  • Original Copyright 2013 | Published/Released January 2014
  • This publication's content originally published in print form: 2013
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About

Overview

The 400-plus entries in Atrocities, Massacres, and War Crimes: An Encyclopedia provide accessible and concise information on the difficult subject of abject human violence committed on all continents. The entries in this two-volume work describe atrocities, massacres, and war crimes committed in the 20th century, thereby documenting how human beings have repeatedly proven their capability to commit horrific acts of inhumanity even in relatively recent times and within the modern era. The encyclopedia covers countries, treaties, and terms; profiles individuals who had been formally indicted for war crimes as well as those who have committed mass atrocities and gone unpunished; and addresses human rights violations, crimes against humanity, and crimes against peace.

Table of Contents

Front Cover.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
About the Editor.
Contents.
List of Entries.
Acknowledgments.
Preface.
Introduction.
1: Acqui Division, Massacre of the (1943).
2: Adana Massacre (1909).
3: Afghanistan.
4: Al-Aqsa Mosque Massacre (1990).
5: Alcohol and Atrocities.
6: Al-Diein Massacre (1987).
7: Allied Military Tribunals (1945–1948).
8: American Indian Wars, Massacres during the.
9: American Revolutionary War, Atrocities during the.
10: Amritsar Massacre (1919).
11: Andersonville Prison.
12: Anfal, Al- (1987–1988).
13: Apartheid.
14: Arana, Julio César (1864–1952).
15: Ardeatine Massacre (1944).
16: Ardenne Abbey Massacre (1944).
17: Argentina.
18: Armenian Genocide (1915–1916).
19: Art, Atrocities in.
20: Art, Massacres in.
21: Asiatic Vespers (88 BCE).
22: Assad, Hafez Al- (1930–2000).
23: Ataturk, Mustafa Kemal (1881–1938).
24: Atrocity Propaganda.
25: Auschwitz.
26: Auspicious Incident (1826).
27: Australian Aborigines.
28: Austria, Death Marches through (1945).
29: Austrian Gestapo Trials (1945–1955).
30: Babi Yar Massacre (1941).
31: Balangiga Massacre (1901).
32: Baldat Al-Shaykh Massacre (1947).
33: Bangladesh.
34: Barbie, Klaus (1913–1991).
35: Bashir, Omar Hassan Al- (1944–).
36: Bataan Death March (1942).
37: Bear River, Massacre on the (1863).
38: Beirut Barracks, Bombing of (1983).
39: Bellows, George: The War Series.
40: Beria, Lavrenty Pavlovich (1899–1953).
41: Berwick Massacre (1296).
42: Biafra.
43: Biscari Massacre (1943).
44: Bloody Sunday (1972).
45: Bokassa (1921–1996).
46: Bouhired, The Trial of Djamila (1957).
47: Bousquet, René (1909–1993).
48: Brandt, Karl (1904–1948).
49: Bruges, Matins of (1302).
50: Brunner, Alois (1912–?).
51: Bud Dajo, Battle of (1906).
52: Bulgarian Massacres (1876).
53: Burma–Thailand Railway.
54: Callot, Jacques: The Miseries and Misfortunes of War.
55: Cambodia.
56: Caucasus, Russian Atrocities in the North (18th–20th Centuries).
57: Chemical Weapons and Warfare.
58: Cherry Valley Massacre (1778).
59: Chile.
60: Chmielnicki Massacres (1648–1649).
61: Cholula Massacre (1519).
62: Colombia.
63: Comfort Women.
64: Commando Order (1942).
65: Concentration Camps.
66: Concentration Camps, German (1933–1945).
67: Condor, Operation (1976–1983).
68: Congo, Democratic Republic of.
69: Congo, Mass Rapes in.
70: Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (1948).
71: Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons (1980).
72: Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (1984).
73: Convention on the Non-Applicability of Statutory Limitations to War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity (1986).
74: Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction (1992).
75: Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production, and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on Their Destruction (1997).
76: Croatia.
77: Cultural Revolution (1966–1969).
78: Dade’s Massacre (1835).
79: Dartmoor Massacre (1815).
80: D’Aubuisson, Roberto (1943–1992).
81: Death Squads.
82: Dehumanization.
83: Deir Yassin Massacre (1948).
84: Dirty War (1974–1983).
85: Distomo Massacre (1944).
86: Djemal, Ahmad (1872–1922).
87: Dresden, Air Attacks on (1945).
88: East Timor.
89: Eichmann, Karl Adolf (1906–1962).
90: Einsatzgruppen Case (1947).
91: El Salvador.
92: Engerau Trials (1945–1954).
93: Enver, Ismail (1881–1922).
94: Ethiopia.
95: Ethnic Cleansing.
96: European Convention on the Non-Applicability of Statutory Limitations to Crimes against Humanity and War Crime (1974).
97: Extermination Centers.
98: Extrajudicial Killings.
99: Famine.
100: Far East, British Military Courts after World War II.
101: Ferencz, Benjamin B. (1920–).
102: Flick Case (1947).
103: Foča Massacres (1992–1994).
104: Fort Dearborn (Chicago) Massacre (1812).
105: Fort Pillow Massacre (1864).
106: Fraustadt-Grodno Massacres (1706).
107: French Collaboration Trials.
108: French Wars of Religion (1562–1598).
109: Gagović, Dragan (1960–1999).
110: Gas Chambers.
111: Geneva Convention Relating to Prisoners of War (1929).
112: Geneva Convention Protocol I (1977).
113: Geneva Convention Protocol II (1977).
114: Genghis Khan (1167–1227).
115: Gestapo.
116: Globke Trial (1963).
117: Gnaddenhutten Massacre (1782).
118: Goliad Massacre (1836).
119: Goya, Francisco: The Disasters of War.
120: Great Leap Forward (1958–1962).
121: Great Purges (1934–1937).
122: Guatemala.
123: Guernica, Bombing of (1937).
124: Gulag.
125: Habre, Hissène (1940–).
126: Hadamar Insane Asylum Case (U.S. v. Alfons Klein) (1945).
127: Haditha Massacre (2005).
128: Hague Conference, First.
129: Hague Conference, Second.
130: Hama Massacre (1982).
131: Hamburg, Raids on (1943).
132: Hamidian (Armenian) Massacres (1894–1896).
133: Harris, Sir Arthur “Bomber” (1892–1984).
134: Harukei Isayama Trial (1946).
135: Hebron Massacre (1929).
136: Hebron Mosque Massacre (1994).
137: Herero, Germany’s Genocide of the (1904–1908).
138: Hernández Martínez, Maximiliano (1882–1966).
139: Heydrich, Reinhard Tristan Eugen (1904–1942).
140: Himmler, Heinrich (1900–1945).
141: Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Bombings of (1945).
142: Hitler, Adolf (1889–1945).
143: Holocaust, The.
144: Holodomor (1932–1933).
145: Homma Masaharu (1887–1946).
146: Hostages.
147: Houla Massacre (2012).
148: Hue Massacre (1968).
149: Human Shields.
150: Hungary.
151: Hussein, Saddam (1937–2006).
152: Idi Amin (1924/1925–2003).
153: Ig Farben Case (1947).
154: Incendiary Bombs and Bombing.
155: Indian Removal Act (1830).
156: Indigenous Populations.
157: Indonesia.
158: International Court of Justice.
159: International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966).
160: International Criminal Court.
161: International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda.
162: International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia.
163: International Humanitarian Law.
164: International Military Tribunal for the Far East (1946–1948).
165: Iraq.
166: Ireland, Atrocities in (16th–17th Centuries).
167: Israel/Palestine.
168: Itagaki, Seishiro (1885–1948).
169: Italy.
170: Ivory Coast (Côte d’Ivoire).
171: Jackson, Robert H. (1892–1954).
172: Jamestown Massacre of 1622.
173: Jamestown Massacre of 1644.
174: Japan.
175: Japanese Bacteriological Weapons Trial (1949).
176: Jedwabne, Massacre in (1941).
177: Jelisić, Goran (1968–).
178: Justice Case (1947).
179: Just War.
180: Kalavryta Massacre (1943).
181: Kaltenbrunner, Ernst (1903–1946).
182: Kamuhanda Trial (2001–2008).
183: Karadzic, Radovan (1945–).
184: Kashmir.
185: Katyń Forest Massacre (1940).
186: Kayishema Trial (1997–1999).
187: Kellogg-Briand Treaty (1928).
188: Kesselring Trial (1947).
189: Kharkov Trial (1943).
190: Khmer Rouge.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
1: Mackensen and Maelzer Trial (1945).
2: Maillé Massacre (1944).
3: Majid Al Tikriti, Ali Hassan Al- (1941–2010).
4: Malmédy Massacre (1944).
5: Manstein Trial (1947).
6: Mao Zedong (1893–1976).
7: Marias Massacre (1870).
8: Marzabotto Massacre (1944).
9: Massacre at the Citadel (1811).
10: Matsui, Iwane (1878–1948).
11: Medical Experimentation (WWII).
12: Mengele, Josef (1911–1979).
13: Mengistu, Haile Mariam (1937?–).
14: Mihailovic Trial (1946).
15: Military Necessity.
16: Milosevic, Slobodan (1941–2006).
17: Mladić, Ratko (1943–).
18: Mobutu Sese Seko (1930–1997).
19: Montt, Jose Efrain Rios (1926–).
20: Moscow Declaration (1943).
21: Mothers of the Plaza De Mayo.
22: Mozambique.
23: Mozambique Mercenaries Trial (1976).
24: Müller, Heinrich (1901–1945?).
25: Musa Dagh, Siege of (1915).
26: My Lai Massacre (1968).
27: Mystic Fort Fight (1637).
28: Nairobi, Kenya, Bombing of U.S. Embassy (1998).
29: Nanjing (Nanking) Massacre (1937–1938).
30: Native Americans, Atrocities against the.
31: Nazi Criminal Orders (1941).
32: Nazi Euthanasia Program (1939–1945).
33: Nepal.
34: Netherlands Nationals Trials (1945–1948).
35: Nikolaevsk Massacre (1920).
36: Nogun-Ri Railroad Bridge Incident (1950).
37: No Quarter.
38: Nuon Chea (1927–).
39: Nuremberg Trials (1945–1946).
40: Oberheuser, Herta (1937–1978).
41: Obote, Apollo Milton (1924–2005).
42: Ochota Massacre (1944).
43: Old Testament, Atrocities in the.
44: Oradour-Sur-Glane Massacre (1944).
45: Order 270 (1941).
46: Pakistan.
47: Pamunkey Peace Talks (1632).
48: Papon, Maurice Arthur Jean (1910–2007).
49: Paris Commune (1871).
50: Pavelic´, Ante (1889–1959).
51: Philippine–American War, War Crime Trials in the.
52: Pinochet, Augusto (1915–2006).
53: Plunder and Spoliation.
54: Pogroms.
55: Pohl, Oswald (1892–1951).
56: Poland.
57: Pol Pot (1928–1998).
58: Praga, Massacre at (1794).
59: Prague Massacre (1389).
60: Priebke, Erich (1913–).
61: Prisoners of War During WWII.
62: Protocol on the Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Mines, Booby-Traps and Other Devices (1996).
63: Qibya Massacre (1953).
64: Quran, War and Violence in the.
65: Rape.
66: Rape (Red Army in World War II).
67: Resolution No. 2444 (1968).
68: Rheinwiesenlager (1945).
69: Rindfleisch Massacre (1298).
70: Roma, Atrocities against the.
71: Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (1998).
72: Ruggiu, Georges (1957–).
73: Rutaganda Trial (1997–1999).
74: Rwanda and Burundi, Genocide in (1994).
75: Sabra and Shatila Massacre (1982).
76: Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre (1572).
77: Saint Brice’s Day Massacre (1002).
78: Sand Creek Massacre (1864).
79: Sant’anna Di Stazzema, Massacre in (1944).
80: Sarajevo, Siege of (1992).
81: Schutzstaffel.
82: September 11 Attacks (2001).
83: September Massacres (1792).
84: Shanghai Massacre (1927).
85: Sharpeville Massacre (1960).
86: Sherman’s “March to the Sea” (1864).
87: Shining Path.
88: Sicilian Vespers (1282).
89: Sikhs, Atrocities against.
90: Sook Ching Massacre (1942).
91: Soviet Deportation.
92: Soviet National Trials.
93: Soweto Massacre (1976).
94: Spanish–American and Philippine–American Wars, Atrocities in (1898–1913).
95: Special Court for Sierra Leone.
96: Srebrenica Massacre (1995).
97: Stalin, Josef (1879–1953).
98: Stolen Generations.
99: Student Trial (1946).
100: Sudan.
101: Suharto (1921–2008).
102: Taliban.
103: Taylor, Charles (1948–).
104: Taylor, Telford (1908–1998).
105: Terrorism.
106: Terrorism, Islamic Radical.
107: Tiananmen Square Incident (1989).
108: Tiger Force.
109: Timur (1336–1405).
110: Tojo, Hideki (1884–1948).
111: Tokyo, Bombing of (1945).
112: Torture.
113: Touvier Case (1994).
114: Trail of Tears (1838).
115: Trotha, Adrian Dietrich Lothar von (1848–1920).
116: Truth Commissions.
117: Uganda.
118: Unit 731.
119: United Nations.
120: United Nations Commission on Human Rights.
121: United Nations Commission of Experts.
122: United Nations War Crimes Commission.
123: United States.
124: Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948).
125: Unrestricted Submarine Warfare.
126: Ustashe.
127: Vendée, Revolt in (1793–1794).
128: Versailles, Treaty of (1919).
129: Videla, Jorge Raphael (1925–).
130: Vietnam War, Atrocities during the.
131: Vlad the Impaler (1431–1476).
132: Volhynian Poles, Massacres of (1943).
133: Wannsee Conference (1942).
134: War Crimes Tribunals.
135: Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (1943).
136: Warsaw Uprising (1944).
137: Waterloo Creek Massacre (1838).
138: White Terrors (1927 and 1947).
139: Wola Massacre (1944).
140: Wolff Trial (1964).
141: World War I, Atrocities during.
142: World War I, War Crimes Trials.
143: Wormhoudt Massacre (1940).
144: Wounded Knee, Massacre at (1890).
145: Yamashita Trial (1945).
146: Yokohama Trials (1946–1951).
147: Yugoslavian Civil Wars (1991–1995, 1998–2001).
148: Zuehlke Trial (1948).
149: Zyklon-B Case (1946).
Chronology of Massacres and War Crimes.
Glossary.
General Bibliography.
List of Contributors.
Categorical Index.
Subject Index.